Aging

Aging

Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants

1st Edition - March 5, 2014

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  • Editor: Victor Preedy
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124055230
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124059337

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Description

Aging: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants bridges the trans-disciplinary divide and covers in a single volume the science of oxidative stress in aging and the potentially therapeutic use of natural antioxidants in the diet or food matrix. The processes within the science of oxidative stress are described in concert with other processes, such as apoptosis, cell signaling, and receptor mediated responses. This approach recognizes that diseases are often multifactorial, and oxidative stress is a single component of this. Gerontologists, geriatricians, nutritionists, and dieticians are separated by divergent skills and professional disciplines that need to be bridged in order to advance preventative as well as treatment strategies. While gerontologists and geriatricians may study the underlying processes of aging, they are less likely to be conversant in the science of nutrition and dietetics. On the other hand, nutritionists and dietitians are less conversant with the detailed clinical background and science of gerontology. This book addresses this gap and brings each of these disciplines to bear on the processes inherent in the oxidative stress of aging.

Key Features

  • Nutritionists can apply information related to mitochondrial oxidative stress in one disease to diet-related strategies in another unrelated disease
  • Dietitians can prescribe new foods or diets containing anti-oxidants for conditions resistant to conventional pharmacological treatments
  • Dietitians, after learning about the basic biology of oxidative stress, will be able to suggest new treatments to their multidisciplinary teams
  • Nutritionists and dietitians will gain an understanding of cell signaling and be able to suggest new preventative or therapeutic strategies with anti-oxidant rich foods

Readership

Nutritionists, dieticians, gerontologists, and aging researchers

Table of Contents

  • Contributors

    Preface

    Section 1 Oxidative Stress and Aging

    Chapter 1. Oxidative Stress and Frailty: A Closer Look at the Origin of a Human Aging Phenotype

    Introduction

    Oxidative Stress and Aging

    Frailty

    Oxidative Stress and Frailty

    Unanswered Questions

    Conclusion and Future Perspectives

    Summary Points

    Chapter 2. Skin Aging and Oxidative Stress

    Introduction

    The Structure of Human Skin

    Measuring Skin Aging

    Cellular Correlates of Skin Aging

    Oxidative Stress and Intrinsic Skin Aging

    Environmental Exposures Associated With Skin Aging

    Photoaging

    Conclusions

    Summary Points

    Chapter 3. Cardiovascular Disease in Aging and the Role of Oxidative Stress

    Introduction

    Physiology of the Aging Cardiovascular System

    The Molecular Basis of Oxidative Stress as Applied to the Cardiovascular System

    Longevity Genes and the Longevity Network

    Other Genes and Pathways in Oxidative Stress and Age-Related Cardiovascular Diseases

    Summary Points

    Chapter 4. Oxidative Stress, Aging and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Liver Pathology

    Introduction

    Evidence for Age-Associated Morphologic, Structural and Functional Changes in the Liver

    Evidence for Age-Associated Loss of Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Liver

    Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Liver Aging

    Oxidative Damage to the Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes in Liver Aging

    Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Liver-Associated Disease

    Conclusion

    Summary Points

    Chapter 5. Arthritis as a Disease of Aging and Changes in Antioxidant Status

    Introduction

    The Concept of Oxygen Toxicity and Free Radicals

    Oxidative Stress in Arthritis

    Summary Points

    Chapter 6. Diabetes as a Disease of Aging, and the Role of Oxidative Stress

    Introduction

    Type 2 Diabetes and Aging

    The Role of Oxidative Stress in Human Disease

    Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes and Aging

    Conclusion

    Summary Points

    Section 2 Antioxidants and Aging

    Chapter 7. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Elderly Women

    Introduction

    Role of Estrogen in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Women

    Role of Telomere Length in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Women

    Dietary Antioxidant Therapies in Elderly Women

    Summary Points

    Chapter 8. Antioxidants, Vegetarian Diets and Aging

    Introduction

    Human Aging: Why and How Does it Occur, and What are the Consequences of Aging?

