Agricultural Compendium - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780444419521, 9781483277936

Agricultural Compendium

1st Edition

For Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics

eBook ISBN: 9781483277936
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 1st January 1981
Page Count: 778
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Description

Agricultural Compendium: For Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics focuses on the development of rural resources in the tropics and subtropics, as well as climate, water control, and animal production.
The book first offers information on climate and soil and land classification. Topics include phenomena relevant to agricultural meteorology, classification of climate, parent materials of soils, soil fertility and description, land evaluation, and systems of soil classification. The text then takes a look at geodesy, as well as aerial photography, instruments and accessories, measuring methods, and calculation of surfaces.
The publication elaborates on water control and land improvement, including surface water and groundwater hydrology, drainage, irrigation, land clearing and leveling, reclamation of saline and alkali soils, and soil improvement. The text then examines agriculture, animal production, fisheries, and farm economics.
The manuscript is highly recommended for agriculturists and readers interested in the development of rural resources in the tropics and subtropics.

Table of Contents


List of Tables

List of Figures

Preface

Introduction

Acknowledgments

Arrangement of the Compendium

Chapter 1 Climate

1.1 Classification of Climate

1.1.1 Köppen's Classification

1.1.2 Thornthwaite's Second Classification

1.2 Phenomena Relevant to Agricultural Meteorology

1.2.1 Temperature

1.2.2 Wind

1.2.3 Evaporation

1.2.4 Dew

1.2.5 Precipitation

1.3 Data Collection

1.3.1 General

1.3.2 Measurements and Instrumentation

1.4 References

Chapter 2 Soil and Land Classification

2.1 Introduction

2.1.1 Land and Soil

2.1.2 Land and Soil Classification

2.2 Parent Materials of Soils

2.2.1 Definitions

2.2.2 Parent Rock Classification

2.2.3 Parent Material

2.2.4 Mineralogy

2.3 Essential Soil Properties

2.3.1 Soil Texture

2.3.2 Soil Consistency

2.3.3 Soil Structure

2.3.4 Soil Physical Definitions

2.3.5 Soil Reaction

2.3.6 Alkaline-Earth Carbonates in Soils

2.3.7 Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) and Base Saturation Percentage (BSP)

