The different LC-MS techniques available today were developed to suit specific analytical needs and the application range covered by each one is wide, but still limited. GC amenable compounds can be all analyzed with a single GC-MS system whereas HPLC applications call for specific LC-MS instrumental arrangements. ESI, APCI, APPI, and EI are ionization techniques that can be combined with different analyzers, in single or tandem configuration, to create the ultimate system for a certain application. Once approaching LC-MS for a specific need, the fast technical evolution and the variegated commercial offer can induce confusion in the potential user. The role of this book is to enlighten the state-of-the-art of LC-MS evolution through a series of contributions written by the people that brought major, recent innovations in the field. Each chapter will take into consideration the novelties, the advantages and the possible applications covered by a particular technical solution. The book will also include new analytical methods that can provide benefits using the most recent innovations in LC-MS plus a certain number of key applications.

Key Features

- Contains contributions from major innovators in the field - Covers the latest developments in the field of LC-MS - Gives a clear outline on the advantages of various techniques and their applications


Researchers, Practitioners, Consultants in Analytical Chemistry using LC-MS. (Industry examples: pharmaceuticals, chemical industry, environmental testing labs, food testing labs, forensics, proteomics)

Table of Contents

1. Basic aspects of electrospray ionization (L. Molin, P. Traldi)
1.1 The taylor cone
1.2 Fate of sprayed droplets
1.3 Ions formation from charged droplets
1.4 Some further considerations 2. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI): new avenues for an old friend (A. Raffaelli)
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Principles and apparatus
2.3 Applications 3. Electron ionization in LC–MS: a technical overview of the direct EI interface (A. Cappiello, P. Palma)
3.1 Introduction
3.2 The interface
3.3 Interface performance
3.4 Applications
3.5 Conclusion 4. Electron ionization LC–MS with supersonic molecular beams (O. Granot, A. Amirav) 4.1 Introduction
4.2 Experimental – liquid sampling EI–MS with SMB
4.3 Results – Cold EI mass spectra
4.4 Results – Selected applications
4.5 Discussion and potential advantages 5. A case for congruent multiple ionization modes in atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (M.P. Balogh) 5.1 Introduction
5.2 Atmospheric pressure ionization: electrospray
5.3 Atmospheric pressure ionization: chemical ionization
5.4 Atmospheric pressure ionization: photoionization
5.5 Combining ionization mechanisms
5.6 Developing reproducible mechanism boundaries
5.7 True combined mechanism designs
5.8 Development of ESCi® multimode ionization


No. of pages:
© 2007
Elsevier Science
Print ISBN:
Electronic ISBN:

About the editor

Achille Cappiello

Affiliations and Expertise

Istituto di Scienze Chimiche, Universitá degli Studi di Urbino, Urbino, Italy