    Oxidative Stress and Aging

    Lowering Oxidative Stress: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Increasing Healthspan

    Antioxidants in Food

    Vegetarian Diet, Antioxidants, Oxidative Stress and Healthspan

    Antioxidants and Health: Molecular Connections and Research Needs

    Summary Points

    Chapter 9. Enteral Nutrition to Increase Antioxidant Defenses in Elderly Patients

    Introduction

    Enteral Nutrition in Elderly Patients

    Enteral Nutrition with Antioxidant Properties

    Enteral Nutrition with Whey Protein

    The Role of Vitamins and Micronutrients with Antioxidant Properties

    Conclusion

    Summary Points

    Chapter 10. Herbs and Spices in Aging

    Introduction

    Spices

    Herbs

    Seaweeds

    Summary Points

    Chapter 11. Coenzyme Q10 as an Antioxidant in the Elderly

    Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense

    Aging

    Coenzyme Q10

    Conclusions

    Summary Points

    Chapter 12. Vitamin C and Physical Performance in the Elderly

    Introduction

    Oxidative Stress and Exercise

    Oxidative Stress, Vitamin C Supplementation, and Physical Performance

    Epidemiology Study

    Intervention Study

    Conclusions

    Summary Points

    Chapter 13. Tryptophan and Melatonin-Enriched Foodstuffs to Improve Antioxidant Status in Aging

    Introduction

    Dietary Tryptophan and Melatonin: Sources of Health

    Consumption of Foodstuffs Containing Bioactive Compounds to Protect Against Oxidative Stress

    Summary Points

    Chapter 14. Protective Effects of Vitamin C on Age-Related Bone and Skin Phenotypes Caused by Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

    Introduction

    Sod1 Deficiency Induces Bone Loss

    Vitamin C Prevents Bone Loss in Sod1-Deficient Mice

    Vitamin C Improves Bone Loss Induced by Estrogen Deficiency

    Mechanical Unloading Induces ROS Production and Bone Loss

    Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice

    A Vitamin C Derivative Improves Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice

    Summary Points

    Chapter 15. S-Equol, an Antioxidant Metabolite of Soy Daidzein, and Oxidative Stress in Aging: A Focus on Skin and on the Cardiovascular System

    Introduction

    Properties of S-Equol

    Aging Skin

    Isoflavones and Aging Skin

    S-Equol’s Mechanism of Reducing Oxidative Stress in Skin

    S-Equol and Cardiovascular Diseases

    S-Equol’s Mechanism for Reducing Oxidative Stress in the Cardiovascular System

    Importance of S-Equol Exposure Early in Life

    Summary Points

    Chapter 16. Magnesium, Oxidative Stress, and Aging Muscle

    Introduction

    Magnesium Metabolism in Older Adults

    Magnesium, Muscular Performance, and Aging Muscle

    Magnesium, Exercise, and Oxidative Stress

    Magnesium, Oxidative Stress, and The Aging Muscle: The Role of Inflammation

    Magnesium, Immune Responses, and Oxidative Stress

    Consequences of Magnesium Imbalance with Age

    Conclusions

    Summary Points

    Chapter 17. Late-Life Depression and Antioxidant Supplements

    Introduction

    Antioxidants and Neuropsychologic Functions in the Elderly: Evidence for Antidepressant Activity

    Summary Points

    Chapter 18. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Melatonin in Alzheimer’s Neurodegeneration

    Introduction

    Melatonin: Synthesis and Mechanisms of Action

    How Free Radicals are Formed

    Some Oxidative-Stress-Related Facts About the Brain

    Where Do Free Radicals Come from in the Alzheimer’s Disease Brain?

    How Does Melatonin Scavenge Free Radicals?

