ADP-Ribosylation Reactions  - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123336606, 9780323142991

ADP-Ribosylation Reactions

1st Edition

Biology and Medicine

Editors: Osamu Hayaishi
eBook ISBN: 9780323142991
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1982
Page Count: 724
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ADP-Ribosylation Reactions: Biology and Medicine deals with the biochemical and physiological aspects of poly(ADP-ribose) and ADP-ribosylation of proteins. Topics covered range from pyridine nucleotide metabolism and ADP-ribosylation to the structure and properties of poly(ADP-ribose), along with acceptor proteins of poly(ADP-ribose). ADP-ribosyl protein linkages and poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase are also discussed.

Comprised of 39 chapters, this book begins with a historical background on the discovery of poly(ADP-ribose) and the significance of poly- and mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation reactions in molecular biology. The next section explores the role of ADP-ribosylation in NAD metabolism, paying particular attention to poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase-DNA interaction and the link between chromatin structure and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Subsequent chapters focus on subfractions and subcellular distribution of mono(ADP-ribosyl) proteins in eukaryotic cells; polyadenylylation and ADP-ribosylation of reovirus proteins; poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis in plants; and immunohistochemistry of poly(ADP-ribose). The final chapter analyzes the ADP-ribosylation activity of toxin A and exoenzyme S in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

This monograph is written for students, practitioners, and researchers in fields such as molecular biology, medical chemistry, and biochemistry.

Table of Contents



Part I Introduction

1 Poly- and Mono(ADP-Ribosyl)ation Reactions: Their Significance in Molecular Biology

I. Prologue

II. Discovery of Poly(ADP-Ribose)

III. ADP-Ribosylation of Proteins

IV. Prospects


Part II ADP-Ribosylation In NAD Metabolism

2 Pyridine Nucleotide Metabolism and ADP-Ribosylation

I. Introduction

II. Pyridine Nucleotide Biosynthesis

III. Pyridine Nucleotide Cycles

IV. Summary and Conclusions


Part III Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation

A. Structure of Poly(ADP-ribosyl) Proteins (Chapters 3-6)

Β. Poly(ADP-ribose) Biosynthesis and Degradation (Chapters 7-16)

C. Natural Occurrence and Quantitation of Poly(ADP-Ribosyl) Proteins (Chapters 17-20)

D. Functional Roles of Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation (Chapters 21-30)

E. Poly(ADP-Ribose) in Medicine (Chapters 31-33)

3 Structure and Properties of Poly(ADP-Ribose)

I. Structure of Poly(ADP-Ribose)

II. Properties of Poly(ADP-Ribose)

III. Conclusion


4 DeoxyNAD and Poly(deoxyADP-Ribose)

I. Introduction

II. Synthesis and Characterization of 2'dNAD and 3'dNAD

III. Template Activity of Nuclei Isolated from HeLa Cells with NAD, 2'dNAD, and 3'dNAD

IV. Chain Length Determination

V. ADP-Ribosylation of Isolated Rat Liver Nuclear Histone and Nonhistone Chromosomal Proteins by NAD and 2'dNAD

VI. Chain Length Determination of ADP-Ribosylated Histone and Nonhistone Proteins in Isolated HeLa Nuclei Incubated with NAD or 2'dNAD

