Addiction Medicine

Addiction Medicine

Science and Practice

2nd Edition - December 12, 2019

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  • Author: Bankole Johnson
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323754408
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323680530

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Integrating scientific knowledge with today’s most effective treatment options, Addiction Medicine: Science and Practice, 2nd Edition, provides a wealth of information on addictions to substances and behavioral addictions. It discusses the concrete research on how the brain and body are affected by addictions, improving your understanding of how patients develop addictions and how best to personalize treatment and improve outcomes. This essential text is ideal for anyone who deals with patients with addictions in clinical practice, including psychiatrists, health psychologists, pharmacologists, social workers, drug counselors, trainees, and general physicians/family practitioners.

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • About the Editor
  • Contributors
  • Preface
  • Part 1. History, Perspectives, Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Classification
  • 1. Emerging Health Perspectives
  • Introduction
  • Alcohol Use
  • Illicit Drug Use
  • Age Variations
  • Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs
  • Opioid Overdose Deaths
  • Naloxone and Opioid Overdose
  • Legislative, Regulatory, and Community Controls Over Opioid Prescribing
  • Medication-Assisted Treatment Prescription Drug and Opioid Addiction Grant Program
  • Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act
  • Medication-Assisted Treatment
  • Social Determinants of Health
  • Perceived Risk of Harm With Substance Use
  • Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General’s Report on Alcohol, Drugs, and Health
  • Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment
  • Recovery as a Holistic System
  • Health Insurance
  • 2. The Epidemiology of Alcohol and Drug Disorders
  • What Is Epidemiology?
  • Substance Use in the United States: Historical Overview and Recent Prevalence Trends
  • Substance Use in the United States: A Public Health Problem
  • When Does Use Become Pathological? Substance Abuse and Dependence
  • Descriptive Epidemiology: The Incidence and Prevalence of Substance Disorders
  • Analytic Epidemiology: The Etiology of Substance Disorders
  • Conclusion
  • 3. United States Federal Drug Policy
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Federal Drug-Control Operations
  • Policymaking and Budgeting
  • Law Enforcement
  • Prevention
  • Treatment
  • Research
  • Issues in Policymaking
  • Appendix
  • 4. Historical Perspectives of Addiction
  • Histories of Addiction
  • Brain Disease Redux
  • Alcohol and Other Drugs
  • Alcohol: Predisposed or Culturally Determined
  • Opiates and Other Illicit Drugs
  • Licit Mind-Altering Drugs
  • Smoking and Nicotine
  • Rhetoric and Reality
  • Taking History Seriously
  • 5. Diagnosis and Classification of Substance Use Disorders
  • Introduction
  • The Nature of Substance Use Disorders
  • Substance Use Diagnoses in the DSM and ICD Systems
  • Practical Approaches to Diagnosis
  • Part 2. Behavioral Theories for Substance Use Disorder
  • 6. Drug Reinforcement in Animals
  • Introduction
  • Assessing Reinforcing Efficacy
  • Progressive-Ratio Schedule
  • Threshold Procedure
  • Second-Order Schedules
  • Choice Procedures
  • Modeling Phases of Substance Use Disorder
  • Animal Models of Drug Use Initiation
  • Animal Models of Substance Use Disorder
  • Animal Models of Relapse
  • Conclusions
  • 7. Role of Human Laboratory Studies in the Development of Medications for Alcohol and Substance Use Disorders
  • Introduction
  • Role of the Human Laboratory in Evaluating the Abuse Liability of New Medications
  • Issues in Human Laboratory Studies of Abuse Liability
  • Human Laboratory Studies of Pharmacological Agonist and Antagonist Treatments
  • Role of Human Laboratory Studies in Developing Medications for Alcohol Dependence
