Aging - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124059337, 9780124055230

Aging

1st Edition

Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants

Editors: Victor Preedy
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124059337
eBook ISBN: 9780124055230
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th March 2014
Page Count: 316
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Description

  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Section 1 Oxidative Stress and Aging
  • Chapter 1. Oxidative Stress and Frailty: A Closer Look at the Origin of a Human Aging Phenotype
  • Introduction
  • Oxidative Stress and Aging
  • Frailty
  • Oxidative Stress and Frailty
  • Unanswered Questions
  • Conclusion and Future Perspectives
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 2. Skin Aging and Oxidative Stress
  • Introduction
  • The Structure of Human Skin
  • Measuring Skin Aging
  • Cellular Correlates of Skin Aging
  • Oxidative Stress and Intrinsic Skin Aging
  • Environmental Exposures Associated With Skin Aging
  • Photoaging
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 3. Cardiovascular Disease in Aging and the Role of Oxidative Stress
  • Introduction
  • Physiology of the Aging Cardiovascular System
  • The Molecular Basis of Oxidative Stress as Applied to the Cardiovascular System
  • Longevity Genes and the Longevity Network
  • Other Genes and Pathways in Oxidative Stress and Age-Related Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 4. Oxidative Stress, Aging and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Liver Pathology
  • Introduction
  • Evidence for Age-Associated Morphologic, Structural and Functional Changes in the Liver
  • Evidence for Age-Associated Loss of Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Liver
  • Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Liver Aging
  • Oxidative Damage to the Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes in Liver Aging
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Liver-Associated Disease
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 5. Arthritis as a Disease of Aging and Changes in Antioxidant Status
  • Introduction
  • The Concept of Oxygen Toxicity and Free Radicals
  • Oxidative Stress in Arthritis
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 6. Diabetes as a Disease of Aging, and the Role of Oxidative Stress
  • Introduction
  • Type 2 Diabetes and Aging
  • The Role of Oxidative Stress in Human Disease
  • Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes and Aging
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Section 2 Antioxidants and Aging
  • Chapter 7. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Elderly Women
  • Introduction
  • Role of Estrogen in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Women
  • Role of Telomere Length in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Women
  • Dietary Antioxidant Therapies in Elderly Women
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 8. Antioxidants, Vegetarian Diets and Aging
  • Introduction
  • Human Aging: Why and How Does it Occur, and What are the Consequences of Aging?
  • Oxidative Stress and Aging
  • Lowering Oxidative Stress: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Increasing Healthspan
  • Antioxidants in Food
  • Vegetarian Diet, Antioxidants, Oxidative Stress and Healthspan
  • Antioxidants and Health: Molecular Connections and Research Needs
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 9. Enteral Nutrition to Increase Antioxidant Defenses in Elderly Patients
  • Introduction
  • Enteral Nutrition in Elderly Patients
  • Enteral Nutrition with Antioxidant Properties
  • Enteral Nutrition with Whey Protein
  • The Role of Vitamins and Micronutrients with Antioxidant Properties
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 10. Herbs and Spices in Aging
  • Introduction
  • Spices
  • Herbs
  • Seaweeds
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 11. Coenzyme Q10 as an Antioxidant in the Elderly
  • Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense
  • Aging
  • Coenzyme Q10
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 12. Vitamin C and Physical Performance in the Elderly
  • Introduction
  • Oxidative Stress and Exercise
  • Oxidative Stress, Vitamin C Supplementation, and Physical Performance
  • Epidemiology Study
  • Intervention Study
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 13. Tryptophan and Melatonin-Enriched Foodstuffs to Improve Antioxidant Status in Aging
  • Introduction
  • Dietary Tryptophan and Melatonin: Sources of Health
  • Consumption of Foodstuffs Containing Bioactive Compounds to Protect Against Oxidative Stress
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 14. Protective Effects of Vitamin C on Age-Related Bone and Skin Phenotypes Caused by Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Introduction
  • Sod1 Deficiency Induces Bone Loss
  • Vitamin C Prevents Bone Loss in Sod1-Deficient Mice
  • Vitamin C Improves Bone Loss Induced by Estrogen Deficiency
  • Mechanical Unloading Induces ROS Production and Bone Loss
  • Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice
  • A Vitamin C Derivative Improves Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 15. S-Equol, an Antioxidant Metabolite of Soy Daidzein, and Oxidative Stress in Aging: A Focus on Skin and on the Cardiovascular System
