Alarm Systems and Theft Prevention - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780409951752, 9781483160870

Alarm Systems and Theft Prevention

2nd Edition

Authors: Thad L. Weber
eBook ISBN: 9781483160870
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 1st May 1985
Page Count: 414
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Alarm Systems and Theft Prevention, Second Edition, recounts the sometimes sad, sometimes humorous, and nearly always unfortunate experiences of manufacturers, distributors, retailers, and individuals who have lost valuable merchandise, money, jewelry, or securities to criminal attacks. In most cases the losses occurred because there was a weak link: a vulnerability in the total security defense. The book presents in practical terms those weaknesses in physical security, alarm systems, or related security procedures that, when blended together, result in vulnerability. In addition to analyzing these cases and identifying the key elements of vulnerability, remedies for curing the weakness are also offered. Other sections of this book deal with the application, strengths, and limitations of security equipment. For the most part, equipment is presented from the practical viewpoint—what a security device or system will do (or not do) and how it should be applied and operated, rather than the detail of mechanical design, electrical circuitry, or laboratory theories. This book is written in layman's language and is intended to be read by people who supply, use, or need security services and equipment.

Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments

1. Introduction

Pioneering in Alarm Introduction

A Continuing Challenge

2. Basic Burglary

Criminal Specialization

Legal Advantages of Burglary

Professional vs. Amateur

Role of Organized Crime

3. Sophisticated Burglary

Branch Banks and Modern Store Construction

Main Banks—The Fortress

A Case of Main Bank Burglary

How Did It Happen?

Missing Deterrents

The Economics of Protection

The Geography of Protection

Lessons for the Security-Responsible Executive

4. Burglary Through Unprotected Points

What Is Inaccessible?

Solutions Differ

5. Underwriters' Laboratories

Origin of UL

UL Services

The Case for Progress

UL Activities in Crime Prevention: Listing

Local Alarm Service Standards

UL Central Station Service Standards

Grades of Service

Keys or No Keys

Level of Protection

Safe and Vault Certification

Alarm System Certification

Maximizing Certification

UL Approval of Alarm Devices and Systems

UL Burglary Department Field Inspections

Proposal for Expansion

6. Ultrasonic Intrusion Alarm Systems

The Cost That Broke the Camel's Back

New Building, New Problems

The Economics of Alarm System Choice

Advantages of Ultrasonic

Problems of Alternatives

Then the Trouble Started

Practice Makes Imperfect

20-20 Hindsight

The High Cost of Divorce

7. Microwave Motion Detection

Special Requirements

Introduction of Microwave

Need for Standards and Inspection

Technical Pluses and Minuses

Operating Principles

Specialized Coverages

Containing Microwave Signals

Problems of High Mounting

Mass and Bulk in False Alarms

Continuing Interference

Adjustment and Testing

General Precautions

Special Precautions for High-Value Risks

Other Forms and General Costs

8. Passive Infrared Technology


Basic Advantages

Uses of Passive Infrared Devices

Causes of False Alarms

Controlling or Reducing Unwanted Alarm Signals

Other Advantages

Dual Detection

Problem Areas


9. Environmental Causes of False Alarms




Expect the Unexpected

Plan Ahead

10. Alarm Defeat By Lock Picking

Insurer-Required Change

Police-Required Changes

Alarm Shuntlock and Key Convenience

Weaknesses of Alarm Shuntlocks

Protective Delay

Other Solutions

Appropriate Non-alarm Measures

11. Problems Of Police-Connected Alarms

Entry and Alarm

Responsibility for Electric Protection

Origin of Police Connects

Problems Integral to Police Connects

Alternatives and Supporting Procedures

12. Corner Cutting In Security

Corner Cutting

Exposed Alarm Contact Terminals

Exposed Control Instruments

Walk-Test Circuits

Risk of On Test Circuits

13. Attack Against Telephone Alarm Lines

The Night Every Alarm Came In

The Moral and the Fine Print

Failure to Act Can Void Insurance

Alarm Line Precautions

14. First U.S. Defeat Of Central Station-Connected System

Unalarmed Access

Noise a Contributing Factor

Cutting Torches and Cannon

Thunder, Planes, and Garbage Pails

Lack of Physical Barriers and Space Protection

15. Defeat Of Police-Connected Alarm Systems

Enter a "Cleaning Van"