  • Role of the Human Laboratory in Evaluating Medications for Cocaine Dependence
  • Human Laboratory Studies of Medications for Amphetamine or Methamphetamine
  • General Conclusions Regarding Human Laboratory Studies
  • 8. Conditioning of Addiction
  • Introduction
  • Methods for Assessing the Conditioned Effects of Drugs of Abuse in Laboratory Animals
  • Neural Substrates of Drug Conditioning: General Neurochemical Circuitry
  • Neural Substrates of Drug Conditioning: Recent Key Findings
  • Conclusions
  • 9. Overlapping Striatal Circuits and Molecular Mechanisms in Rodent Models of Addiction and Depression
  • Overview of Striatal Circuits
  • Striatal Circuit Activity in Animal Models of Addiction and Depression
  • Molecular Mechanisms in Striatal Circuits in Addiction
  • Molecular Mechanisms in Striatal Circuits in Stress and Depression-Like Behavior
  • Conclusions
  • 10. The Role of Endocannabinoids in Amphetamine-Driven Actions in Dopamine Neurons: Implications for Understanding and Treating Dysfunction in the Mesolimbic Circuit
  • Introduction
  • Mesolimbic Dopamine
  • Endocannabinoid Modulation of DA
  • Amphetamine
  • Amphetamine at Dopamine Terminals
  • Amphetamine at the Cell Body
  • Endocannabinoids and Amphetamine
  • Conclusions
  • 11. Pain and Negative Affect
  • Pain Is a Multidimensional Experience
  • Chronic Pain and Negative Affect
  • The Vicious Cycle of Pain and Negative Affect
  • Comorbidity
  • Pain as a Negative Reward
  • Shared Brain Circuits
  • The Amygdala
  • Descending Pain Modulation
  • Corticotrigeminal Pathways
  • Thalamus and Cortex
  • A Brighter Future?
  • 12. Genetic Vulnerability to Substance Use Disorders
  • Introduction
  • Heritability (h 2) of SUDs
  • Genetic Architecture of Addiction Vulnerability
  • An Evolutionary Perspective on Genetic Architecture of Addiction
  • The Genetic Architecture for Substance Dependence in Individuals
  • Epigenetics and Individual Differences in SUDs
  • Ethical Issues in High-Density Genotyping of Individuals With Substance Use Disorders
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • Glossary
  • 13. The Assessment and Treatment of Addiction: Best Practices in a Direct-to-Consumer Age
  • Introduction
  • The Assessment
  • The Stages of Addiction
  • The Domains
  • The Treatment
  • New Frontiers
  • 14. Metabolomics in Drug Response and Addiction
  • What Is Metabolomics?
  • Substance Abuse and Its Effect on Health and Economy
  • Substance Abuse Leads to Addiction
  • Metabolomics: The Beginning
  • Metabolomics in Addiction Research: Current Approach
  • Transcription Regulatory Network in Drug Metabolomics
  • Application of Metabolomics in Solving Addiction Disorders
  • Integration of Systems Biology to Medication Discovery
  • Part 3. Visualizations and Workings of the Addicted Brain
  • 15. Neuroimaging Findings in Substance Use Disorders
  • Introduction
  • Structural Alterations
  • Summary of Structural Brain Findings
  • Dopamine and Other Neurotransmitter Systems
  • Summary of Neurotransmitter Findings
  • Functional Imaging Findings
  • Alcohol and Other Drug-Cue Reactivity
  • Conclusion
  • 16. Neurobiological Basis of Drug Reward and Reinforcement
  • Introduction
  • Experimental Psychology Concepts of Reward and Reinforcement
  • Neurotransmitters and Neural Circuitry: Involvement in Different Aspects of Reward, Reinforcement, and Addiction
  • Models of Drug Use and Drug Addiction
  • Actions of Addictive Drugs Within the Reinforcement and Reward Circuitry
  • What Drives Drug Use, Abuse, and Addiction: The Direction of Future Research
  • 17. Neurobehavioral Toxicology of Substances of Abuse
  • Ethanol (Alcohol)
  • Cocaine
  • Amphetamine and Amphetamine-Analogs
  • Cathinone and Synthetic Cathinone Derivatives
  • Opiates
  • Hallucinogens
  • Cannabis
  • Nicotine
  • Inhalants
  • Barbiturates
  • Benzodiazepines
  • 18. Animal Models of Substance Use Disorders: Motivational Perspective
  • Definitions Relevant to Animal Models
  • Animal Models of Withdrawal