VII. Characterization of the Ribose to Ribose 1" → 3' Osidic Bond Formed with 2'dNAD

VIII. Discussion


5 Acceptor Proteins of Poly(ADP-Ribose)

I. Introduction

II. Transfer of Mono- and Poly(ADP-Ribose) to Nuclear Proteins

III. Isolation of Nuclear Poly(ADP-Ribose) Protein Conjugates Synthesized in Vitro

IV. Identification of Individual Nuclear Proteins Serving as Acceptors for Mono- and Poly(ADP-Ribose)

V. ADP-Ribosylation of Nuclear Proteins in Vivo

VI. The Effect of DNA Damage on the ADP-Ribosylation of Nuclear Proteins in Vitro and in Vivo

VII. ADP-Ribosylation of Nonnuclear Proteins

VIII. Concluding Remarks


6 ADP-Ribosyl Protein Linkages

I. Introduction

II. ADP-Ribosylation of Histones and Other Chromosomal Proteins

III. ADP-Ribosylation of Histone H1

IV. ADP-Ribosylation of Nucleosomal Histones

V. Chemical Stability of the ADP-Ribosyl-Protein Linkage

VI. Chemical Nature of the ADP-Ribosyl-Protein Linkages


7 Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase

I. Introduction

II. Nomenclature and Standard Assay

III. Distribution

IV. Purification

V. Physicochemical Properties

VI. Enzymological Properties

VII. Immunological Properties

VIII. Regulation of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase


8 Poly (ADP-Ribose) Synthetase—DNA Interaction

I. Introduction

II. DNA Structure Required for Enzyme Activation

III. Study for Enzyme—DNA Interaction by Filter Binding Assay

IV. Role of Mg2+ and Polyamines in Enzyme—DNA Interaction

V. Summary


9 Chromatin Structure and Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation

I. Chromatin Structure

II. Association of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase with Polynucleosomes

III. Distribution of Acceptors of Poly(ADP-Ribose) in Oligo- and Polynucleosomes

IV. NAD Concentration-Dependent Influence in the Modification of Nucleoprotein Complexes

V. Modulation of Chromatin Structure by Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation—A Model


10 Mitochondrial ADP-Ribosyltransferase System

I. Introduction

II. Materials and Methods

III. Results

IV. Discussion

V. Summary


11 Subfractions and Subcellular Distribution of Mono(ADP-Ribosyl) Proteins in Eukaryotic Cells

I. Introduction

II. Independent Synthesis of NH2OH-Sensitive and NH2OH-Resistant Mono(ADP-Ribose) Protein Conjugate During the Cell Cycle of Physarum Polycephalum

III. Divergent Changes of Endogenous Mono(ADP-Ribosyl) Protein Subfractions in Eukaryotic Cells

IV. Mono(ADP-Ribosyl) Proteins and Tissue Levels of NAD

V. Subcellular Distribution of Mono(ADP-Ribosyl) Proteins

VI. Mono(ADP-Ribosyl)ation of Proteins—A Multifunctional Process in Eukaryotic Cells


12 Polyadenylylation and ADP-Ribosylation of Reovirus Proteins

I. Introduction—Regulation of Reovirus Genome Expression

II. Structural Features of Nucleotide-Modified Reovirus Polypeptides

III. Synthesis of Modified Proteins in Virus-Infected Cells

IV. Reovirion-Associated NAD-Dependent Nucleotide Transferase Activity

V. Summary—The Role of Modified Proteins in Reovirus Replication



13 Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthesis in Plants

I. Introduction

II. A Survey of Posttranslational Protein Modifications in the Plant Nucleus

III. Evidence and Properties of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthesis in Plant Nuclei

IV. Conclusions


14 ADP-Ribosylation in the Slime Mold Dictyostelium Discoideum

I. Introduction

II. Biological Characteristics of D. Discoideum

III. ADP-Ribosylation in D. Discoideum

IV. Conclusion


15 Phosphodiesterases and Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase

I. Introduction

II. Phosphodiesterases (Pyrophosphatases)

III. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase


16 ADP-Ribosyl Histone Hydrolase

I. Introduction

II. Preparation and Characterization of Substrates

III. Enzyme Purification

IV. Properties of ADP-Ribosyl Histone Hydrolase

V. Heterogeneity of ADP-Ribosyl Histone Bonds

VI. Properties of Split Product

VII. Physiological Roles of ADP-Ribosyl Histone Hydrolase


17 Isolation and Quantitation of Poly(ADP-Ribose)

I. Introduction

II. Methods Used

III. Applications of These Methods

IV. Conclusion

V. Addendum


18 Quantitation of Mono(ADP-Ribosyl) and Poly(ADP-Ribosyl) Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Determination of Protein-Bound Mono(ADP-Ribose) Residues

