Description

In recent years, the paradigm of video coding has shifted from that of a frame-based approach to a content-based approach, particularly with the finalization of the ISO multimedia coding standard, MPEG-4. MPEG-4 is the emerging standard for the coding of multimedia content. It defines a syntax for a set of content-based functionalities, namely, content-based interactivity, compression and universal access. However, it does not specify how the video content is to be generated. To generate the video content, video has to be segmented into video objects and tracked as they transverse across the video frames. This book addresses the difficult problem of video segmentation, and the extraction and tracking of video object planes as defined in MPEG-4. It then focuses on the specific issue of face segmentation and coding as applied to videoconferencing in order to improve the quality of videoconferencing images especially in the facial region.
Modal-based coding is a content-based coding technique used to code synthetic objects that have become an important part of video content. It results in extremely low bit rates because only the parameters needed to represent the modal are transmitted. Model-based coding is included to provide background information for the synthetic object coding in MPEG-4. Lastly, MPEG-4, the first coding standard for multimedia content is described in detail. The topics covered include the coding of audio objects, the coding of natural and synthetic video objects, and error resilience.
Advanced Video Coding is one of the first books on content-based coding and MPEG-4 coding standard. It serves as an excellent information source and reference for both researchers and practicing engineers.

Table of Contents

Preface. Acknowledgements. Image and Video Segmentation. Bayesian Inference and MRF's. MAP estimation. Markov random fields (MRFs). Numerical approximations. Edge Detection. Gradient operations: Sobel, Prewitt, Frei-Chen. Canny operator. Image Segmentation. Morphological segmentation. Bayesia segmentation. Motion. Real motion and apparent motion. The optical flow constraint (OFC). Non-parametric motion field representation. Parametric motion field representation. The occlusion problem. Motion Estimation. Gradient-based methods. Block-based techniques. Pixel-recursive algoriths. Bayesian approaches. Motion Segmentation. 3-D segmentation. Segmentation based on motion information only. Spatio-temporal segmentation. Joint motion estimation and segmentation. References. Face Segmentation. Face Segmentation Problem. Various Approaches. Shape analysis. Motion analysis. Statistical analysis. Color analysis. Applications. Coding area of interest with better quality. Content-based representation and MPEG-4. 3D human face model fitting. Image enhancement. Face recognition, classification and identification. Face tracking. Facial expression study. Multimedia database indexing. Modeling of Human Skin Color. Color space. Limitations of color segmentation. Skin Color Map Approach. Face segmentation algorithm. Stage one - color segmentation. Stage two - density regularization. Stage three - luminance regularization. Stage four - geometric correction. Stage five - contour extraction. Experimental results. References. Foreground/Background Coding. Introduction. Related works. Foreground and background regions. Content-based Bit Allocation. Maximum bit transfer. Joint bit assignment. Content-based Rate Control. H.261FB Approach. H.261 Video coding system. Reference model 8. Implementation of the H. 261FB coder. Experimental results. H.263FB Approach. Implementation of the H.263FB coder. Experimental results. Towards MPEG-4 Video Codi

Details

No. of pages:
411
Language:
English
Copyright:
© 1999
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
Print ISBN:
9780444826671
Electronic ISBN:
9780080498737