Addictive Substances and Neurological Disease

Addictive Substances and Neurological Disease

Alcohol, Tobacco, Caffeine, and Drugs of Abuse in Everyday Lifestyles

1st Edition - February 18, 2017

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  • Editors: Ronald Watson, Sherma Zibadi
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128092965
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128053737

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Addictive Substances and Neurological Disease: Alcohol, Tobacco, Caffeine, and Drugs of Abuse in Everyday Lifestyles is a complete guide to the manifold effects of addictive substances on the brain, providing readers with the latest developing research on how these substances are implicated in neurological development and dysfunction. Cannabis, cocaine, and other illicit drugs can have substantial negative effects on the structure and functioning of the brain. However, other common habituating and addictive substances often used as part of an individual’s lifestyle, i.e., alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, painkillers can also compromise brain health and effect or accentuate neurological disease. This book provides broad coverage of the effects of addictive substances on the brain, beginning with an overview of how the substances lead to dysfunction before examining each substance in depth. It discusses the pathology of addiction, the structural damage resulting from abuse of various substances, and covers the neurobiological, neurodegenerative, behavioral, and cognitive implications of use across the lifespan, from prenatal exposure, to adolescence and old age. This book aids researchers seeking an understanding of the neurological changes that these substances induce, and is also extremely useful for those seeking potential treatments and therapies for individuals suffering from chronic abuse of these substances.

Key Features

  • Integrates current research on the actions of addictive substances in neurological disease
  • Includes functional foods, such as caffeine beverages, that have habituating effects on the brain
  • Provides a synopsis of key ideas associated with the consequences of addictive and habituating lifestyle substances


Researchers and advanced graduate students in addiction, neurology, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, neurobiology, translational neuroscience, and neuropsychology, as well as cognitive and behavioral psychology, psychiatry, and medicine

Table of Contents

  • Part I. Alcohol and Neurological Dysfunction

    Chapter 1. Acute Ethanol-Induced Changes in Microstructural and Metabolite Concentrations on the Brain: Noninvasive Functional Brain Imaging

    • Introduction
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 2. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Neuroglial Changes in Neurochemistry and Behavior in Animal Models

    • Ethanol Exposure and Brain Development
    • Ethanol, Glia, and Neurodevelopment
    • Cognitive and Behavioral Effects of Pre- and Postnatal Ethanol Exposure

    Chapter 3. Alcohol on Histaminergic Neurons of Brain

    • Introduction
    • The Effects of Alcohol on Histamine Levels in the Brain
    • Brain Histaminergic System in Human Alcoholics
    • The Role of H3 Receptors in Modulation of Alcohol Stimulation and Reward
    • Histological Changes in Histaminergic Neurons Following Alcohol Administration
    • Histochemical Changes in Histaminergic Neurons Following Alcohol Administration
    • Alcohol Effects Into a Histaminergic Neurons Ultrastructure

    Chapter 4. Antenatal Alcohol and Histological Brain Disturbances

    • Introduction
    • Neurohistology
    • Cellular and Molecular Disorders
    • Possible Mechanisms for the Development of Behavioral and Mental Disorders After Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Chapter 5. Alcohol Intoxication and Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury: Basic and Clinical Science

    • Introduction
    • Pathophysiology of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury
    • Vascular Injury
    • Membrane Dysfunction and Edema Formation
    • Inflammation and Immune-Mediated Response to Spinal Cord Injury
    • Free Radical Formation and Lipid Peroxidation
    • Excitatory Neurotransmitters
    • Alcohol Intoxication and the Effects on Preclinical Spinal Cord Injury
    • Alcohol and Functional Outcomes
    • Alcohol Intoxication and Injury Severity
    • Alcohol Use and Spinal Cord Injury Patients
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 6. Visual and Auditory Changes After Acute Alcohol Ingestion

    • Introduction
    • Characterization of Acute Use of Alcohol
    • Alcohol and Visual Perception
    • Alcohol and Auditory Perception
    • Research Carried Out by the Laboratory of Research in Perception, Neuroscience, and Behavior—LPNeC
    • Alcohol in Neural Systems of Vision and Hearing