2.3.8 Salinization and Alkalinization

2.3.9 Unripe Mineral and Organic Soils

2.4 Soil Fertility

2.4.1 Introduction

2.4.2 Potential Fertility

2.4.3 Actual Soil Fertility

2.4.4 Soil-Induced Deficiency

2.4.5 Soil Samples for Fertility Analyses

2.5 Soil Description

2.5.1 Description Technique

2.5.2 Soil Horizon Nomenclature

2.6 Diagnostic Nomenclature Used in the Present U.S. Taxonomy

2.6.1 Diagnostic Horizons

2.6.2 Analytic-Criterion Parameters Needed for the Present U.S. System of Soil Taxonomy

2.6.3 Analytical Methods Used to Determine Analytic-Criterion Parameters

2.6.4 FAO Definitions

2.7 Systems of Soil Classification

2.7.1 Introduction

2.7.2 Discussion of the Various Systems

2.8 The Field Survey

2.8.1 Introduction

2.8.2 Presentation: the Map

2.8.3 Map Scale and Accuracy

2.8.4 Kind of Map to Be Drawn

2.8.5 Interpretation of Aerial Photographs

2.8.6 Some Practical Indications

2.8.7 Collecting and Handling of Soil Samples

2.8.8 Survey Performance

2.8.9 Soil-Survey Equipment

2.9 Land Evaluation

2.9.1 Definition and Scope

2.9.2 Relevant Types of Land Use

2.9.3 Types of Land Suitability Classification

2.9.4 Data and Assumptions Underlying Land Evaluation

2.9.5 Land Suitability Categories

2.9.6 Land Properties to Be Considered

2.9.7 Presentation of Results

2.9.8 Survey Intensity

2.9.9 Procedures Involved in Land Evaluation

2.9.10 Check-List of Basic Data for Land Evaluation

2.10 References

Chapter 3 Geodesy

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Measuring Methods

3.2.1 Altimetry

3.2.2 Angular Measurements

3.2.3 Telemetry

3.2.4 Tacheometry

3.2.5 Sounding

3.3 Instruments and Accessories

3.3.1 Altimetry

3.3.2 Angular Measurements

3.3.3 Telemetry

3.3.4 Tacheometry

3.4 Adjustment of Instruments

3.4.1 Conventional Level without Tilting Screw

3.4.2 Theodolite

3.4.3 Self-Reducing Tacheometers and Electromagnetic Instruments

3.5 The Geometric Framework

3.5.1 Inventory of Existing Information

3.5.2 Methods for Determination of Geodetic Framework

3.5.3 Measurements and Measuring Techniques

3.6 Processing, Checking and Adjustment of Measurements

3.6.1 Line-Leveling

3.6.2 Longitudinal Profiles, Cross-Sections and/or Site Leveling

3.6.3 Angular Measurements

3.7 Aerial Photography

3.7.1 Image Scale

3.7.2 Control Points

3.7.3 Air Photomosaics

3.7.4 Line Maps

3.8 Maps: Types, Scales and Degrees of Accuracy

3.9 Calculation of Surfaces

3.10 References

Chapter 4 Water Control

4.1 Hydraulics

4.1.1 General

4.1.2 Flow Formula for Channels and Pipes

4.1.3 Hydraulic Section

4.1.4 Canal Structures

4.1.5 Pipe Systems

4.2 Surface Water Hydrology

4.2.1 General

4.2.2 Long-Period Runoff Data

4.2.3 Few Runoff Data, Long-Period Rainfall Data

4.2.4 No Runoff Data - No Rainfall Data

4.2.5 Hydrometry

4.2.6 Statistics, Probability Analysis

4.3 Groundwater Hydrology

4.3.1 Basic Concepts and Occurrence

4.3.2 Groundwater Exploration

4.3.3 Groundwater Quality

4.3.4 Quantitative Groundwater Flow

4.3.5 Groundwater Exploitation

4.4 Drainage

4.4.1 Introduction

4.4.2 Principles of Subsurface Drainage

4.4.3 Principles of Surface Drainage

4.4.4 Subsurface Drainage Criteria

4.4.5 Criteria for Surface Drainage

4.4.6 Surveys and Investigations

4.4.7 Implementation of Subsurface Drainage System

4.5 Irrigation

4.5.1 Introduction

4.5.2 Water Uptake By Crops

4.5.3 Water Quality

4.5.4 Irrigation Water Requirements

4.5.5 Field Irrigation Methods

4.5.6 Irrigation Projects

4.5.7 Tertiary Unit

4.6 Miscellaneous Hydraulic Structures

4.6.1 Introduction

4.6.2 Pumping Stations for Surface

4.6.3 Dikes

4.6.4 Channel Improvements and River Training

4.7 Operation and Maintenance

4.7.1 Introduction

4.7.2 Project Organizations

4.7.3 Operation

4.7.4 Maintenance

4.8 References

Chapter 5 Land Improvement