  • Animal Models of Increased Drug Taking With Prolonged Access or Dependence
  • Protracted Abstinence
  • Animal Models of Dependence: Validity and Relevance to Treatment
  • 19. Novel Methodologies: Proteomic Approaches in Substance Abuse Research
  • Introduction
  • Technology and Methods for Expression Proteomics
  • Implementation for Drug Abuse Studies
  • Conclusion
  • 20. Neuroinflammatory Processes in Drug Addiction
  • Innate Immune Signaling in the Brain
  • Pattern Recognition Receptors and Their Ligands
  • Addiction as a Neuroimmune Disease
  • Future Immune Therapies for Addiction
  • Part IV. Clinical Aspects of Alcohol and Drug Addiction
  • 21. Alcohol: Clinical Aspects
  • Introduction
  • Alcohol-Related Disorders
  • Age at Onset of Drinking Behavior
  • Effects of Ethnicity, Gender, Place of Residence, and Religion on Alcohol Consumption
  • Clinical Picture
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Psychological and Psychiatric Complications of Alcohol
  • Conclusions
  • 22. Cocaine
  • Introduction
  • Cocaine Use Disorder
  • Intoxication
  • Withdrawal
  • Craving and Relapse
  • Intoxication Delirium
  • Cocaine-Induced Psychotic Disorder
  • Cocaine-Induced Anxiety Disorder
  • Cocaine-Induced Mood Disorder
  • Cocaine-Induced Sexual Dysfunction
  • Cocaine-Induced Sleep Disorder
  • 23. Nicotine
  • Epidemiology
  • Biological, Behavioral, and Cognitive Aspects of Nicotine Dependence
  • Development of Nicotine Dependence Risk, and the Effect on Other Substance Use Disorders
  • Genetics
  • Diagnosis
  • Smoking and Psychiatric Comorbidities
  • Prevention Science
  • Treatment
  • Summary
  • 24. Cannabis: An Overview of the Empirical Literature
  • Introduction
  • Prevalence
  • Nature of Cannabis Use: Pharmacokinetics and Acute Intoxication Features
  • Classification of Cannabis Use Disorder
  • Motivational Bases of Cannabis Use
  • Negative Correlates of Cannabis Use and Its Disorders
  • Cannabis: Motivation to Quit, Reasons for Quitting, and Success in Quitting
  • Cannabis: Overview of Clinical Issues Relevant to Practitioners
  • Summary
  • 25. Opiates and Prescription Drugs
  • Classification
  • Etiology
  • Epidemiology
  • Neurobiology
  • Biological Effects of Use
  • Psychological Effects of Use
  • Diagnosis
  • Clinical Management
  • Opiate Pharmacotherapy
  • Psychosocial Treatment
  • Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders
  • Primary Prevention
  • Conclusion
  • 26. Clinical Aspects of Methamphetamine
  • Introduction
  • Neurobiological Impact of Methamphetamine Use
  • Effects of Methamphetamine Use and Methamphetamine Use Disorder
  • Specific Populations
  • Reducing Harms Associated With Methamphetamine Use
  • Acute Management of Methamphetamine Problems
  • Treatment for People Who Use Methamphetamine
  • Future Directions in Research and Practice
  • 27. Sedative-Hypnotics and Anxiolytics
  • Introduction
  • Intoxication and Overdose
  • Tolerance and Withdrawal
  • Substance Use Disorder
  • Mood and Anxiety Disorders
  • Cognitive Disorders
  • Psychotic Manifestations
  • Sleep Disorders
  • Sexual Dysfunction
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • 28. Clinical Aspects of Inhalant Addiction
  • Types of Inhalants Being Abused
  • Epidemiology
  • Mechanisms of Action
  • Morbidity and Mortality
  • Psychiatric Disorders in Inhalant Users
  • Prevention and Management Considerations
  • 29. Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Pharmacology
  • Patterns of Illicit Use
  • Adverse Medical Effects
  • Psychiatric Aspects and Effects
  • Neurobiology
  • Addiction
  • Screening and Assessment
  • Conclusions
  • 30. Caffeine
  • Introduction
  • Main Sources of Caffeine and Patterns of Consumption
  • Pharmacology of Caffeine
  • Psychopharmacology of Caffeine: The Critical Processes of Caffeine Withdrawal and Withdrawal Reversal
  • Mental Health and Well-Being
  • Dietary Caffeine and Physical Health: Cardiovascular Disease
  • Dietary Caffeine and Physical Health: Noncardiovascular Disease
  • Is Caffeine Addictive and Is There a Safe Level of Consumption?