    Chapter 7. Zebrafish Models of Alcohol Addiction

    • Alcohol Addiction in Humans
    • Animal Models of Alcohol Addiction
    • Zebrafish as an Animal Model for Behavioral Neuroscience
    • Zebrafish as an Animal Model for Alcohol Addiction
    • Alcohol-Induced Locomotor Activity
    • Alcohol-Induced Anxiolysis
    • Alcohol-Induced Tolerance
    • Alcohol-Induced Sensitization
    • Alcohol-Induced Withdrawal
    • Alcohol-Induced Conditioned Place Preference
    • Voluntary Alcohol Consumption
    • Limitations of the Zebrafish Model

    Chapter 8. Effect of Alcohol on the Regulation of α-Synuclein in the Human Brain

    • Overview
    • α-Synuclein Function
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 9. Consumption of Ethanol and Tissue Changes in the Central Nervous System

    • Introduction
    • Neuronal and Glial Changes
    • Modulations in Cell Proliferation and Neurogenesis
    • Most Significant Regional Alterations

    Chapter 10. Ethanol Consumption and Cerebellar Disorders

    • Introduction
    • Cerebellum: An Anatomo-physiological Review
    • EtOH Effects on the Cerebellum Neurophysiology
    • Functional and Cellular Changes From Ingesting EtOH
    • Clinical Changes Resulting From Ingestion of EtOH

    Chapter 11. Gene Expression in CNS Regions of Genetic Rat Models of Alcohol Abuse

    • Introduction
    • Selectively Bred High and Low Ethanol-Consuming Lines of Rats
    • Innate Differences in Gene Expression in the VTA, Acb-Shell, and CeA Between HEC and LEC Rats
    • Multiple Interacting Factors Can Impact the Effects of Alcohol Drinking on Gene Expression in the CNS
    • The P Rat as an Animal Model for Studying Alcohol Drinking–Induced Changes in Gene Expression
    • Gene Expression Changes in the Acb Following 24-h Free-Choice Alcohol Drinking: Effects of Withdrawal
    • Gene Expression Changes in the Acb During Operant Scheduled Access Alcohol Drinking
    • Changes in Gene Expression in the Acb-Shell and CeA Following Daily Multiple Alcohol Binge Drinking Episodes
    • Changes in Gene Expression in the VTA Following Daily Multiple Excessive Alcohol Binge–Drinking Episodes
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 12. Role of TLR4 in the Ethanol-Induced Modulation of the Autophagy Pathway in the Brain

    • Autophagy as a Physiological Self-degradative Process
    • Ethanol Effects on the Autophagy Pathway
    • The TLR4 Immune Response
    • Conclusions and Future Directions

    Chapter 13. Ghrelinergic Signaling in Ethanol Reward

    • Introduction: Ghrelin Physiology
    • Energy Metabolism and Homeostasis
    • Limbic System Signaling
    • Mesolimbic Reward Pathway
    • Ethanol and Drug Reward
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 14. Alcoholic Neurological Syndromes

    • Introduction
    • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
    • Pharmacokinetic Mechanisms of Alcohol Teratogeny
    • Teratogenic Effects of Alcohol on the CNS
    • Clinical Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
    • Central Pontine and Extrapontine Myelinolysis
    • Marchiafava–Bignami Disease
    • Wernicke–Korsakoff Syndrome
    • Final Comments

    Chapter 15. Frontal Lobe Dysfunction After Developmental Alcohol Exposure: Implications From Animal Models

    • Introduction
    • FASDs in Humans
    • Animal Models of FASDs
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 16. Ethanol's Action Mechanisms in the Brain: From Lipid General Alterations to Specific Protein Receptor Binding

    • Introduction
    • Ethanol Actions on Lipid Membrane
    • Protein Targets Related to Ethanol Effects
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 17. Antioxidant Vitamins and Brain Dysfunction in Alcoholics

    • Introduction
    • Vitamin E Deficiency
    • Vitamin A Deficiency
    • Vitamin D Deficiency
    • Vitamin B12, B6, and Folate Alterations: Hyperhomocysteinemia
    • Thiamine Deficiency and Wernicke Encephalopathy
    • Vitamin C Deficiency
    • Conclusions and Future Prospects

