Additives for Plastics Handbook - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9781856173704, 9780080498614

Additives for Plastics Handbook

2nd Edition

Editors: J. Murphy
eBook ISBN: 9780080498614
Hardcover ISBN: 9781856173704
Imprint: Elsevier Science
Published Date: 22nd November 2001
Page Count: 484
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Description

Both technically and economically, additives form a large and increasingly significant part of the polymer industry, both plastics and elastomers. Since the first edition of this book was published, there have been wide-ranging developments, covering chemistry and formulation of new and more efficient additive systems and the safer use of additives, both by processors in the factory and, in the wider field, as they affect the general public.

This new edition follows the successful formula of its predecessor, it provides a comprehensive view of all types of additives, concentrating mainly on their technical aspects (chemistry/formulation, structure, function, main applications) with notes on the commercial background of each. The field has been expanded to include any substance that is added to a polymer to improve its use, so including reinforcing materials (such as glass fibre), carbon black and titanium dioxide.

This is a book which has been planned for ease of use and the information is presented in a way which is appropriate to the users' needs.

Readership

All those involved in the plastics industry, from users to specifiers and compounders.

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION

1 - AN OVERVIEW OF ADDITIVES


Types and uses of additives; The main effect of additives on the properties of a compound; Main types of additive for plastics, and their functions.

2 - OVERVIEW: TYPES AND MAIN TECHNICAL TRENDS


Current lines of development: fillers, pigments, plasticisers, stabilisers, flame retardants; Special additives, antistatic and conductive additives, food contact and medical additives, clarifiers, nucleating agents, compatibilisers; Multi-functional formulations; Masterbatches; Dendritic polymers.

3 - OVERVIEW: THE WORLD MARKET


World consumption of additives; World production and consumption of major thermoplastics, 1999-2005 ('000 tonnes); The market for masterbatch; Commercial trends; Growth of specialist compounders; Regional factors; Recent mergers and takeovers in the additives sector (1997-2000).

Modifying specific properties: mechanical properties:


4 - FILLERS


Effect of fillers: mechanical properties, thermal properties, moisture content, reinforcement mechanism of fillers - Factors for compounding, aggregation of fillers - Types of fillers: calcium carbonate, kaolin, magnesium hydroxide (talc), wollastonite, silica, metal powders, microspheres, expandable microspheres, cellulose fillers - Surface modification: particle geometry, coating - Nano technology, processing nanocomposites - Commercial trends.

Modifying specific properties: mechanical properties:


5 - REINFORCEMENTS


Fibres - the basic properties; Types of reinforcing fibre: aramid, carbon/graphite, glass fibre, E-CR glass, polyester, hybrid fibres; Other fibres: asbestos, boron, nylon; Natural fibres; Forms of reinforcement; Long fibre reinforcement; New developments; Commercial trends.

Modifying specific properties: colour and appearance:


6 - PIGMENTS, DYESTUFFS, SPECIAL EFFECTS


Main types of pigment and colourant: mixed metal oxides, dyes, liquid colours; Addition of colourants; Replacement of cadmium; Special effects: aluminium, pearlescents, light interference pigments, fluorescents, thermochromic and photochromic; Laser marking; Pigment dispersants; Multifunctional systems; Pigments for engineering plastics; Effect of pigments on dimensions; Recent developments; Commercial trends.

Modifying specific properties: appearance:


7 - PIGMENTS: BLACK AND WHITE


Types of white pigment: titanium dioxide, surface treatments, opacity and tinting strength; zinc sulphide; Other white pigments and extenders; Properties of white pigments and fillers; White masterbatch; New developments; Black pigments: carbon black, Effect of particle size and structure on properties; Testing for properties; Other black pigments; Black masterbatch; Recent developments; Commercial trends: titanium dioxide, carbon black.

Modifying specific properties: resistance to heat:


8 - HEAT STABILISERS


How they work; Polymer heat-stabilisers selection guide; Antioxidants: primary, secondary; Blends; Replacement of heavy metals; Effect of silica; Benzoxazolone derivatives; New chemistry for stabilisers: lactone chemistry, Vitamin E; Recent developments; Other stabilisers.

Modifying specific properties: resistance to light:


9 - UV STABILISERS


How they work; UV screening pigments; Absorbers; Energy transfer agents/quenchers; Hindered amine light stabilisers; Synergists with HALS; Polymeric stabilisers; Blends; Replacement of heavy metals; UV-stabilisers selection guide; Selection of antioxidants for use with UV stabilisers; New chemistry; Recent developments.

Modifying specific properties: flammability:


10 - FLAME RETARDANT ADDITIVES


How they work; Summary of the main FR additives: reactive, additive; Halogenated compounds: chlorinated, brominated; Other flame retardants: melamine cyanurate (MC); Phosphorus; Effect of individual fillers; Combinations of flame retardants; Synergistic reactions; Intumescents; Halogen-free systems; Health and the environment: Recycling; New developments: Nanocomposites; Commercial trends.

