Advances in Steam Turbines for Modern Power Plants

Advances in Steam Turbines for Modern Power Plants

2nd Edition - February 1, 2022
  • Editor: Tadashi Tanuma
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128243596

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Description

Advances in Steam Turbines for Modern Power Plants, Second Edition provides a fully revised, comprehensive review of steam turbine design, optimization, analysis and measurement. Each chapter reflects the latest research and experiences in the field, presenting modern technologies for the design and development of steam turbines that supply affordable, reliable and stable power with much lower CO2 emissions. New chapters on ‘Steam Turbine Mechanical Design and Analysis for High Temperature, Large and Rapid Change of Temperature Conditions’ and ‘Steam Valves with Low Pressure Losses’ support students, researchers and professional engineers in designing and developing economical and environmentally concerned thermal power plants.

Key Features

  • Covers the latest research and examples from around the globe
  • Includes brand new chapters, case studies, photographs, data, analysis and models
  • Updates on the design and development of steam turbines, with new chapters written by experienced design engineers who provide first-hand experience and lessons learned

Readership

R&D managers; steam turbine engineers; researchers working on advanced steam turbine design; postgraduate students. Early career engineers and graduate students of mechanical engineers, with a focus on steam turbines and power generation

Table of Contents

  • Part I Steam Turbine Cycles and Cycle Design Optimization 1

    1 Introduction to steam turbines for power plants 3

    T. Tanuma

    1.1 Features of steam turbines 3 adding photographs of new power plants

    1.2 Roles of steam turbines in power generation 4 update of the figures

    1.3 Technology trends of steam turbines 6 update

    1.4 The aim of this book 8

    References 9

    2 Steam turbine cycles and cycle design optimization: the Rankine

    cycle, thermal power cycles, and IGCC power plants 11 adding new power plants

    A. Ohji and M. Haraguchi

    2.1 Introduction 11

    2.2 Basic cycles of steam turbine plants 11

    2.3 Types of steam turbines 23

    2.4 Various steam turbine cycles and technologies

    to improve thermal efficiency 29

    2.5 Conclusion 40

    References 40

    3 Steam turbine cycles and cycle design optimization: advanced

    ultra-supercritical thermal power plants and nuclear power plants 41 adding new power plants

    J. Tominaga

    3.1 Introduction 41

    3.2 A-USC thermal power plants 41

    3.3 Nuclear power plants 48

    3.4 Conclusion 55

    References 55

    4 Steam turbine cycles and cycle design optimization: combined

    cycle power plants 57 adding new power plants

    R. W. Smith

    4.1 Definitions 57

    4.2 Introduction to combined cycle power plants 59

    4.3 Combined cycle thermodynamics 60

    4.4 Markets served 75

    4.5 Major plant systems overview 77

    4.6 Combined cycles trends 90

    4.7 Conclusion 91

    References 91

    5 Steam turbine life cycle cost evaluations and comparison

    with other power systems 93 update

    T. Nakata

    5.1 Introduction 93

    5.2 Cost estimation and comparison with other power systems 94

    5.3 Technological learning 96

    5.4 The modeling of technological learning 98

    5.5 Conclusions 104

    References 104

    Part II Steam Turbine Analysis, Measurement

    and Monitoring for Design Optimization 107

    6 Design and analysis for aerodynamic efficiency

    enhancement of steam turbines 109 update

    T. Tanuma

    6.1 Introduction 109

    6.2 Overview of losses in steam turbines 109

    6.3 Overview of aerodynamic design of steam turbines 114

    6.4 Design and analysis for aerodynamic efficiency enhancement 116

    6.5 Future trends 123

    6.6 Conclusions 124

    References 125

    7 Steam turbine rotor design and rotor dynamics analysis 127 update

    Y. Kaneko, H. Kanki and R. Kawashita

    7.1 Categories of steam turbine rotor vibration 127

    7.2 Mechanical design of steam turbine rotors 137

    7.3 Measurement of, and guidelines for, rotor vibration 148

    References 150

    New chapter 1 Steam turbine mechanical design and analysis for high temperature, large and rapid change of temperature conditions

