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Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780444633736, 9780080999838

Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers

2nd Edition

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Authors: D. Winterbone Ali Turan
Paperback ISBN: 9780444633736
eBook ISBN: 9780080999838
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 9th February 2015
Page Count: 578
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Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers, Second Edition introduces the basic concepts of thermodynamics and applies them to a wide range of technologies. Authors Desmond Winterbone and Ali Turan also include a detailed study of combustion to show how the chemical energy in a fuel is converted into thermal energy and emissions; analyze fuel cells to give an understanding of the direct conversion of chemical energy to electrical power; and provide a study of property relationships to enable more sophisticated analyses to be made of irreversible thermodynamics, allowing for new ways of efficiently covering energy to power (e.g. solar energy, fuel cells). Worked examples are included in most of the chapters, followed by exercises with solutions. By developing thermodynamics from an explicitly equilibrium perspective and showing how all systems attempt to reach equilibrium (and the effects of these systems when they cannot), Advanced Thermodynamics for Engineers, Second Edition provides unparalleled insight into converting any form of energy into power. The theories and applications of this text are invaluable to students and professional engineers of all disciplines.

Key Features

  • Includes new chapter that introduces basic terms and concepts for a firm foundation of study
  • Features clear explanations of complex topics and avoids complicated mathematical analysis
  • Updated chapters with recent advances in combustion, fuel cells, and more
  • Solutions manual will be provided for end-of-chapter problems


Senior-level and graduate students studying thermodynamics; practicing engineers

Table of Contents

Chapter 1. Introduction and Revision

  • 1.1. Thermodynamics
  • 1.2. Definitions
  • 1.3. Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law
  • 1.4. Temperature Scales
  • 1.5. Interactions between Systems and Surroundings
  • 1.6. Concluding Remarks
  • 1.7. Problems

Chapter 2. The Second Law and Equilibrium

  • 2.1. Thermal Efficiency
  • 2.2. Heat Engine
  • 2.3. Second Law of Thermodynamics
  • 2.4. The Concept of the Heat Engine: Derived by Analogy with a Hydraulic Device
  • 2.5. The Absolute Temperature Scale
  • 2.6. Entropy
  • 2.7. Representation of Heat Engines
  • 2.8. Reversibility and Irreversibility (first corollary of second law)
  • 2.9. Equilibrium
  • 2.10. Helmholtz Energy (Helmholtz Function)
  • 2.11. Gibbs Energy
  • 2.12. Gibbs Energy and Phases
  • 2.13. Examples of Different Forms of Equilibrium Met in Thermodynamics
  • 2.14. Concluding Remarks
  • 2.15. Problems

Chapter 3. Engine Cycles and their Efficiencies

  • 3.1. Heat Engines
  • 3.2. Air-Standard Cycles
  • 3.3. General Comments on Efficiencies
  • 3.4. Reversed Heat Engines
  • 3.5. Concluding Remarks
  • 3.6. Problems

Chapter 4. Availability and Exergy

  • 4.1. Displacement Work
  • 4.2. Availability
  • 4.3. Examples
  • 4.4. Available and Non-available Energy
  • 4.5. Irreversibility
  • 4.6. Graphical Representation of Available Energy and Irreversibility
  • 4.7. Availability Balance for a Closed System
  • 4.8. Availability Balance for an Open System
  • 4.9. Exergy
  • 4.10. The Variation of Flow Exergy for a Perfect Gas
  • 4.11. Concluding Remarks
  • 4.12. Problems

Chapter 5. Rational Efficiency of Power Plant

  • 5.1. The Influence of Fuel Properties on Thermal Efficiency
  • 5.2. Rational Efficiency
  • 5.3. Rankine Cycle
  • 5.4. Examples
  • 5.5. Concluding Remarks
  • 5.6. Problems

Chapter 6. Finite Time (or Endoreversible) Thermodynamics

  • 6.1. General Considerations
  • 6.2. Efficiency at Maximum Power
  • 6.3. Efficiency of Combined Cycle Internally Reversible Heat Engines when Producing Maximum Power Output
  • 6.4. Practical Situations
  • 6.5. More Complex Example of the Use of FTT
  • 6.6. Concluding Remarks
  • 6.7. Problems

Chapter 7. General Thermodynamic Relationships: for Single Component Systems or Systems of Constant Composition

  • 7.1. The Maxwell Relationships
  • 7.2. Uses of the Thermodynamic Relationships
  • 7.3. Tds Relationships
  • 7.4. Relationships between Specific Heat Capacities
  • 7.5. The Clausius–Clapeyron Equation
  • 7.6. Concluding Remarks
  • 7.7. Problems

