Aging - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124059337

Aging

1st Edition

Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants

Editors: Victor Preedy
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124059337
eBook ISBN:
eBook ISBN: 9780124055230
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 5th March 2014
Page Count: 316
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Description

Aging: Oxidative Stress and Dietary Antioxidants bridges the trans-disciplinary divide and covers in a single volume the science of oxidative stress in aging and the potentially therapeutic use of natural antioxidants in the diet or food matrix. The processes within the science of oxidative stress are described in concert with other processes, such as apoptosis, cell signaling, and receptor mediated responses. This approach recognizes that diseases are often multifactorial, and oxidative stress is a single component of this.

Gerontologists, geriatricians, nutritionists, and dieticians are separated by divergent skills and professional disciplines that need to be bridged in order to advance preventative as well as treatment strategies. While gerontologists and geriatricians may study the underlying processes of aging, they are less likely to be conversant in the science of nutrition and dietetics. On the other hand, nutritionists and dietitians are less conversant with the detailed clinical background and science of gerontology. This book addresses this gap and brings each of these disciplines to bear on the processes inherent in the oxidative stress of aging.

Key Features

  • Nutritionists can apply information related to mitochondrial oxidative stress in one disease to diet-related strategies in another unrelated disease
  • Dietitians can prescribe new foods or diets containing anti-oxidants for conditions resistant to conventional pharmacological treatments
  • Dietitians, after learning about the basic biology of oxidative stress, will be able to suggest new treatments to their multidisciplinary teams
  • Nutritionists and dietitians will gain an understanding of cell signaling and be able to suggest new preventative or therapeutic strategies with anti-oxidant rich foods

Readership

Nutritionists, dieticians, gerontologists, and aging researchers

Table of Contents

Contributors

Preface

Section 1 Oxidative Stress and Aging

Chapter 1. Oxidative Stress and Frailty: A Closer Look at the Origin of a Human Aging Phenotype

Introduction

Oxidative Stress and Aging

Frailty

Oxidative Stress and Frailty

Unanswered Questions

Conclusion and Future Perspectives

Summary Points

Chapter 2. Skin Aging and Oxidative Stress

Introduction

The Structure of Human Skin

Measuring Skin Aging

Cellular Correlates of Skin Aging

Oxidative Stress and Intrinsic Skin Aging

Environmental Exposures Associated With Skin Aging

Photoaging

Conclusions

Summary Points

Chapter 3. Cardiovascular Disease in Aging and the Role of Oxidative Stress

Introduction

Physiology of the Aging Cardiovascular System

The Molecular Basis of Oxidative Stress as Applied to the Cardiovascular System

Longevity Genes and the Longevity Network

Other Genes and Pathways in Oxidative Stress and Age-Related Cardiovascular Diseases

Summary Points

Chapter 4. Oxidative Stress, Aging and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Liver Pathology

Introduction

Evidence for Age-Associated Morphologic, Structural and Functional Changes in the Liver

Evidence for Age-Associated Loss of Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Liver

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Responses in Liver Aging

Oxidative Damage to the Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genomes in Liver Aging

Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Liver-Associated Disease

Conclusion

Summary Points

Chapter 5. Arthritis as a Disease of Aging and Changes in Antioxidant Status

Introduction

The Concept of Oxygen Toxicity and Free Radicals

Oxidative Stress in Arthritis

Summary Points

Chapter 6. Diabetes as a Disease of Aging, and the Role of Oxidative Stress

Introduction

Type 2 Diabetes and Aging

The Role of Oxidative Stress in Human Disease

Oxidative Stress in Type 2 Diabetes and Aging

Conclusion

Summary Points

Section 2 Antioxidants and Aging

Chapter 7. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Elderly Women

Introduction

Role of Estrogen in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Women

Role of Telomere Length in Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense in Elderly Women

Dietary Antioxidant Therapies in Elderly Women

Summary Points

Chapter 8. Antioxidants, Vegetarian Diets and Aging

Introduction

Human Aging: Why and How Does it Occur, and What are the Consequences of Aging?