5.1 Land Clearing

5.1.1 General

5.1.2 Land Use

5.1.3 Condition of the Area to Be Cleared

5.1.4 Methods of Operation and Equipment

5.2 Land Leveling

5.2.1 General

5.2.2 Needs for Land Leveling

5.2.3 Factors to Be Considered

5.2.4 Topographical Survey

5.2.5 Calculation of the Future Land Surface

5.2.6 Calculation of Volumes

5.2.7 Summary of Calculation Procedure

5.2.8 Composite Operations

5.2.9 Construction

5.3 Reclamation of Saline and Alkali Soils

5.3.1 De-Salinization and De-Alkalinization

5.3.2 Reclamation of Saline Soil and Leaching Curve

5.3.3 Leaching Method and Period

5.3.4 Re-Salinization

5.3.5 Salinity Control, Salt Balance and Leaching Requirements

5.3.6 Application and Interpretation of the Salt Balance and LR Relationship

5.3.7 De-Alkalinization

5.3.8 Soil Amendments Used in Reclamation

5.3.9 Reclamation and Fertilizers

5.4 Soil Improvement

5.4.1 Introduction

5.4.2 Chemical Amendments

5.4.3 Physical Soil Improvement

5.5 Soil Erosion and Soil Conservation

5.5.1 Definitions

5.5.2 Forms and Causes

5.5.3 Types of Erosion

5.5.4 Soil Conservation

5.5.5 Equipment

5.5.6 Research

5.6 Rural Roads

5.6.1 Introduction

5.6.2 Design

5.6.3 Construction Methods

5.6.4 Engineering Surveys

5.7 Capacity Standards for Construction

5.7.1 General

5.7.2 Manual Labor

5.7.3 Machine Capacities

5.8 References

Chapter 6 Agriculture

6.1 Introduction

6.1.1 The Climate

6.1.2 The Soil

6.1.3 Selection of Suitable Crops

6.2 Crops

6.2.1 Food Crops

6.2.2 Fiber-Producing Crops

6.2.3 Beverage Crops

6.2.4 Industrial Crops

6.2.5 Stimulant Crops

6.2.6 Fodder Crops

6.3 Land Use

6.3.1 General

6.3.2 Arable Cropping

6.3.3 Cropping Pattern, Cropping Intensity and Crop Rotation

6.3.4 Land-Use Planning

6.3.5 Anticipated Cropping Pattern and Cropping Intensities in Agricultural Development Projects

6.4 Yields

6.4.1 Present and Past Crop Yields

6.4.2 Yield Projections

6.5 Water Requirements

6.5.1 Agricultural Considerations

6.5.2 Consumptive Use Estimates

6.5.3 Application of Consumptive Use Values

6.5.4 'Full Delta' Irrigation versus Under-Irrigation

6.5.5 Excess Water

6.5.6 Groundwater Tables

6.6 Chemical Fertilizers

6.6.1 Introduction

6.6.2 Specific Aspects of Fertilizer Usage in Developing Countries

6.6.3 Fertilizer Materials

6.6.4 The Use of Complete Mixtures

6.6.5 Chemical Soil Amendments

6.6.6 Trace Elements

6.6.7 Mode of Application of Solid Fertilizers

6.6.8 Estimation of Fertilizer Requirements

6.7 Organic Manures

6.7.1 General Information

6.7.2 Specific Aspects of Organic Manuring in Developing Countries

6.7.3 Organic Manures and Their Composition

6.7.4 Application Rates

6.8 Pest Control

6.8.1 Harmful Insects

6.8.2 Nematodes

6.8.3 Rodents

6.8.4 Plant Diseases

6.8.5 Precautions When Applying Pesticides and Fungicides

6.9 Weed Control

6.9.1 Effect of Weeds on Crops

6.9.2 Spreading of Weeds

6.9.3 Weed Control Research

6.9.4 Control Measures

6.10 Mechanization

6.10.1 Introduction

6.10.2 Steps in Mechanization

6.10.3 Time and Power Requirements Involved for Several Frequently Occurring Activities

6.10.4 Cost Calculation

6.11 Storage

6.11.1 Cereals, Oilseeds, Pulses, Cassava and Yams

6.11.2 Fruits

6.11.3 Storage of Vegetables

6.12 Seed Production

6.12.1 Introduction

6.12.2 Seed Legislation

6.12.3 Seed Multiplication

6.12.4 Harvesting, Storage and Distribution

6.12.5 Seed Trade

6.12.6 Breeding

6.12.7 Variety Research

6.12.8 Variety Index and List of Varieties

6.12.9 Inspection and Certification

6.13 Climatic and Soil Requirements

6.13.1 Annual Crops

6.13.2 Perennial Crops

6.13.3 Summaries of the Ecological Requirements

6.14 Labor Requirements in Crop Production

6.15 Nutritional Composition of Foods

6.16 References

Chapter 7 Animal Production and Fisheries

Part A-Animal Production