The Bell That Didn't Ring

The Attack Begins

Vulnerabilities of the Bank

Learning from Experience


16. Alarm Line Security

Alarm System Defined by Components

Role of Remote Monitoring

Methods of Evading Alarm Condition

The Police Connect and Compromise

Central Station Alarms: Direct Wire and McCulloh

U.S. Alarm Line Defeats

Analysis of Successful Compromise Attacks

Line Security Systems

UL and Line Security

Line Security and the Police Connect

Line Security for McCulloh-Type Central Station Systems

The Future in Line Security

Security Procedures Against Compromise

Wider Use of Compromise Indicated

17. Advances In Hard- Wired Sensing Systems

Advances in Alarm Control Equipment

Conventional Sensor Circuits Reviewed

Multiplex as a Medium for Sensor Circuitry

Multiplex Circuitry Applied to the Premises Installation

Identify the Culprit

Improved Testing

One Power Supply

Day Annunciation

Line Security

Bypass Circuitry

System Logistics

Costs and Availability

Transmission System Methods and Standards

Methods of Programming

Supervising Openings and Closings

Optional Features

Multiplex Central Station Supervisory Costs


18. Business Skills In Criminal Attack

The Insider

The Opportunist

The Strategist

The Well Informed

The Inventive

19. Dual Central Station Protection

Central Stations Effective, Not Infallible

Two Alarm Companies for One Risk



20. Update On Burglary Attack Techniques

Weaknesses in Alarm Response Procedures

Burglars' Skills are Improving

Sometimes It's the Challenge

What-If Situations

21. Digital Paging And Effective Alarm


Scene One

Scene Two

Scene Three

Prologue: The Critic's Corner

Strengthening Alarm Response

The Digital Pager

Advances in Technology

22. The Thermic Lance

Demolition Tool

Test Reports Differ

Protection from Thermic Lances

23. Safe Choice And Considerations

When Is a Safe Unsafe?

Fire-Resistive Safes and Their Classifications

Burglary-Resistive Safes and Their Classifications

Let the Buyer Beware

Considerations in Purchasing a Safe

Cost vs. Risk

Methods of Physical Attack

Manipulation and Theft of the Combination

Limitations of Safes

Problems of Safe Choice

Methods for Improving Safe Security


24. Imported Tough Safes

Special Features

Sizes Available

UL Listings

Safe Defenses

Fire Resistance Not Rated by UL

The Probable Future

25. Capacitance Alarm Safe Protection

Safe vs. Cash Pickup

Proximity Alarm Plus

Unread Specifications

Grounded Safe

No Time for Explanations—No Separate Circuit

Came the Dawn the Next Night

Cleaners on Premises

Reduced Sensitivity

Everybody Up!

No Further Alarms—of Any Kind

No Contacts on Safe Doors

No Recovery

Proximity Alarms Still the Best—But

Other Methods for Protecting Safes

Complete Protection Essential for Safes

Partial Protection

Separate Safe Alarm Circuits and Robbery

Supervised Separate Remote Alarm Reception

26. Burglary Of Mercantile Vaults

Turn-of-the-Century Construction

The Action


To the Rescue—More or Less

Too Late



27. Vault Construction And Protection

Old Vaults Massive

Alarm Success Brought Insecure Vaults

Criminal Success

Vault Ratings

UL Listings for Vault Construction



Emergency Air Devices

Burglary Attack

Vault Alarm Systems

Vault Door Alarm Protection

UL Standards

Holdup Alarm Devices

Reinforcing Substandard Vaults

28. Shopping Center Burglary

Casing the Target

The Suburban Risk

Alarms and the Suburbs

Mall Guards

Planning the Suburban Store Attack

The Hit

Locking the Barn

Continuing Security

29. Hit-And-Run Attacks Against Glass

Basic Burglary Techniques

Discount Store Camera Department

Menswear Store

Jewelry Store

Another Jewelry Store

Critique, All Scenes

30. Residential Alarm Systems

Experience vs. Skill

Familiar Rules No Certain Protection

Role of Residential Construction

The Woes of Residential Alarm Selection

Problems of the Residential Alarm Field

Significant Considerations in Residential Alarm


Installation Standards

Insurance Premium Discounts

31. Apartment Burglary

In and Out

And Back Again

Predictable Tenants

Graceful Exit

The Burglar Surprised

Little Risk of Discovery

Keying Weaknesses

Is Anyone Home?