Oxidative Stress and Aging

Lowering Oxidative Stress: The Potential Role of Dietary Antioxidants in Increasing Healthspan

Antioxidants in Food

Vegetarian Diet, Antioxidants, Oxidative Stress and Healthspan

Antioxidants and Health: Molecular Connections and Research Needs

Summary Points

Chapter 9. Enteral Nutrition to Increase Antioxidant Defenses in Elderly Patients

Introduction

Enteral Nutrition in Elderly Patients

Enteral Nutrition with Antioxidant Properties

Enteral Nutrition with Whey Protein

The Role of Vitamins and Micronutrients with Antioxidant Properties

Conclusion

Summary Points

Chapter 10. Herbs and Spices in Aging

Introduction

Spices

Herbs

Seaweeds

Summary Points

Chapter 11. Coenzyme Q10 as an Antioxidant in the Elderly

Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense

Aging

Coenzyme Q10

Conclusions

Summary Points

Chapter 12. Vitamin C and Physical Performance in the Elderly

Introduction

Oxidative Stress and Exercise

Oxidative Stress, Vitamin C Supplementation, and Physical Performance

Epidemiology Study

Intervention Study

Conclusions

Summary Points

Chapter 13. Tryptophan and Melatonin-Enriched Foodstuffs to Improve Antioxidant Status in Aging

Introduction

Dietary Tryptophan and Melatonin: Sources of Health

Consumption of Foodstuffs Containing Bioactive Compounds to Protect Against Oxidative Stress

Summary Points

Chapter 14. Protective Effects of Vitamin C on Age-Related Bone and Skin Phenotypes Caused by Intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species

Introduction

Sod1 Deficiency Induces Bone Loss

Vitamin C Prevents Bone Loss in Sod1-Deficient Mice

Vitamin C Improves Bone Loss Induced by Estrogen Deficiency

Mechanical Unloading Induces ROS Production and Bone Loss

Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice

A Vitamin C Derivative Improves Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice

Summary Points

Chapter 15. S-Equol, an Antioxidant Metabolite of Soy Daidzein, and Oxidative Stress in Aging: A Focus on Skin and on the Cardiovascular System

Introduction

Properties of S-Equol

Aging Skin

Isoflavones and Aging Skin

S-Equol’s Mechanism of Reducing Oxidative Stress in Skin

S-Equol and Cardiovascular Diseases

S-Equol’s Mechanism for Reducing Oxidative Stress in the Cardiovascular System

Importance of S-Equol Exposure Early in Life

Summary Points

Chapter 16. Magnesium, Oxidative Stress, and Aging Muscle

Introduction

Magnesium Metabolism in Older Adults

Magnesium, Muscular Performance, and Aging Muscle

Magnesium, Exercise, and Oxidative Stress

Magnesium, Oxidative Stress, and The Aging Muscle: The Role of Inflammation

Magnesium, Immune Responses, and Oxidative Stress

Consequences of Magnesium Imbalance with Age

Conclusions

Summary Points

Chapter 17. Late-Life Depression and Antioxidant Supplements

Introduction

Antioxidants and Neuropsychologic Functions in the Elderly: Evidence for Antidepressant Activity

Summary Points

Chapter 18. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Role of Melatonin in Alzheimer’s Neurodegeneration

Introduction

Melatonin: Synthesis and Mechanisms of Action

How Free Radicals are Formed

Some Oxidative-Stress-Related Facts About the Brain

Where Do Free Radicals Come from in the Alzheimer’s Disease Brain?

How Does Melatonin Scavenge Free Radicals?

Melatonin Stimulates Antioxidant Systems

Breaking the Cycle Neuroinflammation↔Oxidative Stress

Melatonin: An Anti-AβAgent

Melatonin Production Decreases with Age

Conclusions

Chapter 19. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants and Alzheimer’s Disease

Introduction

Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species as Probable Mediators of the Abeta-Induced Damage to Alzheimer’s Disease Neurons

Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants Reduce the Toxic Effects of Abeta in Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants Improve Neurologic Recovery After Traumatic Brain Injury or Stroke and Reduce the Risk of Developing Alzheimer’s Disease

The Geroprotective Effect of SKQ1

Summary Points

Chapter 20. Downregulation of the Prooxidant Heart Failure Phenotype by Dietary and Nondietary Antioxidants