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Cattle

7.3 Water Buffaloes

7.4 Sheep and Goats

7.5 Horses, Donkeys and Mules (Equines)

7.6 Camels and Llamas

7.7 Pigs

7.8 Animal Power

7.9 Poultry

7.10 Breeding

7.11 Nutrition and Feeding

7.12 Grasses and Legumes

7.13 Grassland Utilization

7.14 Animal Diseases and Sanitation

7.15 Nomadism

7.16 Housing

Part B - Fisheries

7.17 Introduction

7.18 Marine Fisheries

7.19 Inland Fisheries

7.20 Glossary

7.21 References

Chapter 8 Farm Economics

8.1 Introduction

8.1.1 General

8.1.2 The Contribution of Farm Economics to the Development Process

8.2 Data Collection

8.2.1 Techniques

8.2.2 Data Required

8.3 Data Processing and Analysis

8.3.1 Introduction

8.3.2 Type and Size of Farming

8.3.3 Production Functions

8.3.4 Costing

8.3.5 Farmer's Income

8.4 Farm Planning

8.4.1 Farm Planning at Farm Level

8.4.2 Farm Planning at Government Level

Annex - Brief Guidelines for Project Studies

8.5 Glossary

8.6 References

Chapter 9 Economic and Financial Appraisal of Projects

9.1 Introduction

9.1.1 The Difference Between Economic and Financial Appraisals

9.2 Whe Economic Appraisal

9.2.1 Market Prices and Economic Values

9.2.2 Project Costs and Benefits

9.2.3 With and without the Project

9.2.4 Discounting Procedures

9.2.5 Comparison of Benefits and Costs

9.2.6 Valuation Problems

9.2.7 Priority Ranking and Maximization of Project Results

9.3 the Financial Appraisal

9.3.1 The Financial Appraisal in General

9.3.2 The Financial Appraisal of Multi-Purpose Projects

9.4 Sensitivity and Risk Analysis

9.5 Income Growth and Income Distribution

9.6 Annex-Compound Interest Factors

9.7 Glossary

9.8 References

Chapter 10 Sociology

10.1 Sociology and Rural Development

10.1.1 Introduction

10.1.2 The Inward Orientation of Traditional Agriculture

10.1.3 Incorporation in Modern Equipment

10.1.4 Consequences of Incorporation for Rural Communities

10.1.5 Consequences of Incorporation at the Regional and Higher Levels

10.1.6 Views on Agricultural Development

10.2 Development as an Object of Sociological Analysis

10.2.1 Planning as a Social Phenomenon

10.2.2 Factors Which Influence the Objectives of Development Projects

10.2.3 the Analysis of the Situation

10.2.4 Social Change as a Result of Development

10.2.5 Limiting Factors and Factors Open to Manipulation

10.3 Development and Social Changes

10.3.1 Social Change

10.3.2 The Impact of a Rural Infrastructure

10.3.3 Adjusting Processes of Change

10.3.4 Curbing Or Bending Social Changes

10.3.5 Planned Development

10.4 Social Aspects of Physical Planning

10.4.1 General

10.4.2 Sectoral Planning

10.4.3 Levels of Planning

10.4.4 Requirements

10.4.5 The Procedure of Physical Planning

10.4.6 The Role of the Sociologist

10.5 Settlement and Resettlement

10.5.1 General

10.5.2 The Existing Settlement Pattern and Its Changes

10.5.3 Research Prior to the Planning and Implementation of (Re)Settlement

10.5.4 Settlement Planning

10.5.5 Planning of Implementation

10.6 Reallocation of Rights and Resources

10.6.1 General

10.6.2 Aims and Terminology

10.6.3 Traditional Land and Water Rights

10.6.4 The Genesis of Reallocation of Rights and Resources

10.6.5 Tenancy Reform

10.6.6 Land Reform

10.6.7 Land Reallocation

10.6.8 Supplementary Programs

10.7 Transfer of Knowledge

10.7.1 Education for Agricultural Development

10.7.2 Agricultural Extension

10.7.3 The Training of Cadre Personnel for Agricultural Services

10.8 References

Chapter 11 Tables and Supporting Data

11.1 Tables

11.2 Supporting Data

11.2.1 Hydrochloric Acid

11.2.2 Prevention of Excessive Humidity Damage

Index

Details

No. of pages:
778
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier 1981
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier
eBook ISBN:
9781483277936