III. Determination of Poly(ADP-Ribosyl) Proteins

IV. Independence of Mono(ADP-Ribosyl)ation and Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation of Proteins as Deduced from the Determination of Endogenous ADP-Ribosyl Levels


19 Electrophoretic Analysis of Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ated HMG Proteins and Total Nuclear Proteins at Acidic pH and Low Temperature

I. Introduction

II. Methods

III. Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ated HMG Proteins and Histones of Pancreatic Chromatin

IV. Discussion

V. Summary


20 Immunohistochemistry of Poly(ADP-Ribose)

I. Introduction

II. Procedures of Immunohistochemistry of Poly(ADP-Ribose)

III. Specificity of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Immunofluorescent Staining

IV. Observations with Immunohistochemistry of Poly(ADP-Ribose)

V. Immunohistochemistry of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase

VI. Perspectives


21 DNA Replication and Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation

I. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase Activity and Cell Proliferation

II. Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation and DNA Synthesis

III. DNA Repair, Recombination, and Chromosomal Condensation

IV. Transformed and Tumor Cells

V. Hormones and DNA Synthesis


22 Variations in Poly(ADP-Ribose) and Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase in Synchronously Dividing Cells

I. Introduction

II. Correlation between Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase and Poly(ADP-Ribose) in Cells

III. Inverse Correlation between Poly(ADP-Ribose) and Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase

IV. Radioimmunoassay for Cellular Levels of Poly(ADP-Ribose)

V. Effect of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase Inhibitors on Cellular Levels of Polymer and on Cell Growth

VI. Effect of G2 Arresting Agents Which Are Not Direct Inhibitors of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase

VII. Chromatin Conformational Changes and the Synthesis of Histone Η1—Poly(ADP-Ribose) Complex

VIII. Summary


23 Poly(ADP-Ribose) and the Differentiation of Embryonic Tissue

I. Introduction

II. The Embryonic Chick Limb Mesenchyme System

III. Pool Sizes of Poly(ADP-Ribose) and Cartilage Differentiation

IV. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase Activity During Mesenchymal Development

V. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase Inhibitor Studies

VI. Model and Summary


24 Poly(ADP-Ribosyl)ation in Xenopus Laevis Embryos

I. Introduction—Xenopus Laevis as a Biological System for Studying ADP-Ribosylation

II. Methodology

III. Results and Discussion

IV. Concluding Remarks


25 Poly(ADP-Ribose) and Differentiation of Mammalian Intestinal Epithelium

I. Introduction—Intestinal Epithelium as a Regenerating and Differentiating Cell System

II. Methodology

III. Results and Discussion

IV. Concluding Remarks


26 Oxygen and Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthesis in Myocardial and Skeletal Muscle

I. Introduction

II. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Metabolism in Cultured Heart Cells

III. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Metabolism in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Cells


27 Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase Activity in Mitogen Stimulated Bovine Lymphocytes: Effects of Polyamines and Endogenous Nuclease Activity

I. Introduction

II. In Vitro Studies with Mitogen Stimulated Lymphocytes

III. Nucleoid Sedimentation as a Probe of DNA Supercoiling

IV. Discussion


28 Glucocorticoid Effects on Poly(ADP-Ribose) Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Changes in Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase Activity of Chick Embryo Liver by Glycocorticoid Treatment