Burglary Is Preventable

32. Advances In Low-Power Wireless Sensing Systems

In the Beginning

Enter the Wireless Emergency Signal Device

Bring on the False Alarms

The Growth Period

RF Wireless Systems Come of Age

Improvements in Sensors

Advantages of Controllers

In the Future

33. Procedural Weaknesses In Security

Weak Links in Security Procedures


34. Oversights In Security

Economy over All

The Obvious Can Lead to Oblivion

Sound Security Procedures Essential

35. Attacks On Out-Of-Order Alarms

First Attack

Second Attack

Three Strikes and Out!

36. Amateur Alarm Systems

Self-Service Security

Dogs as Security

37. Pretext And Impersonation In Burglary




38. Impersonation In Robbery

When Is a Customer Not a Customer?

When He's a Robber

Enter the Police

Lessons to Be Learned

39. Robbery Attack

Total Prevention of Robbery

Deterring Robbery

Holdup Alarms

Testing the Systems

Selection and Placement of Alarms

Ways to Avoid Robbery Attack

When Robbery Occurs

Watch for Prerobbery Planning

40. Its Robbery Time

Enter Adam Wrong

Another Adam?

Now, What's in the Box?

The Sophisticated Response to Robberies in Progress

41. Surveillance Systems Choice

Prevention by Deterrence

Role of the 1968 Bank Protection Act

Surveillance Systems

Lease or Purchase

Publicizing Camera Systems

Appendix A of the Bank Protection Act

42. The Diamond Switch


Out . . . and Back

The Return

A New View


Three Reasons for Two Visits

The Basic Error


43. Internal Theft Through Unprotected Points

The Stock That Wasn't There

A Fishing Expedition

Open-Hours Perimeter Protection

44. Metal Detection And Inspection

Applications of Metal Detectors

Precautions at Maximum Sensitivity

Additional Features

X-ray Equipment

Weaknesses of Metal Detection Systems Use

45. Bomb Threat Planning

Bomb Threats Are Serious

Preplanning Essential


A Bomb Prevention Policy

46. Commercial Office Building Security

Evaluation of Risk

Crime Consequences

Initiating the Security Program 3

Securing Building Plant, Equipment, and Restroom Areas

Building Exterior/Perimeter Security

Evacuation Planning

Search at Closing


Security Centers

Supervision of Security Systems

Proprietary Systems

Special Risks in Commercial Building Security

Applicable Office Building Security Procedures

Pioneering: A Caution

47. Proprietary Alarm System Centers

The What and When of Proprietary Systems

Manpower Key to Choice

The Single Guard

Hours of Operation

Economics of Choice

Point-by-Point Protection

Microwave Applications

Considerations of Choice

Closed-Circuit TV in the Proprietary Center

Proprietary System Requirements

Expert Advice Essential

48. There Are Two Sides To An Alarm Contract

Changing Times

Maintenance and Repair of the Alarm System

Limitation of Liability

Leased Systems and Service

Outright Purchase

Automatic Contract Renewal

Automatic Rate Increases

Cancellation Penalties


Schedule of Protection

Taxes, Assessments, and License Fees

Alarm Devices for Temperature Controls and Industrial Equipment

The Arrest Clause

Opening and Closing Reports

Unsupervised Opening and Closing

No-Guard Response

Key or No-Key Alarm Service

Acts of God

Vault Alarm Systems

Testing Intrusion-Detection Devices

Discontinuance of Service

No Expressed or Implied Warranty

Subscriber's Terms and Conditions

The Need for Counsel

49. The Alarm Industry In The Twenty-First Century

Holmes's Crystal Ball

Meeting the Requirements

Priority Number 1: Elimination of Unnecessary Alarms

Origin of Unnecessary Alarm Signals

Revolutionary Changes in Alarm Signal Transmission?

Future of Wireless Sensing Systems

One Picture Is Worth a Thousand Alarm Signals

Structure of the Alarm Industry

50. the consultants role

Why a Specialist?

The Consultant as Interface

Selection of a Consultant

Appendix: The Security Audit



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© Butterworth-Heinemann 1985
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About the Author

Thad L. Weber

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