  • Does Caffeine Have Health Benefits?
  • Other Active Compounds in Caffeine Beverages
  • Threats to the Integrity of Caffeine Science
  • Public Policy and Regulation of Caffeine Exposure
  • Conclusions
  • 31. Serotonergic Hallucinogens
  • Introduction
  • History
  • Epidemiology
  • Classification
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Serotonin Receptor
  • Indolealkylamine Hallucinogens
  • Phenethylamine Hallucinogens
  • Conclusions
  • 32. Ketamine and Phencyclidine
  • Introduction
  • Pharmacology
  • Epidemiology
  • Use Disorders
  • Intoxication
  • Chronic Use
  • Addiction Treatment
  • part V. Behavioral Addictions and Treatment
  • 33. The Biology and Treatment of Gambling Disorder
  • Introduction
  • The Psychiatric Nosology of Gambling Disorder
  • Cognitive Distortions
  • Prevalence Estimates and Characteristics
  • The Biochemistry of Gambling Disorder
  • The Genetics of Gambling Disorder
  • The Neuropsychology of Gambling Disorder
  • Neuroimaging Studies
  • Treatment
  • Natural Recovery
  • Prevention Efforts
  • Research Challenges and Future Directions
  • 34. Implications of Food Addiction for Understanding and Treating Binge Eating Disorder
  • Introduction
  • History and Background
  • Risk Factor Similarities
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 35. Compulsive Buying
  • Introduction
  • Diagnosis and Classification
  • Prevalence Rates and Subject Characteristics
  • Economics and Consumerism
  • Etiology and Course
  • Comorbidity
  • Cultural Considerations
  • Assessment
  • Treatment
  • Future Research
  • 36. Sexual Behavior as an Addictive or Compulsive Phenomenon
  • Introduction
  • History of Sexual Addiction and Sexually Compulsive Behavior
  • Sex Outside the Norm
  • Clinical Criteria
  • Etiology
  • Measurement
  • Implications for Clinical Practice
  • Implications for Future Research
  • Summary
  • 37. New Era of Internet Addiction Research in China
  • Introduction
  • Internet and Smartphone Penetration in China
  • Recent Internet Addiction Research in China
  • National Internet Addiction Research in China
  • Regional Internet Addiction Research in China
  • Cross-Cultural Internet Addiction Research
  • Mediating Effects Studies in Internet Addiction Research
  • Internet Addiction Research in Special Groups
  • Methodological Approaches in Internet Addiction Research
  • Conclusion
  • 38. Hoarding as a Behavioral Addiction
  • Overview
  • Classification and Comorbidity
  • Hoarding and Impulse Control Disorders
  • Hoarding and Compulsive Acquisition
  • Etiology/Biobehavioral Underpinnings of Hoarding
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Theory and Evidence
  • Information-Processing Deficits
  • Emotional Attachment to Possessions
  • Assessment of Compulsive Hoarding
  • Treatment of Compulsive Hoarding
  • Biological Treatments
  • Psychological Treatments
  • Conclusions
  • Part VI. Treatment and Application: Behavioral Treatments
  • 39. Motivational Interviewing: Emerging Theory, Research, and Practice
  • What Is Motivational Interviewing?