    N1.1 casings and steam pipes (including thermal expansion and sealing issues)

    N1.2 Stator blades (nozzles) (including creep issues)

    N1.3 Rotor blades (including cooling design and SCC issues)

    N1.4 Foundation design and seismic analysis

    8 Steam turbine design for load-following capability and highly

    efficient partial operation 153 update

    A. Tani

    8.1 Introduction 153

    8.2 Solution for grid code requirement 155

    8.3 LFC of thermal power plants 158

    8.4 Current capacity of thermal power governor-free

    operation and LFC 159

    8.5 Over load valve 160

    8.6 Conclusion 164

    References 164

    9 Analysis and design of wet-steam stages 165 update

    S. Senoo and A. J. White

    9.1 Introduction 165

    9.2 Basic theory and governing equations 171

    9.3 Numerical methods 177

    9.4 Measurement methods 194

    9.5 Design considerations 207

    Acknowledgments 210

    Notation 210

    Greek symbols 211

    Subscripts 211

    References 211

    10 Solid particle erosion analysis and protection

    design for steam turbines 219 update

    H. Nomoto

    10.1 Introduction 219

    10.2 Susceptible area of erosion 219

    10.3 Considerations on boiler design and plant design 221

    10.4 Considerations on turbine design and operation mode 222

    10.5 Result of erosion 225

    10.6 Considerations of parameters on erosion and countermeasure 234

    Conclusions 238

    References 239

    11 Steam turbine monitoring technology, validation, and verification

    tests for power plants 241 update

    D. R. Cornell

    11.1 Introduction to power plant testing and monitoring 241

    11.2 Performance type testing 243

    11.3 Steam turbine component-type testing 253

    11.4 Steam turbine monitoring 257

    11.5 Summary 259

    11.6 Power plant testing—a look ahead 259

    References 260

    Part III Development of Materials, Blades and Important

    Parts of Steam Turbines 261

    12 Development in materials for ultra-supercritical (USC)

    and advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) steam turbines 263 update