    Melatonin Stimulates Antioxidant Systems

    Breaking the Cycle Neuroinflammation↔Oxidative Stress

    Melatonin: An Anti-AβAgent

    Melatonin Production Decreases with Age

    Conclusions

    Chapter 19. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Introduction

    Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species as Probable Mediators of the Abeta-Induced Damage to Alzheimer’s Disease Neurons

    Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants Reduce the Toxic Effects of Abeta in Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants Improve Neurologic Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury or Stroke and Reduce the Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease

    The Geroprotective Effect of SKQ1

    Summary Points

    Chapter 20. Downregulation of the Prooxidant Heart Failure Phenotype by Dietary and Nondietary Antioxidants

    Introduction

    Congestive Heart Failure: A Prooxidant Phenotype

    Antioxidants Downregulate the Prooxidant Heart Failure Phenotype

    Summary and Conclusions

    Summary Points

    Chapter 21. Overview of the Role of Antioxidant Vitamins as Protection Against Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Aging

    Introduction

    Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Disease

    Primary Preventive Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins for CVD

    Secondary Preventive Effects and Therapeutic Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins for CVD

    Effect of Modification Factors

    Conclusion

    Summary Points

    Chapter 22. Hypertension, Menopause and Natural Antioxidants in Foods and the Diet

    Introduction

    Oxidative Stress and Hypertension: Hidden Mechanisms

    Menopause, Oxidative Stress and Hypertension: Pink Networking

    Natural Antioxidant Agents

    Conclusions

    Summary Points

    Chapter 23. Aging and Arthritis: Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Effects of Herbs and Spices

    Introduction

    Types of Free Radical and their Generation

    The Phenomenon of Oxidative Stress

    Oxidative Stress in Diseases

    Aging and Diseases

    Antioxidant Systems

    Traditional Medicine and Herbs

    Summary Points

    Chapter 24. Lycopene and Other Antioxidants in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women

    Introduction

    Osteoporosis

    Oxidative Stress

    Antioxidants

    Studies on the Antioxidants Polyphenols and Lycopene

    General Summary and Conclusion

    Chapter 25. Zinc, Oxidative Stress in the Elderly and Implications for Inflammation

    Introduction

    Discovery of Zinc Deficiency in Humans

    Clinical Manifestations of Zinc Deficiency

    Zinc Deficiency in Elderly Subjects

    Proposed Concept of Mechanism of Zinc Action as an Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Agent

    Summary Points

    Chapter 26. Antioxidant Supplementation in the Elderly and Leukocytes

    Introduction

    Changes in the Immune System During Aging

    The Role of Oxidative Stress in Immune Senescence

    Effects of Antioxidants on the Immune System During Aging

    Conclusion

    Summary Points

    Chapter 27. Metabolic Mobilization Strategies to Enhance the Use of Plant-Based Dietary Antioxidants for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes

    Introduction

    The Role of Dietary Antioxidants and Plant Phenolics in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes

    Inhibitory Activities of Different Plant-Based Foods on α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase

    Enhancement and Mobilization of Plant-Based Antioxidants, Including Phenolics

    Conclusion

    Summary Points

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 316
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: March 5, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124055230
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124059337

About the Editor

Victor Preedy

Dr. Preedy is a senior member of King's College London and Director of the Genomics Centre and a member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine. Professor Preedy has longstanding academic interests in substance misuse especially in relation to health and well-being. In his career Professor Preedy was Reader at the Addictive Behaviour Centre at The University of Roehampton, and also Reader at the School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London; UCL). Professor Preedy is an extremely experienced book editor, having edited influential works including but not limited to The Handbook of Alcohol Related Pathology, The Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, The Handbook of Cannabis and Related Pathologies, The Neuroscience of Cocaine, and upcoming titles The Neuroscience of Alcohol, The Neuroscience of Nicotine, and more (all Elsevier).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Professor of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Clinical Biochemistry; Director of the Genomics Centre, King’s College, London, UK

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