Chapter 8. Equations of State

  • 8.1. Ideal Gas Law
  • 8.2. Van der Waals Equation of State
  • Problem
  • 8.3. Law of Corresponding States
  • 8.4. Isotherms or Isobars in the Two-phase Region
  • 8.5. Concluding Remarks
  • 8.6. Problems

Chapter 9. Thermodynamic Properties of Ideal Gases and Ideal Gas Mixtures of Constant Composition

  • 9.1. Molecular Weights
  • 9.2. State Equation for Ideal Gases
  • 9.3. Tables of u(T) and h(T) Against T
  • 9.4. Mixtures of Ideal Gases
  • 9.5. Entropy of Mixtures
  • 9.6. Concluding Remarks
  • 9.7. Problems

Chapter 10. Thermodynamics of Combustion

  • 10.1. Simple Chemistry
  • 10.2. Combustion of Simple Hydrocarbon Fuels
  • 10.3. Heats of Formation and Heats of Reaction
  • 10.4. Application of the Energy Equation to the Combustion Process – a Macroscopic Approach
  • 10.5. Combustion Processes
  • 10.6. Examples
  • 10.7. Concluding Remarks
  • 10.8. Problems

Chapter 11. Chemistry of Combustion

  • 11.1. Bond Energies and Heat of Formation
  • 11.2. Energy of Formation
  • 11.3. Enthalpy of Reaction
  • 11.4. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 12. Chemical Equilibrium and Dissociation

  • 12.1. Gibbs Energy
  • 12.2. Chemical Potential, μ
  • 12.3. Stoichiometry
  • 12.4. Dissociation
  • 12.5. Calculation of Chemical Equilibrium and the Law of Mass Action
  • 12.6. Variation of Gibbs Energy with Composition
  • 12.7. Examples of Significance of Kp
  • 12.8. The Van't Hoff Relationship between Equilibrium Constant and Heat of Reaction
  • 12.9. The Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Degree of Dissociation
  • 12.10. Dissociation Calculations for the Evaluation of Nitric Oxide
  • 12.11. Dissociation Problems with Two, or More, Degrees of Dissociation
  • 12.12. Concluding Remarks
  • 12.13. Problems

Chapter 13. Effect of Dissociation on Combustion Parameters

  • 13.1. Calculation of Combustion Both with and without Dissociation
  • 13.2. The Basic Reactions
  • 13.3. The Effect of Dissociation on Peak Pressure
  • 13.4. The Effect of Dissociation on Peak Temperature
  • 13.5. The Effect of Dissociation on the Composition of the Products
  • 13.6. The Effect of Fuel on Composition of the Products
  • 13.7. The Formation of Oxides of Nitrogen
  • 13.8. Concluding Remarks

Chapter 14. Chemical Kinetics

  • 14.1. Introduction
  • 14.2. Reaction Rates
  • 14.3. Rate Constant for Reaction, k
  • 14.4. Chemical Kinetics of NO
  • 14.5. Other Kinetics-Controlled Pollutants
  • 14.6. The Effect of Pollutants Formed Through Chemical Kinetics
  • 14.7. Concluding Remarks
  • 14.8. Problems

Chapter 15. Combustion and Flames

  • 15.1. Introduction
  • 15.2. Thermodynamics of Combustion
  • 15.3. Explosion Limits
  • 15.4. Flames
  • 15.5. Concluding Remarks
  • 15.6. Problems

Chapter 16. Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines

  • 16.1. Introduction
  • 16.2. Further Considerations of Basic Engine Cycles
  • 16.3. Spark-Ignition Engines
  • 16.4. Diesel (Compression Ignition) Engines
  • 16.5. Friction in Reciprocating Engines
  • 16.6. Simulation of Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines
  • 16.7. Concluding Remarks
  • 16.8. Problems

Chapter 17. Gas Turbines

  • 17.1. The Gas Turbine Cycle
  • 17.2. Simple Gas Turbine Cycle Analysis
  • 17.3. Aircraft Gas Turbines
  • 17.4. Combustion in Gas Turbines
  • 17.5. Concluding Remarks
  • 17.6. Problems

Chapter 18. Liquefaction of Gases

  • 18.1. Liquefaction by Cooling – Method (i)
  • 18.2. Liquefaction by Expansion – Method (ii)
  • 18.3. Concluding Remarks
  • 18.4. Problems

