Advanced Separation Techniques for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Radioactive Waste Treatment

Advanced Separation Techniques for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Radioactive Waste Treatment

1st Edition - March 15, 2011

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  • Editors: Kenneth Nash, Gregg Lumetta
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081017234
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857092274

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Description

Advanced separations technology is key to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and relieving future generations from the burden of radioactive waste produced by the nuclear power industry. Nuclear fuel reprocessing techniques not only allow for recycling of useful fuel components for further power generation, but by also separating out the actinides, lanthanides and other fission products produced by the nuclear reaction, the residual radioactive waste can be minimised. Indeed, the future of the industry relies on the advancement of separation and transmutation technology to ensure environmental protection, criticality-safety and non-proliferation (i.e., security) of radioactive materials by reducing their long-term radiological hazard.Advanced separation techniques for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment provides a comprehensive and timely reference on nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment. Part one covers the fundamental chemistry, engineering and safety of radioactive materials separations processes in the nuclear fuel cycle, including coverage of advanced aqueous separations engineering, as well as on-line monitoring for process control and safeguards technology. Part two critically reviews the development and application of separation and extraction processes for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment. The section includes discussions of advanced PUREX processes, the UREX+ concept, fission product separations, and combined systems for simultaneous radionuclide extraction. Part three details emerging and innovative treatment techniques, initially reviewing pyrochemical processes and engineering, highly selective compounds for solvent extraction, and developments in partitioning and transmutation processes that aim to close the nuclear fuel cycle. The book concludes with other advanced techniques such as solid phase extraction, supercritical fluid and ionic liquid extraction, and biological treatment processes.With its distinguished international team of contributors, Advanced separation techniques for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment is a standard reference for all nuclear waste management and nuclear safety professionals, radiochemists, academics and researchers in this field.

Key Features

  • A comprehensive and timely reference on nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment
  • Details emerging and innovative treatment techniques, reviewing pyrochemical processes and engineering, as well as highly selective compounds for solvent extraction
  • Discusses the development and application of separation and extraction processes for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment

Readership

Professionals and researchers throughout the nuclear fuel cycle including: nuclear fuel reprocessing, radioactive waste separations, radioactive waste management; nuclear materials developer; nuclear power operators, graduates and research professors in the areas of nuclear fuel cycle and radioactive waste management; government/regulatory radioactive waste management bodies

Table of Contents

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    Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy

    Preface

    Part I: Fundamentals of radioactive materials separations processes: chemistry, engineering and safeguards

    Chapter 1: Chemistry of radioactive materials in the nuclear fuel cycle

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Chemical features of important fission products and actinides

    1.3 Relevant actinide chemistry in the nuclear fuel cycle

    1.4 Essential features of solvent extraction separations in the nuclear fuel cycle

    1.5 Behavior in molten salts/molten metals/ionic liquids/alternative media

    1.6 Interactions at interfaces significant to the nuclear fuel cycle

    1.7 Future trends

    Chapter 2: Physical and chemical properties of actinides in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Thermodynamic properties of compounds

    2.3 Speciation, complexation and reactivity in solution of actinides

    2.4 Irradiation effects

    2.5 Future trends

    2.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 3: Chemical engineering for advanced aqueous radioactive materials separations

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Containment concepts

    3.3 Separations equipment

    3.4 Equipment materials considerations

    3.5 Future trends

    3.6 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 4: Spectroscopic on-line monitoring for process control and safeguarding of radiochemical streams in nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Static spectroscopic measurements

    4.3 Demonstration of spectroscopic methods

    4.4 Conclusions

    4.5 Acknowledgments

    4.7 Appendix: acronyms

    Chapter 5: Safeguards technology for radioactive materials processing and nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Requirements

    5.3 Safeguards technology

    5.4 Safeguards applications for aqueous separations

    5.5 Safeguards applications for pyrochemical separations

    5.6 Acknowledgement

    Part II: Separation and extraction processes for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment

