Advances in Physiology, Biochemistry, and Function V4 - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123866042, 9780323143745

Advances in Physiology, Biochemistry, and Function V4

1st Edition

Editors: A.D. Johnson
eBook ISBN: 9780323143745
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1977
Page Count: 662
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The Testis: Advances in Physiology, Biochemistry, and Function, Volume IV, provides an overview of the state of knowledge in the physiology, biochemistry, and function of the testis. This volume updates those areas of greatest research activity and introduces in a more complete manner those topics which have developed as subject areas in themselves. It includes a chapter on testicular steroidogenesis, which updates and expands the chapter appearing in Volume II. In addition, chapters on the role of FSH in the testis, the specialized (largely endocrine) functions of the Sertoli cells, and the entire account of the tubular hormone inhibin have all been extensions of material in the original chapter on testicular endocrinology. Similarly, separate chapters on blood flow in the testis, fluid secretion, and the blood-testis barrier all report data on subjects largely unsuspected when Volumes I-III were published.

Neither the first three volumes nor is the present one intended primarily for the nonprofessional biologist or the popular reader. The coverage should be most useful and informative to professional biologists. It is anticipated that this volume will also be of interest to advanced students of animal biology as an authoritative, comprehensive, and convenient review of significant recent information concerning the testis.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors


Contents of Other Volumes

1 Testicular Development

I. Introduction

II. Structural Differentiation

III. Biochemical Differentiation

IV. Functions of the Developing Testis

V. Concluding Remarks


2 Blood Supply to the Testis and Its Role in Local Exchange and Transport of Hormones

I. General Introduction

II. Blood Supply to the Testis

III. Mechanisms for Local Exchange and Transport


3 Fluid Secretion

I. General Introduction

II. Lymph

III. Testicular Fluids

IV. Functional Evidence for a Blood-Testis Barrier

V. Origin of Fluid Secretion

VI. General Conclusions


4 The Blood-Testis Barrier

I. Introduction

II. Survey of Tissue Permeability Barriers

III. Evidence for a Barrier in the Testis

IV. Anatomy of the Blood-Testis Barrier

V. Significance of the Blood-Testis Barrier

VI. Factors Influencing Permeability

VII. Conclusions


5 Mechanisms of Action of Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

I. Introduction

II. The Sertoli Cell as the Primary Target of FSH

III. Membrane Receptors for FSH

IV. Effects on Cyclic Nucleotide Metabolism

V. Stimulation of Translation and Transcription

VI. Alteration of Sertoli Cell Morphology

VII. Effects on DNA Synthesis

VIII. Changes in Sertoli Cell Steroid Metabolism

IX. Modulation of Androgen-Binding Protein Activity

X. Concluding Remarks


6 Inhibin

I. Introduction

II. The Pituitary and Germinal Cell Destruction

III. Utilization Hypothesis

IV. Is Inhibin a Steroid?

V. Methods of Assay for Inhibin

VI. Sources of Inhibin

VII. Chemical Characteristics of Inhibin

VIII. Biological Significance of Inhibin


7 Testicular Steroidogenesis

I. Introduction

II. Comparative Aspects of Testicular Steroidogenesis

III. Steroidogenic Reactions of Mammalian Testes

IV. Biosynthesis of Testicular Steroids

V. Regulation of Testicular Steroidogenesis


8 Prostaglandins

I. Introduction

II. Occurrence and Distribution in Male Reproductive Tract

III. Mechanisms for the Synthesis of Prostaglandins

IV. Control of Prostaglandin Synthesis

V. Prostaglandins and Testicular Response to Injurious Agents

VI. Roles of Prostaglandins in the Testis

VII. Deleterious Effects of Prostaglandins on the Testis

VIII. Mechanism of Action of Prostaglandins and Conclusions


9 Biogenic Amines

I. Introduction

II. Endogenous Amines

III. Testicular Monoamine Oxidase Activity

IV. Testicular Disorders

V. Testis and MAO Inhibition

VI. Exogenous Amines and Testicular Function

VII. Effects of Stress on the Testis

VIII. Indirect Effect of Amines on the Testis

IX. Summary


10 The Interstitial Tissue of the Testis

I. Introduction

II. Technical Advances in Cytology

III. The Interstitial Tissue

IV. Role of the Cells of the Interstitium in Steroid Production

V. Effect of Hormones on the Cytology of Leydig Cells

VI. Summary


11 The Sertoli Cells

I. Introduction

II. Morphological Characteristics

III. Functional Features

IV. Concluding Remarks


12 Enzyme Markers of Testicular Function

I. Introduction

II. Markers of Germinal Cell Maturation

III. Sertoli Cell Markers

IV. Testicular Enzymes in Steroidogenesis


13 Testicular Lipids

I. Introduction

II. Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition

III. Lipid and Fatty Acid Metabolism

IV. Lipids of the Sperm

V. Role of Lipids in Reproduction

VI. Conclusion


14 Mediastinum Testis

I. Introduction

II. Anatomy

III. Effect of Age


15 The Rete Testis

I. Introduction

II. Anatomy of the Rete Testis

III. Histochemistry of the Rete Testis

IV. Functional Significance of the Rete Testis

V. Summarizing Comment


16 The Cremasteric Muscle

I. Introduction

II. Anatomical Considerations

III. The Fasciomuscular Pump

IV. The Tubovalvular Antireflux Mechanism

V. The Role of the Cremasteric Muscle in Varicocelogenesis

VI. The Role of the Cremasteric Muscle in Thermoregulation of the Testicle

VII. The Cremasterico-Darto-Venous Complex


17 Autoimmune Reactions in the Testis

I. Introduction

II. Studies on Sperm-Specific Antigens

III. Studies on the Pathogenesis of Experimental Allergic Orchitis (EAO)

IV. Concluding Remarks


18 Temperature and Seasonal Influences

I. Introduction

II. Temperature

III. Seasonal Rhythms

IV. Conclusions


19 Aging and the Testis

I. Introduction

II. Human Testis Morphology

III. Non-Human Testis

IV. Human Testis Steroidogenesis

V. Non-Human Testis Steroidogenesis

VI. General Remarks


20 The Influence of Cadmium on the Testis

I. Introduction

II. Protective Mechanisms

III. Cadmium Distribution in the Body

IV. Influence of Cadmium on Metabolism

V. Influence of Cadmium on the Physiology of the Testis

VI. Influences on the Pituitary

VII. Changes with Cryptorchidism

VIII. Genetic Influence in Response to Cadmium

IX. Cadmium and Castration

X. Site of Action


21 Effects of Environmental Agents on Male Reproduction

I. Introduction

II. Synthetic Organic Insecticides

III. Herbicides, Fungicides, Acaricides, and Fumigants

IV. Food Additives and Contaminants

V. Industrial Chemicals and Air Pollutants

VI. Summary and Conclusions


22 Pharmacological Agents and Male Fertility

I. Introduction

II. Antispermatogenic Agents

III. Prevention of Fertilizing Capacity

IV. Induction of Altered Endocrine Balances

V. Summary and Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1977
Academic Press
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A.D. Johnson

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