  • Introduction
  • Properties of S-Equol
  • Aging Skin
  • Isoflavones and Aging Skin
  • S-Equol’s Mechanism of Reducing Oxidative Stress in Skin
  • S-Equol and Cardiovascular Diseases
  • S-Equol’s Mechanism for Reducing Oxidative Stress in the Cardiovascular System
  • Importance of S-Equol Exposure Early in Life
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 16. Magnesium, Oxidative Stress, and Aging Muscle
  • Introduction
  • Magnesium Metabolism in Older Adults
  • Magnesium, Muscular Performance, and Aging Muscle
  • Magnesium, Exercise, and Oxidative Stress
  • Magnesium, Oxidative Stress, and The Aging Muscle: The Role of Inflammation
  • Magnesium, Immune Responses, and Oxidative Stress
  • Consequences of Magnesium Imbalance with Age
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 17. Late-Life Depression and Antioxidant Supplements
  • Introduction
  • Antioxidants and Neuropsychologic Functions in the Elderly: Evidence for Antidepressant Activity
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 18. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Melatonin in Alzheimer’s Neurodegeneration
  • Introduction
  • Melatonin: Synthesis and Mechanisms of Action
  • How Free Radicals are Formed
  • Some Oxidative-Stress-Related Facts About the Brain
  • Where Do Free Radicals Come from in the Alzheimer’s Disease Brain?
  • How Does Melatonin Scavenge Free Radicals?
  • Melatonin Stimulates Antioxidant Systems
  • Breaking the Cycle Neuroinflammation↔Oxidative Stress
  • Melatonin: An Anti-AβAgent
  • Melatonin Production Decreases with Age
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 19. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants and Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Introduction
  • Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species as Probable Mediators of the Abeta-Induced Damage to Alzheimer’s Disease Neurons
  • Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants Reduce the Toxic Effects of Abeta in Models of Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants Improve Neurologic Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury or Stroke and Reduce the Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease
  • The Geroprotective Effect of SKQ1
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 20. Downregulation of the Prooxidant Heart Failure Phenotype by Dietary and Nondietary Antioxidants
  • Introduction
  • Congestive Heart Failure: A Prooxidant Phenotype
  • Antioxidants Downregulate the Prooxidant Heart Failure Phenotype
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 21. Overview of the Role of Antioxidant Vitamins as Protection Against Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Aging
  • Introduction
  • Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Disease
  • Primary Preventive Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins for CVD
  • Secondary Preventive Effects and Therapeutic Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins for CVD
  • Effect of Modification Factors
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 22. Hypertension, Menopause and Natural Antioxidants in Foods and the Diet
  • Introduction
  • Oxidative Stress and Hypertension: Hidden Mechanisms
  • Menopause, Oxidative Stress and Hypertension: Pink Networking
  • Natural Antioxidant Agents
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 23. Aging and Arthritis: Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Effects of Herbs and Spices
  • Introduction
  • Types of Free Radical and their Generation
  • The Phenomenon of Oxidative Stress
  • Oxidative Stress in Diseases
  • Aging and Diseases
  • Antioxidant Systems
  • Traditional Medicine and Herbs
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 24. Lycopene and Other Antioxidants in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women
  • Introduction
  • Osteoporosis
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Antioxidants
  • Studies on the Antioxidants Polyphenols and Lycopene
  • General Summary and Conclusion
  • Chapter 25. Zinc, Oxidative Stress in the Elderly and Implications for Inflammation
  • Introduction
  • Discovery of Zinc Deficiency in Humans
  • Clinical Manifestations of Zinc Deficiency
  • Zinc Deficiency in Elderly Subjects
  • Proposed Concept of Mechanism of Zinc Action as an Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Agent
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 26. Antioxidant Supplementation in the Elderly and Leukocytes
  • Introduction
  • Changes in the Immune System During Aging
  • The Role of Oxidative Stress in Immune Senescence
  • Effects of Antioxidants on the Immune System During Aging
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 27. Metabolic Mobilization Strategies to Enhance the Use of Plant-Based Dietary Antioxidants for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Introduction
  • The Role of Dietary Antioxidants and Plant Phenolics in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Inhibitory Activities of Different Plant-Based Foods on α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase
  • Enhancement and Mobilization of Plant-Based Antioxidants, Including Phenolics
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Index

