Agricultural and Industrial Applications Environmental Interactions - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123955142, 9780323143028

Agricultural and Industrial Applications Environmental Interactions

1st Edition

An Advanced Treatise

Editors: Dewayne Torgeson
eBook ISBN: 9780323143028
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1967
Page Count: 716
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Description

Fungicides, Volume I: Agricultural and Industrial Applications, Environmental Interactions discusses the application, use, and environmental interactions of fungicides. This book is organized into 15 chapters that cover the commercial development of fungicide and the organism's interaction with the environment. After discussing the history of fungicides, the book presents data on world fungicide usage and how this usage is influenced by epidemiology. It then describes procedures and approaches for commercial fungicide development; practical tests and laboratory techniques for agricultural fungicide toxicity; and significance of fungicide formulation that is determined by a variety of factors, including cost and biological efficiency. The following chapters discuss technological evolution, both in chemical fungicides and in the machinery for their application for soil and seed treatment. The application of foliar and postharvest fungicides and the use of other fungicides as industrial and wood preservatives is also tackled. The last four chapters are concerned with the various interactions between fungicides and the environment which may cause them to be more or less effective. The book will be useful to researchers, advanced students, and professional workers in the fungicide field of study who are concerned with the synthesis and development of better fungicides or their mode of action.

Table of Contents


List of Contributors

Preface

Contents of Volume II

Chapter 1. History of Fungicides

I. Introduction

II. The First or Sulfur Era (to 1882)

III. The Second or Copper Era (1882-1934)

IV. The Third or Organic Fungicide Era (1934-)

V. Conclusion

References

Chapter 2. World Fungicide Usage

I. Introduction

II. Major Diseases on Major Crops

III. Noncrop Uses of Fungicides

IV. Trends in Fungicide Usage

References

Chapter 3. Epidemiology of Fungicidal Action

I. Introduction

II. Relation between the Amount of Inoculum and the Amount of Disease It Produces

III. The Progress of an Epidemic and the Effect of Fungicides on It

IV. The Fungicide Square: Pathogen, Host, Environment, and Fungicide

References

Chapter 4. Determination and Measurement of Fungitoxicity

I. Introduction

II. Basic Fungitoxicity Tests

III. Practical Fungitoxicity Tests

IV. Assessment of Results

V. Correlation among Basic, Practical, and Field Test Results

References

Chapter 5. Commercial Fungicide Development

I. Starting the Search

II. Some Factors to Study

III. Development Costs

IV. Fungicides and the Law

V. Coordination with Government Research

VI. The Need to Succeed

References

Chapter 6. Formulation

I. Introduction

II. Types of Formulation

III. Compatibility

IV. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Formulations

V. Effect of Formulation on Fungicide Performance

VI. Conclusions

References

Chapter 7. Application and Use of Soil and Seed-Treatment Fungicides

I. Introduction

II. Soil Treatment

III. Seed Treatment

References

Chapter 8. Application and Use of Foliar Fungicides

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Application

III. Production of Small Particles

IV. Movement toward the Target

V. Deposition on the Target

VI. Distribution on the Target

VII. Spray Cover

VIII. Persistence and Redistribution

IX. Transfer of the Fungicide

X. Conclusions

References

Chapter 9. Application and Use of Postharvest Fungicides

I. Introduction

II. Etiology of Postharvest Diseases in Relation to Control

III. Objectives of Postharvest Fungicide Treatment

IV. Biological and Environmental Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of the Treatment

V. Methods of Applying Postharvest Fungicide Treatments

VI. Properties and Applications of Specific Fungicides

VII. Current and Future Trends in the Development of Postharvest Fungicides

References

Chapter 10. Application and Use of Fungicides as Industrial Preservatives

I. Introduction

II. Textiles

III. Paper and Pulp

IV. Rubber, Plastics, and Paint

V. Electrical and Electronic Equipment

VI. Petroleum Products

VII. Leather

VIII. Drug and Cosmetic Preservatives

References

Chapter 11. Application and Use of Fungicides in Wood Preservation

I. Introduction

II. Present Status of the Wood Preserving Industry

III. Characteristics of Wood-Attacking Fungi

IV. The Prevention of Decay without the Use of Fungicides

V. Requirements of Wood Preservatives and General Types Used

VI. Oil-Type Preservatives

VII. Waterborne Preservatives

VIII. Relation between Chemical Constitution and Toxicity to Wood-Destroying Fungi

IX. The Effectiveness of Wood Preservatives

X. Conventional Retentions of Wood Preservatives

XI. Methods of Applying Preservatives

References

Chapter 12. Chemical and Physical Interactions

I. Introduction

II. The Actors

III. The Interactions

References

Chapter 13. Fungicides in the Soil Environment

I. Introduction

II. The Fate of Fungicides in Soil

III. Factors Affecting Fungicidal Efficiency

IV. Specific Details Regarding Commercially Used Fungicides

V. Future of Soil Fungicides and Research

VI. Summary

References

Chapter 14. Uptake, Translocation, and Transformations by Higher Plants

I. Introduction

II. Uptake and Movement of Chemicals

III. Factors Affecting Uptake and Translocation

IV. Transformations of Fungicides within Plants

References

Chapter 15. Microbiological Detoxication and Other Transformations

I. Introduction

II. Bacterial Degradations

III. Fungal Degradations

IV. Toxicant Inactivation by Metabolites

References

Author Index

Subject Index




Details

No. of pages:
716
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1967
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323143028

About the Editor

Dewayne Torgeson