    Chapter 6: Standard and advanced separation: PUREX processes for nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Process chemistry

    6.3 Current industrial application of PUREX

    6.4 Future industrial uses of PUREX

    6.5 Conclusions

    Chapter 7: Alternative separation and extraction: UREX+ processes for actinide and targeted fission product recovery

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Separation strategy

    7.3 UREX + LWR SNF GNEP application: separation strategy

    7.4 Benefits of using models to design flowsheets

    7.5 Advantages and disadvantages of techniques

    7.6 Future trends

    Chapter 8: Advanced reprocessing for fission product separation and extraction

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Separation methods, advantages/disadvantages, and future trends

    8.3 Conclusions and future trends

    Chapter 9: Combined processes for high level radioactive waste separations: UNEX and other extraction processes

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction to universal extraction process (UNEX) and other processes

    9.2 Universal processes for recovery of long-lived radionuclides

    9.3 Development and testing of the universal extraction (UNEX) process and its modifications

    9.4 Conclusions

    Part III: Emerging and innovative techniques in nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment

    Chapter 10: Nuclear engineering for pyrochemical treatment of spent nuclear fuels

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Process chemistry and flowsheet of pyrochemical processing

    10.3 Design and installation of process equipment

    10.4 Materials behaviour and interactions

    10.5 Developments in monitoring and control for pyrochemical processing

    10.6 Techniques for safe and effective interoperation of equipment

    10.7 Future trends

    10.8 Sources of further information and advice

    Chapter 11: Development of highly selective compounds for solvent extraction processes: partitioning and transmutation of long-lived radionuclides from spent nuclear fuels

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Which long-lived radionuclides to partition and why?

    11.3 How to develop selective ligands and extractants?

    11.4 Examples of development of highly selective compounds in European partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy

    11.5 Future trends

    11.6 Conclusions

    11.7 Sources of further information and advice

    11.8 Acknowledgment

    Chapter 12: Developments in the partitioning and transmutation of radioactive waste

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction to transmutation

    12.2 Modelling transmutation processes and effects

    12.3 Systems for transmutation: design and safety

    12.4 Transmutation fuel development

    12.5 Future trends

    Chapter 13: Solid-phase extraction technology for actinide and lanthanide separations in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Basic methodology of solid-phase extraction

    13.3 Solid-phase extraction sorbents for actinides and lanthnides

    13.4 Modeling of solid-phase extraction systems

    13.5 Advantages and disadvantages of solid-phase extraction in treatment processes for nuclear fuel reprocessing streams

    13.6 Future trends in solid-phase extraction technology for nuclear fuel reprocessing applications

    13.7 Sources of further information and advice

    13.8 Acknowledgment

    Chapter 14: Emerging separation techniques: supercritical fluid and ionic liquid extraction techniques for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Supercritical fluid extraction of lanthanides and actinides

    14.3 Direct dissolution of uranium oxides in supercritical carbon dioxide

    14.4 Current industrial demonstrations of supercritical fluid extraction technology for nuclear waste treatment and for reprocessing spent fuel

    14.5 Ionic liquid and supercritical fluid coupled extraction of lanthanides and actinides

    14.6 Future trends

    Chapter 15: Development of biological treatment processes for the separation and recovery of radioactive wastes

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Classification of waste

    15.3 Waste from high temperature fast reactors

    15.4 Treatment options

    15.5 Biological removal of metal oxyions

    15.6 Biosorption and recovery

    15.7 Biofilm processes

    15.8 Future trends

    15.11 Engineering dimensions (units)

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 512
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2011
  • Published: March 15, 2011
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780081017234
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857092274

About the Editors

Kenneth Nash

Professor Kenneth L. Nash of Washington State University is an expert in the fields of nuclear separation processes and the nuclear fuel cycle.

Affiliations and Expertise

Washington State University

Gregg Lumetta

Dr Gregg J. Lumetta of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is an expert in the fields of nuclear separation processes and the nuclear fuel cycle.

Affiliations and Expertise

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA

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