    H. Nomoto

    12.1 Introduction 263

    12.2 Efficiency improvement of ultra-supercritical and advanced

    ultra-supercritical turbines 265

    12.3 Material development for ultra-supercritical steam turbines 267

    12.4 Material development for advanced ultra-supercritical steam

    turbines 272

    Conclusions 277

    References 278

    13 Development of last-stage long blades for steam turbines 279 adding new descriptions shown below

    T. Tanuma

    13.1 Introduction 279

    13.2 Design space for last-stage long blade development 281

    13.3 Main features of modern last-stage blades 283

    13.4 Design methodology for last-stage long blades 284

    Additional descriptions on water droplet erosion analysis and protection design

    13.5 Model turbine tests and measurements 298

    13.6 Conclusions 303

    References 304

    14 Introduction of new sealing technologies for steam turbines 307 update

    X. Zheng

    14.1 Introduction 307

    14.2 Flowpath interstage seals 309

    Conclusions 319

    References 319

    15 Introduction of advanced technologies for steam turbine bearings 321 update

    P. Pennacchi

    15.1 Geometry of oil-film bearing 321

    15.2 Bearing design 326

    15.3 Journal bearing testing 348

    15.4 Thrust bearing testing 362

    15.5 Bearing coating materials 365

    15.6 Conclusions 376

    Acknowledgments 377

    References 378

    New chapter 2 Steam valves with low pressure losses

    16 Manufacturing technologies for key steam turbine parts 381 update

    I. McBean

    16.1 Introduction 381

    16.2 Manufacturing documentation 382

    16.3 Castings and forgings 383

    16.4 Casings 383

    16.5 Rotors 385

    16.6 Blade manufacture 388

    16.7 Inspection technologies 391

    16.8 Conclusion 392

    References 393

    Part IV Turbine Retrofitting and Advanced Applications

    in Power Generation 395

    17 Steam turbine retrofitting for the life extension of power plants 397 update

    Y. Enomoto

    17.1 Comprehensive maintenance planning and new technologies

    for steam turbine retrofitting 397

    17.2 Age deterioration and lifetime of the steam turbine 397

    17.3 Outline of retrofitting for life extension 412

    17.4 Technology for higher efficiency and other benefits 424

    17.5 Summary 435

    References 436

    18 Steam turbine retrofitting for power increase and efficiency

    enhancement 437 update

    I. McBean

    18.1 Overview 437

    18.2 Nomenclature 437

    18.3 Introduction 438

    18.4 Improvement of plant performance 440

    18.5 Key development processes 444

    18.6 High-pressure and intermediate-pressure turbine retrofits 446

    18.7 Low-pressure turbine retrofits 446

    18.8 Summary 453

    References 453

    19 Advanced geothermal steam turbines 455 adding new application cases

    Y. Sakai

    19.1 Introduction 455

    19.2 Construction of modern geothermal steam turbines 464

    19.3 Technologies to enhance reliability of geothermal steam turbines 473

    19.4 Technologies to enhance performance of geothermal turbines 477

    19.5 Operational experiences and lessons learned 480

    19.6 Future view of geothermal power generation and challenges 485

    References 485

    20 Steam turbines for solar thermal and other renewable energies 487 adding new application cases

    N. Okita, T. Takahashi and K. Nishimura

    20.1 Introduction 487

    20.2 Pilot plant of solar thermal and biomass binary generation system in

    Japan 487

    20.3 The steam turbine for solar thermal technology 488

    20.4 Steam turbine for organic Rankine cycle 493

    20.5 Future applications 497

    References 498

    21 Advanced ultra-supercritical pressure (A-USC) steam turbines and

    their combination with carbon capture and storage systems (CCS) 501 update

    H. Nomoto

    21.1 Introduction 501

    21.2 Advanced ultra-supercritical turbine 502

    21.3 Carbon capture technology 502

    21.4 Combination of advanced ultra-supercritical turbine and CCS 510

    Conclusions 519

    References 519

    22 Steam turbine roles and necessary technologies for stabilization

    of the electricity grid in the renewable energy era 521 adding new data

    N. Funahashi

    22.1 Introduction 521

    22.2 The issue of the renewable energy era 522

    22.3 Requirements of the steam-turbine power-generation system 531

    22.4 Innovation and future technologies 535

    References 536

    Index 539

    23. Conclusions

    Tadashi Tanuma 

Product details

  • No. of pages: 620
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2022
  • Published: February 1, 2022
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128243596

About the Editor

Tadashi Tanuma

Tadashi Tanuma is a Professor at Teikyo University, Japan. He is the head of the Laboratory of Fluid-Structural Simulation and Design in the Strategic Innovation and Research Center. He also works for the Graduate School of Science & Engineering and the Department of Mechanical and Precision System Engineering in Teikyo University. Professor Tadashi Tanuma began his career as a development mechanical engineer in 1980 at Turbine Factory, Toshiba Corporation, Japan. He led the Turbomachinary Development Group from 1993. Subsequently, he joined the Steam Turbine Design Department in Keihin Product Operations of Toshiba Corporation. He developed and designed Toshiba 52-inch last stage long blade for nuclear power steam turbines and steel 40 and 48-inch last stage long blade for thermal power steam turbines as an aerodynamic engineer and led many research and development programs for steam and gas turbine efficiency enhancement technologies. He was the President of the Gas Turbine Society of Japan (2015).

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Head, Laboratory of Fluid-Structural Simulation and Design, Strategic Innovation and Research Cente, Teikyo University, Japan