Modifying specific properties: conductivity:


11 - ANTISTATIC/CONDUCTIVE ADDITIVES Classification of antistatic additives; Conductive additives; ESD (electrostatic discharge) compounds; EMI (electromagnetic interference) compounds; Metallic additives; Comparison of different conductive systems; Coated polymers; Intrinsically conductive materials; Recent developments.

Modifying processing characteristics:


12 - CURING SYSTEMS FOR THERMOSETS


The curing process; Curing agents, accelerators; Applications of organic peroxides; Inhibitors; Curing with/without accelerators; Selecting a curing system; Curing agents for epoxy systems; Thermoplastics crosslinking; New developments; Commercial trends.

Modifying processing characteristics:


13 - CROSSLINKING, COUPLING, COMPATIBILISING


Classification of antistatic additives; Conductive additives; ESD (electrostatic discharge) compounds; EMI (electromagnetic interference) compounds; Metallic additives; Comparison of different conductive systems; Coated polymers; Intrinsically conductive materials; Recent developments.

Modifying processing characteristics:


14 - PLASTICISERS


The function of plasticisers; Main types: phthalates, sebacates and adipates, fatty acid esters, oligomeric/polymeric, epoxies; Extenders and secondary plasticisers; Health and safety; Reducing the level of plasticisers; Recent developments; Commercial trends.

Modifying processing characteristics:


15 - BLOWING AGENTS


The function of blowing agents; Physical blowing agents; Chemical blowing agents; Structural foams; Syntactic structural foam; Replacement of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): Flexible foams, Rigid foams, Pentane, Expanded polystyrene; New developments.

Modifying processing characteristics:


16 - PROCESS MODIFIERS AND PROCESSING AIDS


Impact modification; Elastomer modification: acrylic rubber, styrenics, polyolefins, polybutene; Dimer acids; Calcium carbonate; modification of CPEE polymers; silicon and phosphorus (PMMA); Impact modifiers for thermosetting resins; Processing aids; Clarifying/nucleating agents; Fluoropolymers; New developments: core-shell rubbers, silicones, modification of engineering thermoplastics.

Modifying processing characteristics:


17 - LUBRICANTS, MOULD RELEASE AGENTS, SLIP AND ANTI-BLOCK


Typical lubricants for thermoplastics; Lubricants for performance; Lubricants as processing aids: Metallic stearates, Hydrocarbons, Fatty acid amides and esters, Primary amides, Secondary amides, Acrylics, styrene copolymers, Polyolefin waxes, Polyamides, Fluoropolymers, Silicone, Boron nitride; Combination and modification; Release agents for thermosetting resins.

Other types of additive:


18 - MISCELLANEOUS ADDITIVES


Antibacterials and biocides; Degradation additives; Shrinkage modifiers, low profile additives; Improved barrier properties: gas barrier coatings, resorcinol additives, plasma technology; Hard coatings; Thermal insulation; Fragrance; Antifogging; Acoustic insulation; Surfactants, foam control additives; Mould-treatment agents.

Other types of additive:


19 - ADDITIVES FOR RUBBER


Process aids; Accelerators; Accelerator activators; Curing agents; Antidegradants; Fillers; Colourants; Other additives (retarders, blowing agents); New developments: silica.

Other types of additive:


20 - ADDITIVES AND RECYCLING


Stabilising, re-stabilising; Stabilisers; Improvement of properties; Desiccants; PE/PVC compatibilising; Melt flow/viscosity modification; Additives for identification of plastics; Equipment for recycling.

Background information:


21 - MIXING AND COMPOUNDING


Incorporation of additives; Mixing thermosets; Mixing thermoplastics: dry mixers, calendering, extrusion compounding, compounding mineral fillers, fine talc masterbatch, single- and twin-screw extruders, adjustable screw geometry; Colour dosing; Recent developments.

Background information:


22 - HEALTH AND SAFETY


Production, storage and transportation: fire/explosion, emissions, skin/body contact, dust; Hazards by additive: carbon black, titanium dioxide, flame retardants, glass fibre, styrene monomer, isocyanates; Use: toxicity - food contact, flame retardants, plasticisers; Disposal: landfill - heavy metals, incineration; Health and Safety at the workplace: some guidelines; New developments.

Background information:


23 - TESTING AND LEGISLATION


Summary of relevant environmental legislation; Blowing agents; Flame retardants; Heavy metals/cadmium pigments; Plasticisers; Food packaging; Migration levels; Medical products and packaging; Waste and recycling; Physical testing

APPENDICES


CONVERSION TABLES


GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS


STANDARD ABBREVIATIONS FOR PLASTICS AND ELASTOMERS


TRADE NAMES


SELECTION CHARTS

Details

No. of pages:
484
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Elsevier Science 2001
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
eBook ISBN:
9780080498614
Hardcover ISBN:
9781856173704

About the Editor

J. Murphy

Author of the Reinforced Plastics Handbook