III. Effect of Other Steroid Hormones on Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase and Gene Activity

IV. Concluding Remarks


29 ADP-Ribose in DNA Repair

I. Introduction

II. DNA Damage and NAD Metabolism

III. Effects of Inhibition of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase

IV. Molecular Mechanism of Action of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase in DNA Excision Repair

V. Implications for Chemotherapy and Carcinogenesis

VI. Perspectives

VII. Conclusions


30 Poly(ADP-Ribose) as an Inhibitor of Chromatin Protease

I. Introduction

II. Chromatin-Bound Protease from Rat Peritoneal Macrophages

III. Occurrence and Identification of Protease Inhibitor Activity

IV. Control of the Protease by Poly(ADP-Ribose) in Vivo

V. Concluding Remarks


31 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

I. Introduction

II. Experimentally Induced Antibodies to Poly(ADP-Ribose)

III. Naturally Occurring Antibodies to Poly(ADP-Ribose) in Humans

IV. Possible Functions of Double-Stranded RNA and Oligo(ADP-Ribosyl)ated Histones in Induction of Antibodies to Poly(ADP-Ribose) in SLE Patients

V. Effects of Oligo(ADP-Ribosyl)ation of Histones on Histone Antigenicity

VI. Concluding Remarks


32 Poly(ADP-Ribose) in Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Related Disorders of DNA Repair

I. Stimulation of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthesis by DNA Damage

II. Defective Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthesis in Xeroderma Pigmentosum Cells

III. Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthesis in Xeroderma Pigmentosum Cells Reconstituted with UV Endonuclease

IV. Molecular Experiments to Define Sequence of Activation of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthetase by UV Irradiation

V. Proposed Pathway for Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthesis in Response to DNA Damage

VI. Abnormalities of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthesis in Other Disorders of DNA Repair

VII. Summary


33 Leukemia and Cancer

I. Poly(ADP-Ribose) in Neoplastic Tissues

II. Poly(ADP-Ribose) and Differentiation of Neoplastic Cells

III. Possible Relationship between Poly(ADP-Ribose) and Oncogenesis

IV. Application of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Synthesis Modulators to Chemotherapy of Neoplasms


Part IV. Mono(ADP-Ribosyl)ation

34 Structure and Activity of Diphtheria Toxin

I. Introduction

II. Toxicity, Inhibition of Protein Synthesis, and ADP-Ribosylation Activity

III. Structure—Activity Relationships

IV. Concluding Remarks


35 Cholera Toxin-Catalyzed ADP-Ribosylation of Membrane Proteins

I. ADP-Ribosylation of Adenylate Cyclase

II. Mechanism of the ADP-Ribosylation

III. Other Activities of Cholera Toxin

IV. Appendix: Conditions That Influence the Rate of ADP-Ribosylation


36 Mechanism of Action of Escherichia Coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin: Activation of Adenylate Cyclase by ADP-Ribosylation

I. Introduction

II. Evidence That the Enterotoxin Interacts Specifically with Ganglioside GM1 on the Cell Surface

III. ADP-Ribosyltransferase Activity of E. Coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin

IV. Summary


37 Purification and Properties of NAD:Arginine ADP-Ribosyltransferases from Animal Cells

I. Characteristics of the Enzyme from Turkey Erythrocytes

II. Identification of NAD:Arginine ADP-Ribosyltransferases in Other Tissues and Species

III. Comparison of the Properties of the ADP-Ribosyltransferase from Turkey Erythrocytes with Those of Choleragen, E. Coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin, and Viral Transferases

IV. Summary


38 T4 and N4 Phage-Encoded ADP-Ribosyltransferases

I. Introduction

II. ADP-Ribosyltransferases of Bacteriophage T4

III. ADP-Ribosyltransferase of Bacteriophage N4

IV. Conclusions


39 Pseudomonas aeruginosa Toxin A and Exoenzyme S

I. Introduction

II. ADP-Ribosylation Activity of Toxin A and Exoenzyme S

III. Structure-Function of Toxin A and Exoenzyme S

IV. Production of Toxin A and Exoenzyme S

V. Role of Toxin A and Exoenzyme S in P. aeruginosa Infections

VI. Conclusions




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© Academic Press 1982
Academic Press
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Osamu Hayaishi

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