Key Features

  • Nutritionists can apply information related to mitochondrial oxidative stress in one disease to diet-related strategies in another unrelated disease
  • Dietitians can prescribe new foods or diets containing anti-oxidants for conditions resistant to conventional pharmacological treatments
  • Dietitians, after learning about the basic biology of oxidative stress, will be able to suggest new treatments to their multidisciplinary teams
  • Nutritionists and dietitians will gain an understanding of cell signaling and be able to suggest new preventative or therapeutic strategies with anti-oxidant rich foods

Readership

Nutritionists, dieticians, gerontologists, and aging researchers

Table of Contents

  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Section 1 Oxidative Stress and Aging
  • Chapter 1. Oxidative Stress and Frailty: A Closer Look at the Origin of a Human Aging Phenotype
  • Introduction
  • Oxidative Stress and Aging
  • Frailty
  • Oxidative Stress and Frailty
  • Unanswered Questions
  • Conclusion and Future Perspectives
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 2. Skin Aging and Oxidative Stress
  • Introduction
  • The Structure of Human Skin
  • Measuring Skin Aging
  • Cellular Correlates of Skin Aging
  • Oxidative Stress and Intrinsic Skin Aging
  • Environmental Exposures Associated With Skin Aging
  • Photoaging
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 3. Cardiovascular Disease in Aging and the Role of Oxidative Stress
  • Introduction
  • Physiology of the Aging Cardiovascular System
  • The Molecular Basis of Oxidative Stress as Applied to the Cardiovascular System
  • Longevity Genes and the Longevity Network
  • Other Genes and Pathways in Oxidative Stress and Age-Related Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 4. Oxidative Stress, Aging and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Liver Pathology
  • Introduction
  • Evidence for Age-Associated Morphologic, Structural and Functional Changes in the Liver
  • Evidence for Age-Associated Loss of Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Liver
  • Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Liver Aging
  • Oxidative Damage to the Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes in Liver Aging
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Liver-Associated Disease
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 5. Arthritis as a Disease of Aging and Changes in Antioxidant Status
  • Introduction
  • The Concept of Oxygen Toxicity and Free Radicals
  • Oxidative Stress in Arthritis
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 6. Diabetes as a Disease of Aging, and the Role of Oxidative Stress
  • Introduction
  • Type 2 Diabetes and Aging
  • The Role of Oxidative Stress in Human Disease
  • Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes and Aging
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Section 2 Antioxidants and Aging
  • Chapter 7. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Elderly Women
  • Introduction
  • Role of Estrogen in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Women
  • Role of Telomere Length in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Women
  • Dietary Antioxidant Therapies in Elderly Women
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 8. Antioxidants, Vegetarian Diets and Aging
  • Introduction
  • Human Aging: Why and How Does it Occur, and What are the Consequences of Aging?
  • Oxidative Stress and Aging
  • Lowering Oxidative Stress: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Increasing Healthspan
  • Antioxidants in Food
  • Vegetarian Diet, Antioxidants, Oxidative Stress and Healthspan
  • Antioxidants and Health: Molecular Connections and Research Needs
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 9. Enteral Nutrition to Increase Antioxidant Defenses in Elderly Patients
  • Introduction
  • Enteral Nutrition in Elderly Patients
  • Enteral Nutrition with Antioxidant Properties
  • Enteral Nutrition with Whey Protein
  • The Role of Vitamins and Micronutrients with Antioxidant Properties
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 10. Herbs and Spices in Aging
  • Introduction
  • Spices
  • Herbs
  • Seaweeds
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 11. Coenzyme Q10 as an Antioxidant in the Elderly
  • Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense
  • Aging
  • Coenzyme Q10
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 12. Vitamin C and Physical Performance in the Elderly
  • Introduction
  • Oxidative Stress and Exercise
  • Oxidative Stress, Vitamin C Supplementation, and Physical Performance
  • Epidemiology Study
  • Intervention Study
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 13. Tryptophan and Melatonin-Enriched Foodstuffs to Improve Antioxidant Status in Aging
  • Introduction
  • Dietary Tryptophan and Melatonin: Sources of Health
  • Consumption of Foodstuffs Containing Bioactive Compounds to Protect Against Oxidative Stress
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 14. Protective Effects of Vitamin C on Age-Related Bone and Skin Phenotypes Caused by Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Introduction
  • Sod1 Deficiency Induces Bone Loss
  • Vitamin C Prevents Bone Loss in Sod1-Deficient Mice
  • Vitamin C Improves Bone Loss Induced by Estrogen Deficiency
  • Mechanical Unloading Induces ROS Production and Bone Loss
  • Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice
  • A Vitamin C Derivative Improves Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 15. S-Equol, an Antioxidant Metabolite of Soy Daidzein, and Oxidative Stress in Aging: A Focus on Skin and on the Cardiovascular System
  • Introduction
  • Properties of S-Equol
  • Aging Skin
  • Isoflavones and Aging Skin
  • S-Equol’s Mechanism of Reducing Oxidative Stress in Skin
  • S-Equol and Cardiovascular Diseases
  • S-Equol’s Mechanism for Reducing Oxidative Stress in the Cardiovascular System
  • Importance of S-Equol Exposure Early in Life
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 16. Magnesium, Oxidative Stress, and Aging Muscle
