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Chapter 1 - Introduction
Chapter 2 - The scanning electron micropscope at the Cambridge University Engineering department
Chapter 3 - The development of electron probe instruments at the Cavendish Labratory and the Tube investments research Labratory.
Chapter 4 - Commercial development
Chapter 5 - Epilogue
- A special volume devoted principally to the
role of the late Sir Charles Oatley in the development of the scanning electron microscopeings
* It contains historical articles and reminiscences by most of the scientists who have worked on the scanning electron microscope in Oatley's laboratory* Emphasizes broad and in depth article collaborations between world-renowned scientists in the field of image and electron physics
Although the scanning electron microscope had a prehistory in Germany and the USA, its real champion was Charles Oatley, who launched his project in the Cambridge University Engineering Department shortly after the end of World War II. A first microscope was built successfully by D. McMullan, one of the Guest Editors of this volume and a succession of progressively improved instruments followed. One in particular, built by K.C.A. Smith was commissioned specially for the Canadian Pulp and Paper Research Institute for use in their Montreal laboratories. All these efforts culminated in the commercial model built by the Cambridge Instrument Company and marketed in 1965 under the trade name, Stereoscan. Although this story has been told on several occasions, in particular in these Advances, it seemed appropriate, in the centenary year of the birth of Sir Charles Oatley, that more details should be published to celebrate these achievements. This volume is the result.It contains not only historical articles and reminiscences by most of the scientists who have worked on the scanning electron microscope in Oatley's laboratory but also full or partial reproductions of many of the key publications, beginning with McMullan's early paper of 1953 and including Oatley's own "Early history of the scanning electron microscope" (1982). A website has been created, in which supplementary material is collected.
This volume is a tribute to a bold pioneering scientist and a vivid record of the creation of the first commercial scanning electron microscopes and of subsequent developments.
- A special volume devoted principally to the role of the late Sir Charles Oatley in the development of the scanning electron microscopeings
- It contains historical articles and reminiscences by most of the scientists who have worked on the scanning electron microscope in Oatley's laboratory
- Emphasizes broad and in depth article collaborations between world-renowned scientists in the field of image and electron physics
Researchers, academics, physicists and engineers working in the field of image and electron physics
- No. of pages:
- © Academic Press 2004
- 2nd December 2004
- Academic Press
- eBook ISBN:
Peter Hawkes graduated from the University of Cambridge and subsequently obtained his PhD in the Electron Microscopy Section of the Cavendish Laboratory. He remained there for several years, working on electron optics and digital image processing before taking up a research position in the CNRS Laboratory of Electron Optics (now CEMES-CNRS) in Toulouse, of which he was Director in 1987. During the Cambridge years, he was a Research Fellow of Peterhouse and a Senior Research fellow of Churchill College. He has published extensively, both books and scientific journal articles, and is a member of the editorial boards of Ultramicroscopy and the Journal of Microscopy. He was the founder-president of the European Microscopy Society, CNRS Silver Medallist in 1983 and is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America and of the Microscopy Society of America (Distinguished Scientist, Physics, 2015), Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society and Honorary Member of the French Microscopy Society. In 1982, he was awarded the ScD degree by the University of Cambridge.
In 1982, he took over editorship of the Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics (now Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics) from Claire Marton (widow of the first editor, Bill Marton) and followed Marton's example in maintaining a wide range of subject matter. He added mathematical morphology to the topics regularly covered; Jean Serra and Gerhard Ritter are among those who have contributed.
In 1980, he joined Professor Wollnik (Giessen University) and Karl Brown (SLAC) in organising the first international conference on charged-particle optics, designed to bring together opticians from the worlds of electron optics, accelerator optics and spectrometer optics. This was so successful that similar meetings have been held at four-year intervals from 1986 to the present day. Peter Hawkes organised the 1990 meeting in Toulouse and has been a member of the organising committee of all the meetings. He has also participated in the organization of other microscopy-related congresses, notably EMAG in the UK and some of the International and European Congresses on electron microscopy as well as three Pfefferkorn conferences.
He is very interested in the history of optics and microscopy, and recently wrote long historical articles on the correction of electron lens aberrations, the first based on a lecture delivered at a meeting of the Royal Society. He likewise sponsored biographical articles for the Advances on such major figures as Ernst Ruska (Nobel Prize 1986), Helmut Ruska, Bodo von Borries, Jan Le Poole and Dennis Gabor (Nobel Prize, 1971). Two substantial volumes of the series were devoted to 'The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy' and 'The Growth of Electron Microscopy'. and others have covered 'Cold Field Emission Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy' and 'Aberration-corrected Electron Microscopy', with contributions by all the main personalities of the subject.
Laboratoire d'Optique Electronique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CEMES), Toulouse, France
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