Aflatoxin  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123955135, 9780323148498


1st Edition

Scientific Background, Control, and Implications

Editors: Leo Goldblatt
eBook ISBN: 9780323148498
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1969
Page Count: 486
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Aflatoxin: Scientific Background, Control, and Implications discusses general problems posed by mycotoxin contamination in foods and feeds. This book is divided into 15 chapters that summarize the discovery, elaboration, chemistry and assay, effects and metabolic fate, processing to ensure their removal or inactivation, and regulatory aspects of aflatoxins. The introductory chapters cover the discovery, formation by Aspergillus flavus, and the chemistry and structure of aflatoxins. The subsequent chapters describe the physicochemical and biological assays for aflatoxin measurement, detection, and analysis. A chapter also describes the metabolic fate and the biochemical alterations associated with aflatoxin administration to animals and other biological test systems. Discussions on the acute toxicity and carcinogenic activity of aflatoxins in laboratory and farm animals are also provided, with emphasis on the recognition of aflatoxicosis, a disease condition caused by the action of the aflatoxin poison. The book goes on examining the role of spoilage molds in destroying stored crops and the tremendous capacity for toxin production of aflatoxins. It also describes successful efforts of food and feed industries to ensure a wholesome food supply, including the utilization of various detoxification processes. The last chapters deal with the regulatory provisions for aflatoxin contamination control and tolerances and the implications of fungal toxins to human health. The book is intended for scientists and manufacturers concerned with the production and processing of foods and feeds, the nutrition, and the animal and public health.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Chapter I. Introduction

I. Introduction

II. The Turkey X Disease Problem

III. Isolation of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2

IV. Aflatoxins M1 and M2

V. Aflatoxins B2a and G2a

VI. Aspertoxin

VII. Precautionary Measures


Chapter II. Aflatoxin Formation by Aspergillus flavus

I. Introduction

II. Fungi that Produce Aflatoxin

III. Occurrence of Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin

IV. Factors Influencing Production of Aflatoxin in Natural Substrates

V. Factors Influencing Production of Aflatoxin in Nutrient Culture

VI. Biosynthesis of Aflatoxin

VII. Production of Milligram Quantities of Aflatoxins


Chapter III. The Structure and Chemistry of the Aflatoxins

I. Introduction

II. Structure of Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2

III. Aflatoxins M1 and M2 (Milk Toxins)

IV. Aflatoxins B2a and G2a

V. Absolute Configuration of the Aflatoxins

VI. Synthesis of (±)-Tetrahydrodeoxoaflatoxin B1

VII. Total Synthesis of Racemic Aflatoxin B1


Chapter IV. Physicochemical Assay of Aflatoxins

I. Introduction

II. Primary Extraction of Aflatoxins

III. Extract Purification

IV. Thin Layer Chromatographie Separation of Aflatoxins

V. Measurement of Aflatoxins

VI. Sensitivity and Sampling

VII. Method Comparisons and Collaborative Studies

VIII. Hydroxyaflatoxins


Chapter V. Biological Assay for Aflatoxins

I. Introduction

II. Formulating Aflatoxin for Biological Studies

III. Cell Free Studies—Induction of Direct Genetic Effect

IV. Microorganisms

V. Cell Culture

VI. Chicken Embryo

VII. Duckling Assay

VIII. Rainbow Trout

IX. Rat

X. Mice—Genetic and Nongenetic Toxicity

XL Hamster—Genetic and Nongenetic Toxicity

XII. Monkeys

XIII. Plants—Genetic Effects

XIV. Guinea Pigs—Nongenetic Effects

XV. Conclusion


Chapter VI. Metabolism and Biochemical Effects of Aflatoxins

I. Metabolism of Aflatoxins

II. Biochemical Effects of Aflatoxins

III. Discussion and Summary


Chapter VII. Types of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds

I. Introduction

II. Aflatoxin

III. Mycotoxins from Rice Molds

IV. Further Mycotoxins of the Aspergilli and Penicillia

V. Mycotoxins in Cereals

VI. Mycotoxins of Grasses and Fodders

VII. Mushrooms

VIII. Conclusion


Chapter VIII. Aflatoxicosis in Laboratory Animals

I. Introduction

II. Rats

III. Guinea Pigs

IV. Ducklings

V. Dogs

VI. Monkeys

VII. Other Laboratory Animals

VIII. Summary


Chapter IX. Aflatoxicosis in Farm Animals

I. Recognition of the Problem

II. Susceptibility of Various Species

III. Clinical and Pathological Effects

IV. Tolerance Levels of Aflatoxin in Animal Feedstuffs

V. Metabolism and Excretion of Aflatoxin

VI. Aflatoxin in Food Products from Farm Animals


Chapter X. Aflatoxicosis and Trout Hepatoma

I. Prologue

II. Trout Hepatoma as Parenchymal Cell Neoplasia

III. Rainbow Trout for Oncology

IV. Acute Aflatoxicosis

V. Chronic Aflatoxicosis and Hepatomagenesis


Chapter XI. Fungal Spoilage in Stored Crops and Its Control

I. Preface

II. Nontoxic Spoilage of Seeds, Grain, and Oilseeds

III. Toxic Spoilage of Seeds, Grain, and Oilseeds: Etiology and Control

IV. Spoilage in Fruits and Vegetables


Chapter XII. Processing to Ensure Wholesome Products

I. Peanuts

II. Other Crops

III. General Comments



Chapter XIII. Detoxification of Aflatoxins in Foods and Feeds

I. Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Foods and Feeds

II. Criteria for Detoxification

III. Refining of Vegetable Oils Removes Aflatoxins

IV. Physical Separation

V. Effect of Heat on Aflatoxins

VI. Removal of Aflatoxins by Solvent Extraction

VII. Chemical Inactivation

VIII. Microbiological Inactivation

IX. Biological Evaluation of Detoxified Peanut Meal

X. Need for Further Research


Chapter XIV. Regulatory Aspects of Control of Mycotoxins in Foods and Feeds

I. The Basic Statute

II. Adulteration

III. The Good Manufacturing Practice Concept

IV. The Food Additives Amendment of 1958

V. The No Residue Concept

VI. Control of Contamination

VII. International Regulation and Tolerances


Chapter XV. Implications of Fungal Toxicity to Human Health

I. Introduction

II. Etiology of Mycotoxicoses in Man

III. Current Status of Epidemiology of Mycotoxins

IV. Conclusions


Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1969
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Leo Goldblatt

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