    Chapter 18. Serotonin Deficiency and Alcohol Use Disorders

    • Introduction
    • Alcohol Typologies
    • 5-HT Depletion Studies
    • 5-HT Dysfunction and Alcohol Consumption
    • 5-HT Deficiency, Impulsivity, and Aggression
    • 5-HT Deficiency and AUD Treatment Responses
    • Concluding Remarks
    • Glossary

    Part II. Addictive Substances and Behavioral Health

    Chapter 19. Functional Reorganization of Reward- and Habit-Related Brain Networks in Addiction

    • Introduction
    • Functional Reorganization Processes in Brain Circuits of Reward and Motivation
    • Functional Reorganization Processes in Brain Circuits of Habits and Automaticity
    • Conclusion

    Chapter 20. Ethanol: Neurotoxicity and Brain Disorders

    • Introduction
    • Alcohol Chemistry and Kinetics
    • Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity
    • CNS Structural Changes and Behavioral Effects
    • Perspectives and Final Comments

    Chapter 21. Functionally Relevant Brain Alterations in Polysubstance Users: Differences to Monosubstance Users, Study Challenges, and Implications for Treatment

    • Introduction
    • Prevalence of PSU
    • Overview of Cognition in Monosubstance Users
    • Overview of Neuroimaging in Monosubstance Users
    • Review of Cognition in Polysubstance Users
    • Review of Neuroimaging in Polysubstance Users
    • Review Summary and Outlook

    Chapter 22. Deep Brain Stimulation: A Possible Therapeutic Technique for Treating Refractory Alcohol and Drug Addiction Behaviors

    • Introduction
    • Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Alcohol Addiction Behaviors
    • Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Psychostimulants Addiction Behaviors
    • Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Nicotine Addiction Behaviors
    • Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation on Heroin Addiction Behaviors
    • Conclusion

    Part III. Tobacco Smoking in Neuromodulation

    Chapter 23. Understanding the Roles of Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Neurobiology of Nicotine Use

    • Introduction
    • The Brain Disease Model of Nicotine Dependence
    • Elucidating the Neurobiology of Nicotine Dependence Using Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • The Genetic Epidemiology of Smoking and Brain Structure
    • Twin and Family Studies
    • Understanding the Neurobiological Pathways Involved in Nicotine Dependence
    • Gene-Based Genetic Epidemiological Study Designs
    • Candidate Gene Association Studies
    • Genome-Wide Association Studies
    • The Impact of Genome-Wide Significant Variants for Smoking on Brain Structure
    • Limitations of Genetic Association Studies
    • Epigenetic Studies
    • DNA Methylation and Smoking Behavior
    • Epigenetic Studies of Brain Morphology
    • Future Directions

    Chapter 24. Tobacco Smoke and Nicotine: Neurotoxicity in Brain Development

    • Introduction
    • Development of the Central Nervous System
    • Effect of Nicotine on Development of the Central Nervous System
    • Tobacco Smoking Affects the Development of the Central Nervous System

    Chapter 25. Paradise Lost: A New Paradigm for Explaining the Interaction Between Neural and Psychological Changes in Nicotine Addiction Patients

    • Introduction
    • Neural Events During the Development of Nicotine Addiction
    • Four Characteristics of Cigarette Smoking That Cause Addiction
    • Drug or Trait?
    • Implications for Intervention
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 26. Interactions of Alcohol and Nicotine: CNS Sites and Contributions to Their Co-abuse

    • Introduction
    • Animal Models of Co-abuse of Ethanol and Nicotine
    • Impact of Nicotine on Alcohol Drinking, Seeking, and Relapse
    • Common Receptors for the Interactions of Alcohol and Nicotine
    • CNS Sites for the Interactions of Alcohol and Nicotine
    • Interactions Within the VTA
    • Interactions Within the Nucleus Accumbens
    • Interactions Within the Medial Prefrontal Cortex
    • Genetic Associations Between Nicotine and Alcohol Dependence
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 27. Role of Basal Forebrain in Nicotine Alcohol Co-abuse