  • Introduction
  • Magnesium Metabolism in Older Adults
  • Magnesium, Muscular Performance, and Aging Muscle
  • Magnesium, Exercise, and Oxidative Stress
  • Magnesium, Oxidative Stress, and The Aging Muscle: The Role of Inflammation
  • Magnesium, Immune Responses, and Oxidative Stress
  • Consequences of Magnesium Imbalance with Age
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 17. Late-Life Depression and Antioxidant Supplements
  • Introduction
  • Antioxidants and Neuropsychologic Functions in the Elderly: Evidence for Antidepressant Activity
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 18. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Melatonin in Alzheimer’s Neurodegeneration
  • Introduction
  • Melatonin: Synthesis and Mechanisms of Action
  • How Free Radicals are Formed
  • Some Oxidative-Stress-Related Facts About the Brain
  • Where Do Free Radicals Come from in the Alzheimer’s Disease Brain?
  • How Does Melatonin Scavenge Free Radicals?
  • Melatonin Stimulates Antioxidant Systems
  • Breaking the Cycle Neuroinflammation↔Oxidative Stress
  • Melatonin: An Anti-AβAgent
  • Melatonin Production Decreases with Age
  • Conclusions
  • Chapter 19. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants and Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Introduction
  • Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species as Probable Mediators of the Abeta-Induced Damage to Alzheimer’s Disease Neurons
  • Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants Reduce the Toxic Effects of Abeta in Models of Alzheimer’s Disease
  • Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants Improve Neurologic Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury or Stroke and Reduce the Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease
  • The Geroprotective Effect of SKQ1
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 20. Downregulation of the Prooxidant Heart Failure Phenotype by Dietary and Nondietary Antioxidants
  • Introduction
  • Congestive Heart Failure: A Prooxidant Phenotype
  • Antioxidants Downregulate the Prooxidant Heart Failure Phenotype
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 21. Overview of the Role of Antioxidant Vitamins as Protection Against Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Aging
  • Introduction
  • Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Disease
  • Primary Preventive Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins for CVD
  • Secondary Preventive Effects and Therapeutic Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins for CVD
  • Effect of Modification Factors
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 22. Hypertension, Menopause and Natural Antioxidants in Foods and the Diet
  • Introduction
  • Oxidative Stress and Hypertension: Hidden Mechanisms
  • Menopause, Oxidative Stress and Hypertension: Pink Networking
  • Natural Antioxidant Agents
  • Conclusions
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 23. Aging and Arthritis: Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Effects of Herbs and Spices
  • Introduction
  • Types of Free Radical and their Generation
  • The Phenomenon of Oxidative Stress
  • Oxidative Stress in Diseases
  • Aging and Diseases
  • Antioxidant Systems
  • Traditional Medicine and Herbs
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 24. Lycopene and Other Antioxidants in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women
  • Introduction
  • Osteoporosis
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Antioxidants
  • Studies on the Antioxidants Polyphenols and Lycopene
  • General Summary and Conclusion
  • Chapter 25. Zinc, Oxidative Stress in the Elderly and Implications for Inflammation
  • Introduction
  • Discovery of Zinc Deficiency in Humans
  • Clinical Manifestations of Zinc Deficiency
  • Zinc Deficiency in Elderly Subjects
  • Proposed Concept of Mechanism of Zinc Action as an Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Agent
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 26. Antioxidant Supplementation in the Elderly and Leukocytes
  • Introduction
  • Changes in the Immune System During Aging
  • The Role of Oxidative Stress in Immune Senescence
  • Effects of Antioxidants on the Immune System During Aging
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Chapter 27. Metabolic Mobilization Strategies to Enhance the Use of Plant-Based Dietary Antioxidants for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Introduction
  • The Role of Dietary Antioxidants and Plant Phenolics in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Inhibitory Activities of Different Plant-Based Foods on α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase
  • Enhancement and Mobilization of Plant-Based Antioxidants, Including Phenolics
  • Conclusion
  • Summary Points
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
316
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124055230
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124059337

About the Editor

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a senior member of King's College London. He is also Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine.

Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well being. He is a member of the Editorial Board of Drug and Alcohol Dependence and a founding member of the Editorial Board of Addiction Biology. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is Editor of the influential works The Handbook Of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse and The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies (all published by Academic Press-Elsevier).

Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctoral degree (DSc). Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow of the Institute of Biology in 1995 and also as a Fellow to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. He was then elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health and Hygiene (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Dietetics, King's College London, UK