Alcohol and Its Biomarkers - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128003398, 9780128004098

Alcohol and Its Biomarkers

1st Edition

Clinical Aspects and Laboratory Determination

Authors: Amitava Dasgupta
eBook ISBN: 9780128004098
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128003398
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 19th February 2015
Page Count: 312
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Description

Alcohol and Its Biomarkers: Clinical Aspects and Laboratory Determination is a concise guide to all currently known alcohol biomarkers, their clinical application, and the laboratory methods used to detect them. Pathologists can use this resource to understand the limitations and cost factors associated with each method for determining certain alcohol biomarkers. In addition, interferences in these determinations are discussed, so that clinicians can understand the causes of falsely elevated biomarkers and pathologists and laboratory scientists can potentially eliminate them. The book focuses on the analytical methods used to detect alcohol in blood and urine, the limitations of alcohol determination using enzymatic methods, and the differences between clinical and forensic alcohol measurement. Chapters also cover cutting-edge alcohol biomarkers for potential use.

Key Features

  • Focuses on the analytical methods used for detecting alcohol in blood and urine along with the pitfalls and limitations of alcohol determination using enzymatic methods
  • Explains the difference between clinical and forensic alcohol measurement
  • Includes a brief overview of the benefits of consuming alcohol in moderation and the hazards of heavy drinking

Readership

Residents and fellows in clinical pathology and clinical chemistry, practicing clinical pathologists and clinical chemists

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • Chapter 1. Alcohol: Use, Abuse, and Issues with Blood Alcohol Level
    • 1.1 Introduction
    • 1.2 Alcohol Consumption: Historical Perspective
    • 1.3 Alcohol Content of Various Alcoholic Beverages
    • 1.4 Guidelines for Alcohol Consumption
    • 1.5 Benefits of Drinking in Moderation
    • 1.6 Adverse Heath Effects Related to Alcohol Dependence
    • 1.7 Blood Alcohol Level
    • 1.8 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 2. Genetic Aspects of Alcohol Metabolism and Drinking Behavior
    • 2.1 Introduction
    • 2.2 Alcohol Absorption: Effect of Food
    • 2.3 First-Pass Metabolism of Alcohol
    • 2.4 Alcohol Metabolism
    • 2.5 Genes Encoding Alcohol Dehydrogenase
    • 2.6 Genes Encoding Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
    • 2.7 Polymorphism of the CYP2E1 Gene
    • 2.8 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 3. Measurement of Alcohol Levels in Body Fluids and Transdermal Alcohol Sensors
    • 3.1 Introduction
    • 3.2 Breath Alcohol Determination
    • 3.3 Blood Alcohol Determination
    • 3.4 Endogenous Production of Alcohol
    • 3.5 Urine Alcohol Determination
    • 3.6 Saliva Alcohol Determination
    • 3.7 Transdermal Alcohol Sensors
    • 3.8 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 4. Alcohol Biomarkers: An Overview
    • 4.1 Introduction
    • 4.2 State Versus Trait Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 4.3 Liver Enzymes as Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 4.4 Mean Corpuscular Volume as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 4.5 Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 4.6 β-Hexosaminidase as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 4.7 Ethyl Glucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate as Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 4.8 Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 4.9 Phosphatidylethanol as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 4.10 Total Plasma Sialic Acid as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 4.11 Sialic Acid Index of Apolipoprotein J
    • 4.12 5-HTOL/5-HIAA as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 4.13 Other Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 4.14 Clinical Application of Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 4.15 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 5. Liver Enzymes as Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 5.1 Introduction
    • 5.2 Factors Affecting Liver Function Tests
    • 5.3 Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Liver Enzymes
    • 5.4 GGT as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 5.5 Laboratory Determinations of Liver Enzymes
    • 5.6 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 6. Mean Corpuscular Volume and Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin as Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 6.1 Introduction
    • 6.2 Mean Corpuscular Volume as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 6.3 Carbohydrate-Deficient Transferrin
    • 6.4 Laboratory Determination of CDT
    • 6.5 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 7. β-Hexosaminidase, Acetaldehyde–Protein Adducts, and Dolichol as Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 7.1 Introduction
    • 7.2 β-Hexosaminidase Isoforms
    • 7.3 β-Hexosaminidase as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 7.4 Laboratory Methods for Measuring β-Hexosaminidase
    • 7.5 Acetaldehyde–Protein Adducts as Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 7.6 Dolichol as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 7.7 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 8. Direct Alcohol Biomarkers Ethyl Glucuronide, Ethyl Sulfate, Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters, and Phosphatidylethanol
    • 8.1 Introduction
    • 8.2 Ethyl Glucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate
    • 8.3 Ethyl Glucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate as Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 8.4 Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters as Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 8.5 Phosphatidylethanol as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 8.6 Sensitivity and Specificity of Direct Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 8.7 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 9. Less Commonly Used Alcohol Biomarkers and Proteomics in Alcohol Biomarker Discovery
    • 9.1 Introduction
    • 9.2 Total Sialic Acid in Serum as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 9.3 Sialic Acid Index of Apolipoprotein J as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 9.4 5-Hydroxytryptophol as Alcohol Biomarker
    • 9.5 Other Alcohol Biomarkers
    • 9.6 Proteomics in Alcohol Biomarker Discovery
    • 9.7 Conclusions
    • References
  • Chapter 10. Genetic Markers of Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.1 Introduction
    • 10.2 Heredity, Environment, and Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.3 Genes and Alcohol Use Disorder: An Overview
    • 10.4 Polymorphisms in Genes Encoding Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
    • 10.5 Neurobiological Basis of Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.6 Polymorphisms of Genes in Dopamine Pathway and Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.7 Polymorphisms of Genes in the Serotonin Pathway and Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.8 Polymorphisms of Genes in the Gaba Pathway and Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.9 Polymorphisms of Genes Encoding Cholinergic Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.10 Polymorphisms of Genes in the Glutamate Pathway and Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.11 Polymorphisms of Genes Encoding Opioid Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.12 Polymorphisms of Genes Encoding Cannabinoid Receptors and Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.13 Adenylyl Cyclase and Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.14 Neuropeptide Y and Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.15 Possible Association of Polymorphisms of other Genes With Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.16 Epigenetics and Alcohol Use Disorder
    • 10.17 Conclusions
    • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
312
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9780128004098
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128003398

About the Author

Amitava Dasgupta

Amitava Dasgupta

Amitava Dasgupta received his PhD degree in Chemistry from Stanford University and his fellowship training in Clinical Chemistry from the Laboratory Medicine Department of the University of Washington School of Medicine at Seattle. He is a tenured Full Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Texas Health Sciences Center located at the Texas Medical Center at Houston. Dr. Dasgupta has published 210 scientific papers, written many invited review articles, and has edited, co-edited or written 15 books. He is on the Editorial Board of five major medical journals including American Journal of Clinical Pathology, Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, Clinica Chimica Acta and Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Texas, McGovern Medical School, , Houston, TX, USA

Reviews

"...a concise and well written book that delivers on its promise of presenting a comprehensive overview of alcohol and its biomarkers...a useful reference for health care professionals and laboratorians…" --Lab Medicine

"...a concise and well written book that delivers on its promise of presenting a comprehensive overview of alcohol and its biomarkers...a useful reference for health care professionals and laboratorians…" --Lab Medicine