Agroecological Economics - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123741172, 9780080557823

Agroecological Economics

1st Edition

Sustainability and Biodiversity

Authors: Paul Wojtkowski
Paperback ISBN: 9780123741172
eBook ISBN: 9780080557823
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 18th December 2007
Page Count: 320
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Agroecology is the science of applying ecological concepts and principles to the design, development, and management of sustainable agricultural systems. Agroecological economics, a subsection of agricultural economics, evaluates the ecological consequences of agricultural methods on the economic scale. Agroecological economics considers green engineering as a means of measurement.

As the environmental movement unfolds, the importance of biodiversity and long-term sustainability are indisputable. Progress depends on determining the economic viability of terrestrial agroecosystems. What is lacking is the analysis needed to bring biodiverse and sustainable systems to fruition. Agroecological Economics analyzes the current topics that must be addressed in order to provide sustainable agricultural systems. It explains the economics of land-use ecology with emphasis on changing over from a conventional model of agriculture to environmentally- and ecologically-friendly models and the financial incentives that are important to these practices.

Key Features

  • Analyzes agricultural solutions with economic testing
  • Includes a complete analysis of recent biodiversity-based research with valuable new economic methodologies
  • Provides various applications to mitigate the problems which have economic and ecological effects on agroecosystems
  • Offers applications of ecologically-sound land-use practices in production and manufacturing


agricultural and environmental engineers; ecologists; economists; agribusiness professionals; nature organizations; academics