Chapter 19. Pinch Technology

  • 19.1. Heat Transfer Network without a Pinch Problem
  • 19.2. Step 1: Temperature Intervals
  • 19.3. Step 2: Interval Heat Balances
  • 19.4. Heat Transfer Network with a Pinch Point
  • 19.5. Step 3: Heat Cascading
  • 19.6. Problems

Chapter 20. Irreversible Thermodynamics

  • 20.1. Definition of Irreversible or Steady-State Thermodynamics
  • 20.2. Entropy Flow and Entropy Production
  • 20.3. Thermodynamic Forces and Thermodynamic Velocities
  • 20.4. Onsager's Reciprocal Relation
  • 20.5. The Calculation of Entropy Production or Entropy Flow
  • 20.6. Thermoelectricity – The Application of Irreversible Thermodynamics to a Thermocouple
  • 20.7. Diffusion and Heat Transfer
  • 20.8. Concluding Remarks
  • 20.9. Problems

Chapter 21. Fuel Cells

  • 21.1. Types of Fuel Cells
  • 21.2. Theory of Fuel Cells
  • 21.3. Efficiency of a Fuel Cell
  • 21.4. Thermodynamics of Cells Working in Steady State
  • 21.5. Losses in Fuel Cells
  • 21.6. Sources of Hydrogen for Fuel Cells
  • 21.7. Concluding Remarks
  • 21.8. Problems


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© Butterworth-Heinemann 2015
9th February 2015
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

D. Winterbone

Desmond Winterbone was the Chair in thermodynamics in UMIST (became University of Manchester in 2004) for 22 years, until his retirement in 2002. He graduated in Mechanical Engineering while undertaking a Student Apprenticeship, where he developed his interest in reciprocating engines. He embarked on PhD studies on diesel engine performance in University of Bath, graduating in 1970. He then joined the staff at UMIST where the general theme of his work was the simulation of prime movers with three main aims: thermodynamic analysis - to obtain a better understanding of engine performance; synthesis - to enable new engine systems to be designed; control - to improve the performance of such systems by feedback mechanisms. He has published five books on thermodynamics and engine simulation.

Professor Winterbone served as Vice-Principal, and Pro-Vice Chancellor of UMIST. He retired in 2002, but undertook a number of consultancies and teaching activities: he also obtained a BA in Humanities. Professor Winterbone was an active member of the IMechE Combustion Engine Group and Chairman from May 1991 to 1995. From 1989-96 he was Chairman of the Universities Internal Combustion Engine Group - a discussion forum for research workers and industrialists. He was elected to the Fellowship of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 1989. He was awarded a Mombusho Visiting Professorship at the University of Tokyo in 1989, and spent three months in University of Canterbury, New Zealand on an Erskine Fellowship in 1994. He has been active in promoting links throughout the world, including particularly Japan and China. In addition he has a number of contacts in Europe and was awarded an Honorary DSc from the University of Gent (Belgium) in 1991.

Affiliations and Expertise

Emeritus Professor, University of Manchester, UK

Ali Turan

Professor Turan is currently a chair holder in thermodynamics of power generation and propulsion at the University of Manchester. He received his Ph.D. in the area of Computational Fluid Dynamics/Combustion from the University of Sheffield, in 1978. Since then he has been involved primarily in developing and implementing a variety of state-of-the-art algorithms in challenging fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer problems in industry primarily in the energy conversion/propulsion and thermal manufacturing/processing arena in the USA as an academic interface. He has substantial experience in the development and application of advanced turbulence modelling, submodels for two-phase flow, coal and oil combustion modelling, radiation and heat transfer analysis .He has also been heavily involved in the development of advanced computational techniques and algorithms (spectral element, high order finite volume) and application for the simulation of laminar, turbulent, non/reacting, multi-species, multi-phase flows in engineering configurations, including recently biomedical applications in a micro/nano transport environment.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Thermodynamics Power Generation, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK


"This book not only illustrates the basic concepts and laws, but also introduces some new developments in thermodynamics. The novelty of the book lies on answering two key questions that engineers desperately care about: how to apply the classic thermodynamics to physical/physiochemical processes and how to apply the classic thermodynamics to practical applications." --Dr Shenghui Lei, PhD, B.Eng, Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs, Dublin, Ireland

"I consider this to be a very useful book as in its 550 pages it contains material that is not in other teaching texts. The book is well written, and has numerous worked examples and student exercises; it certainly deserves to be on the shelf of anyone who teaches thermodynamics to mechanical engineers." -Professor Richard Stone, Engineering Science at Univeristy of Oxford

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