This fourth volume in the series, dedicated entirely to the results of the first European study of the effects of long-term confinement and isolation. The volume continues to attempt to fulfill the aim of this series, to bring the findings and accomplishments in the field of space biology and medicine to a wider group of scientists than merely the relatively small group of biologists and physiologists currently involved in space experimentation.
The contributions are not only nicely spread geographically with three chapters from the United States, two each from Russia, Europe, and Japan, they also offer a wide range of topics in the field, covering humans, animals , plants, cells, and even potential extraterrestrial beings.
As before, not only problems investigated and results obtained are reviewed, but also some of the technical aspects peculiar to this field are treated. An example in this volume is the chapter on virtual environments by Ellis, which is meant to help investigators understand the opportunities that these techniques might offer for future investigations.
In view of the limitations on flight opportunities and the constraints still inherent in orbital experimentation, it is also important to consider the information that can be obtained from studies on the ground. In addition to simulation studies like bed rest for human subjects (see the chapter by Edgerton et al. on neuromuscular adaptation), tail suspension of rats, and plants on a clinostat (see the chapter by Masuda et al.), there is the interesting possibility of using gravitropic mutants for studying the effects of weightlessness on plant growth as described by Takahashi and Suge.
Two chapters are devoted to a review of the results on rats flown on nine Cosmos biosatellite flights between 1973 and 1989: the chapter by Krasnow deals with the neuromorphological effects of micro- and hypergravity; that by Popova and Grigoriev with the met

Table of Contents

Contents. List of Contributors. Introduction to Volume 4 (S.L. Bonting). The Physiological Basis for the Influence of Weightlessness on Heart and Lungs (F. Bonde-Petersen and D. Linnarsson). Neuromuscular Adaptation to Actual and Simulated Weightlessness (V.R. Edgerton and R.R. Roy). Metabolic Effects of Spaceflight: Cosmos Missions Overview (I.A. Popova and A.I. Grigoriev). Gravitational Neuromorphology (I.B. Krasnov). Plant Responses to Simulated Microgravity (Y. Masuda, S. Kamisaka, R. Yamamoto, T. Hoson, and K. Nishitani). Gravitropic Mutants in Studying Plant Growth in Space (H. Takahashi and H. Suge). Effects of Gravity on the Cellular Response to Epidermal Growth Factor (P.J. Rijken, J. Boonstra, A.J. Verkleij, and S.W. de Laat). Searching for Intelligent Life in the Universe: Nasa's High Resolution Microwave Survey (G.R. Coulter, M.J. Klein, P.R. Backus, and J.D. Rummel). Virtual Environments: New Media for Spatial Information (S.R. Ellis). Index.


© 1994
Elsevier Science
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About the editor

S.L. Bonting

Affiliations and Expertise

Goor, The Netherlands