Table of Contents

Preface Chapter 1 - Introduction Ecology and agroecology Traditional subdivisions Agroecological directions The philosophical dilemma Economic directions The economic options Measurement Intangibles Intuitiveness Chapter 2 ? Lead-up Agrobiomonics Essential resources The limiting resource Nutrient profiles Agroecological niches Governance Plant-plant Ecosystem Analytical ratios Output Costs Risk Chapter 3 - Vector Theory Vectors The base Agroecological vectors Genetic improvement Varietal Microbial Agrobiodiversity Biodiversity (facilitative associations) Rotational Cross or inter-plot Location Physical land modifications Ex-farm inputs Environmental setting Allying vectors Design Design variables Agrotechnologies Principal mode Auxiliary Add-ons Objectives Optimization Chapter 4 - Agrobiodiversity Applications Underlying biodynamics Yield gains Interception Conversion Cost reductions Risk abatement Climate Insect and plant diseases Relevant guidelines Economic measures Revenue-enhanced LER Production possibilities curve Ratio lines The PPC Design variables Species Planting density Spatial pattern Temporal adjustments Density, diversity, disarray, duration The non-harvest option Associated agrotechnologies Monocultural Pure Varietal/ genus Productive intercropping Simple mixes Strip cropping(seasonal) Barrier or boundary Complex agroecosystems (without trees) Productive agroforestry Isolated tree Alley cropping (treerow) Strip cropping(mixed tree) Agroforestry intercropping Shade systems (light) Agroforests Chapter 5 - Biodiversity Applications Underlying biodynamics Yields Cost reductions Substitutable inputs DPCs Cut-and-carry Risk abatement Rain impact Climate Insects and diseases Relevant guidelines Economic measures CER LER and RVT-adjusted CER Illustrated Adjusted CER curves Economic orientation ratio Design variables Specific interaction zones Spatial Patterns Timing Pruning Associated agrotechnologies Perceived monocultures Facilitative intercropping Simple mixes Strip cropping Boundary Covercrops Facilitative agroforestry Parkland Protective barrier Alley cropping (hedgerow) Strip cropping (woody) Crop over tree Physical support systems Shade systems (heavy) Chapter 6 ? Rotations Applications Underlying biodynamics Yield gains Temporal DPCs Fallows Cost reductions Risk abatement Climate Insects and diseases Relevant guidelines Economic measures Sustainability Ordering Design variables Delayed sowing Planting Associated agrotechnolgies Single rotations Series rotations Overlapping cycles Taungyas Simple Extended Multi-stage End stage Continual Chapter 7 ? Genetic, Varietal and Locational Applications Underlying Biodynamics Varietal selection Locational selection Relevant guidelines
Economic measures Design Variables Micro-location Macro-location Associated agrotechnologies Elevation Scattering Chapter 8 ? Land Modifications Applications Underlying Biodynamics Water dynamics Runoff Drought Flooding Temperatures Relevant guidelines Economic measures Design variables Associated agrotechnologies Absorption zones/ micro-catchments Infiltration contours Terraces Stone Earthen Progressive Paddies Ponds Gabons Waterbreaks Cajetes Water channels Mounds and beds Stone clusters Chapter 9 - Cross-Plot Influences Applications Underlying biodynamics Yield gains Agroecosystem properties Interface and spillover theory Cost control Relevant guidelines Economic measures Design variables Interfaces Buffer species Associated agrotechnologies Windbreaks Anti-insect barriers Habitats/ corridors Riparian buffers Firebreaks Living fences Chapter 10 ? Ex-farm Inputs Applications Underlying biodynamics Yield gains Cost reductions Weed control Risk abatement Climate Insects and diseases Economic measures Marginal Gains Substitutions Truant inputs Design variables Nutrients Spot applications (row placement) Timing Insects Irrigation Flood Spray Drip Associated agrotechnologies Chapter 11 - Microbial and Environmental Setting Applications Underlying biodynamics Yield gains Cost reductions Risk abatement Water dynamics Insects and plant diseases Temperatures Relevant guidelines Economic measures
Design variables Associated agrotechnologies Composting Tillage Traps Bird and bats Chapter 12 - Single-Plot Design DAPs Task ordering or layering Essential nutrients Water Insects Weeds Temperatures Erosion Multi-tasking Design economics Principal-mode agrotechnologies Ratios Guidelines Add-ons Cross-harmony Economic orientation Input efficiency Post-design screening Cultural Environment Profit and loss Chapter 13 - Multi-Plot Analysis Inter-plot coordination Revenue and cost orientation Pitfalls Economic measures LLER LEOR Risk Environmental objectives Indices Mimicry Aesthetic objectives Cultural agroecology Farm landscape patterns Blocks Strips Groups Pivot Circular Scattered Chapter 14 - Agrotechnological Expansions Feed systems Silvopastoral Pastures Pastures with trees Forage trees with pasture Forage trees alone Aqua-agriculture Entomo-agriculture Avian-agriculture Semi-husbandry Support systems Seasonal support Perennial support Vine over tree Tree over vine Vine within a canopy Supplementary vine additions Root support systems Riparian Buffers Complex agroecosystems Natural compatibility Variations
Homegardens Shrub gardens Forest gardens Management Economics Case studies The green revolution Medieval agriculture Hillside maize A vector search Chapter 15 - Analytical Refinements LER variations Row-based Temporal Event-enumerated Continuums The PPC Essential resource economics Resource hypotheses The counter view Spatial patterns Spatial theory Disarray Patterned disarray Temporal economics Multi-participant agroecosystems Intuitive and intangible Diagnosis Bioeconomic modeling Chapter 16 ? Summary The paradigm Vectors The agrotechnologies Outcomes vs. agrotechnologies Policy Agroecological economics Conclusion Author Index References


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About the Author

Paul Wojtkowski

As a leading proponent and analyst, Dr. Paul Wojtkowski continues to layout a vision of what agroecology could be; both as an academic discipline and in how agriculture is practiced. His six previous books have affirmed the underlying motives, theories, and concepts. They have also proposed a large tally of quintessentially nature-friendly, farming practices. Although these efforts are deep in outlook, e.g., encompassing agriculture, forestry, and agroforestry, and broad in geographic scope, more insight is needed.

Having observed agriculture in six continents and over 70 countries, Dr. Wojtkowski has seen what works and what doesn't. As a trained economist with advanced degrees in both agricultural and forest economics, he is able to take the next step; that of presenting agroecology as a fully-fledged science complete with its own economic underpinnings.