    • Introduction
    • Neuronal Mediators of Sleep–Wakefulness
    • Neuronal Mediators of Alcohol-Induced Sleepiness
    • Nicotine Acts via BF to Suppress Negative Effects of Alcohol
    • Neuroanatomical Substrates Mediating the Rewarding Effects of Alcohol
    • Nicotine Acts via BF to Enhance the Rewarding Effects of Alcohol
    • Summary

    Chapter 28. Chronic and Acute Nicotine Exposure Versus Placebo in Smokers and Nonsmokers: A Systematic Review of Resting-State fMRI Studies

    • Background
    • Methods
    • Results
    • Discussion

    Part IV. Drugs of Abuse and Brain Structure and Function

    Chapter 29. Novel Psychoactive Substances: A New Behavioral and Mental Health Threat

    • Introduction
    • Synthetic Cannabinoids
    • Synthetic Cathinones
    • Phenethylamines
    • Piperazines
    • Ketamine and Phencyclidine-Type Substances
    • Tryptamines
    • Other Substances
    • Conclusions

    Chapter 30. Cholesterol and Caffeine Modulate Alcohol Actions on Cerebral Arteries and Brain

    • Introduction
    • Modulation of Alcohol Action by Caffeine
    • Cholesterol Modulation of Alcohol Effect
    • Concluding Remarks

    Chapter 31. Sleep, Caffeine, and Physical Activity in Older Adults

    • Introduction
    • Two Factors Related to Physical Activity: Sleep and Caffeine
    • Physiological Contributors to Physical Activity Level
    • Benefits of Physical Activity on Obstructive Sleep Apnea
    • Benefits of Physical Activity on Sleep in Sedentary Older Persons
    • Effects of Sleep on Physical Activity in OSA Patients
    • Effects of Sleep on Physical Activity in Healthy Older Persons
    • Effects of Caffeine on Sleep, Metabolism, and Physical Activity

    Chapter 32. Ketamine: Neurotoxicity and Neurobehavioral Disorders

    • Introduction
    • Chemistry and Kinetics
    • Mechanisms of Neurotoxicity and Neurobehavioral Effects
    • Behavioral Effects
    • Prospects and Final Comments

    Chapter 33. Left/Right Hemispheric “Unbalance” Model in Addiction

    • Bias of Reward Mechanisms in Addiction
    • Neurophysiological Correlates in Addiction
    • An Integrative Cortical Unbalance Model
    • Conclusions and Future Perspectives

Product details

  • No. of pages: 414
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2017
  • Published: February 18, 2017
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128092965
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128053737

About the Editors

Ronald Watson

Ronald Watson
Ronald Ross Watson, PhD, is Professor of Health Promotion Sciences at the University of Arizona, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. Dr. Watson began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a Fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the United States which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring as a Lt. Colonel. He is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Dr. Watson’s career has involved studying many lifestyle aspects for their uses in health promotion. He has edited over 100 biomedical reference books and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research focuses on alcohol, tobacco, and drugs of abuse in heart function and disease in mouse models.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

Sherma Zibadi

Dr. Sherma Zibadi received her Ph.D. in Nutritional Sciences from the University of Arizona. Her medical degree and training were done at the Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. She then completed her post-doctoral research fellowship awarded by the American Heart Association where her research involved cardiology and complementary medicine studies. Her research has involved maladaptive cardiac remodeling process, which helps to identify new targets for treatment of heart failure. Dr. Zibadi’s research interest also extends into foods as medicines, exploring the preventive and therapeutic effects of dietary supplements on heart failure and its major risk factors in both basic animal and clinical studies, translating lab research findings into clinical practice. Dr. Zibadi is an author of more than 35 research papers in peer reviewed journals. She has been an editor on 8 scientific books like this one being proposed. She has edited on a variety of clinical topics: breast milk, bottle feeding, wheat and rice in health, polyphenols and health, omega 3 fatty acids, dietary supplements in immune modulation, and dietary fat and health. She and Dr. Watson have collaborated extensively on both laboratory research and editing.

Affiliations and Expertise

Postdoctoral Research Associate of Public Health, Department of Pathology, University of South Florida Medical School, Tampa, USA

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