Introduction

Congestive Heart Failure: A Prooxidant Phenotype

Antioxidants Downregulate the Prooxidant Heart Failure Phenotype

Summary and Conclusions

Summary Points

Chapter 21. Overview of the Role of Antioxidant Vitamins as Protection Against Cardiovascular Disease: Implications for Aging

Introduction

Effects of Aging on Cardiovascular Disease

Primary Preventive Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins for CVD

Secondary Preventive Effects and Therapeutic Effects of Antioxidant Vitamins for CVD

Effect of Modification Factors

Conclusion

Summary Points

Chapter 22. Hypertension, Menopause and Natural Antioxidants in Foods and the Diet

Introduction

Oxidative Stress and Hypertension: Hidden Mechanisms

Menopause, Oxidative Stress and Hypertension: Pink Networking

Natural Antioxidant Agents

Conclusions

Summary Points

Chapter 23. Aging and Arthritis: Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Effects of Herbs and Spices

Introduction

Types of Free Radical and their Generation

The Phenomenon of Oxidative Stress

Oxidative Stress in Diseases

Aging and Diseases

Antioxidant Systems

Traditional Medicine and Herbs

Summary Points

Chapter 24. Lycopene and Other Antioxidants in the Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women

Introduction

Osteoporosis

Oxidative Stress

Antioxidants

Studies on the Antioxidants Polyphenols and Lycopene

General Summary and Conclusion

Chapter 25. Zinc, Oxidative Stress in the Elderly and Implications for Inflammation

Introduction

Discovery of Zinc Deficiency in Humans

Clinical Manifestations of Zinc Deficiency

Zinc Deficiency in Elderly Subjects

Proposed Concept of Mechanism of Zinc Action as an Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Agent

Summary Points

Chapter 26. Antioxidant Supplementation in the Elderly and Leukocytes

Introduction

Changes in the Immune System During Aging

The Role of Oxidative Stress in Immune Senescence

Effects of Antioxidants on the Immune System During Aging

Conclusion

Summary Points

Chapter 27. Metabolic Mobilization Strategies to Enhance the Use of Plant-Based Dietary Antioxidants for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes

Introduction

The Role of Dietary Antioxidants and Plant Phenolics in the Management of Type 2 Diabetes

Inhibitory Activities of Different Plant-Based Foods on α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase

Enhancement and Mobilization of Plant-Based Antioxidants, Including Phenolics

Conclusion

Summary Points

Index

Details

No. of pages:
316
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2014
Published:
5th March 2014
Imprint:
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124059337
eBook ISBN:
eBook ISBN:
9780124055230

About the Editor

Victor Preedy

Victor R. Preedy BSc, PhD, DSc, FRSB, FRSPH, FRCPath, FRSC is a staff member of the Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine within King's College London. He is also a member of the Division of Diabetes and Nutritional Sciences (research) and the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics (teaching). Professor Preedy is also Director of the Genomics Centre of King's College London. Professor Preedy graduated in 1974 with an Honours Degree in Biology and Physiology with Pharmacology. He gained his University of London PhD in 1981. In 1992, he received his Membership of the Royal College of Pathologists and in 1993 he gained his second doctorate (DSc), for his outstanding contribution to protein metabolism in health and disease. Professor Preedy was elected as a Fellow to the Institute of Biology in 1995 and to the Royal College of Pathologists in 2000. Since then he has been elected as a Fellow to the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (2004) and The Royal Institute of Public Health (2004). In 2009, Professor Preedy became a Fellow of the Royal Society for Public Health and in 2012 a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry. Professor Preedy has carried out research when attached to Imperial College London, The School of Pharmacy (now part of University College London) and the MRC Centre at Northwick Park Hospital. He has collaborated with research groups in Finland, Japan, Australia, USA and Germany. Prof Preedy is a leading expert on the science of health and has a long standing interest in neurological disease and tissue pathology. He has lectured nationally and internationally. To his credit, Professor Preedy has published over 600 articles, which includes peer-reviewed manuscripts based on original research, abstracts and symposium presentations, reviews and numerous books and volumes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Professor of Clinical Biochemistry, Department of Clinical Biochemistry; Director of the Genomics Centre, King’s College, London, UK

Ratings and Reviews