  • A Brief History of MI
  • Theoretical Concepts and Emerging Models of MI
  • Defining MI
  • MI as an Activator of Autonomous Motivations and Growth
  • MI as a Method to Move People Through Stages of Change
  • MI as an Activator of Emotions and Openness
  • MI as an Interpersonal Intervention
  • MI as a Method to Resolve Ambivalence in the Direction of Change
  • MI and an Approach to Align Behavior and Values
  • Summary: Emerging Relational and Technical Components in a Model or Theory of MI
  • Evidence About MI
  • Evidence About MI Processes and Their Relationships With Outcomes
  • Other Developments in MI
  • Preparing Clinicians to Use MI
  • Summary
  • 40. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Addiction
  • Introduction
  • Overview of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
  • Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Stimulant Drugs
  • Review of Treatment for Depressant Drugs
  • Future Directions
  • 41. Community Reinforcement Approach and Contingency Management Therapies
  • Introduction
  • Community Reinforcement Approach Therapy
  • Contingency Management Interventions
  • Issues Hindering the Implementation of the Community Reinforcement Approach in Practice
  • Issues Associated With Implementation of Contingency Management in Practice
  • Prize-Based Contingency Management
  • Cost-Effectiveness
  • Challenges to Dissemination
  • Conclusion
  • 42. Relapse Prevention and Recycling in Addiction
  • Introduction
  • Understanding the Concept of Relapse and Its Role in Recovery
  • Relapse Prevention
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Models
  • Strategies for Relapse Prevention
  • When Relapse Prevention Fails
  • Treatment Recommendations
  • 43. Brief and e-Health Interventions for the Treatment of Alcohol or Other Drug Addiction
  • Drug Use and Problems
  • Drug Treatment in Primary Care and Nonspecialist Settings
  • What Is Screening and Brief Intervention?
  • Screening and Brief Intervention—Effectiveness and Delivery
  • Conclusions—Screening and Brief Interventions
  • Improving Compliance/Adherence to Therapies
  • Conclusions—Compliance Enhancement
  • Future Research
  • Resources
  • 44. Self-Help Approaches for Addictions
  • Defining Self-Help
  • Why Use Self-Help?
  • Can Individuals Help Themselves?
  • Self-Help Drug Replacement
  • Bibliotherapy
  • Expressive Writing
  • Helplines
  • Religion, Spirituality, and Meditation
  • Internet Resources
  • Conclusions
  • Part VII. Treatment and Application: Group Treatments and Specific Settings
  • 45. Community Clinics
  • Introduction
  • Literature Review Methods
  • History of Community Substance Abuse Treatment
  • A New Era Begins
  • Impact of the Community Mental Health Movement
  • Effectiveness of Community Clinic Approaches 1935–1980
  • Community Responses to the 1980s Cocaine Epidemic
  • Categories of Community Clinics
  • Types of Community Clinics
  • Interventions for Specific Populations
  • Use of Evidence-Based Services in Community Clinic Substance Abuse Treatment
  • The National Institute on Drug Abuse’s National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network
  • Drug Abuse Reporting Program Studies
  • Additional Treatment Models
  • Challenges to Community-Based Clinics
  • Opportunities to Expand Evidence-Based Substance Use Disorder Interventions
  • 46. Unhealthy Alcohol and Other Drug Use in Primary Care
  • Introduction
  • Screening
  • Assessment
  • Management of Unhealthy Alcohol and Other Drug Use
  • Pharmacotherapy
  • Treatment of Psychiatric Comorbidity
  • Management of Withdrawal From Alcohol and Other Drugs
  • Medical Management (Including Preventive Care) of People With Unhealthy Alcohol and Other Drug Use
  • Confidentiality
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 47. Criminal Justice System and Addiction Treatment
  • Introduction
  • Prevalence of Substance Abuse and Dependence
  • Substance Abuse Comorbidities
  • Pharmacotherapies for Substance Use
  • Community Corrections
  • Institutional Corrections
  • Conclusion
  • 48. Adolescent Neurocognitive Development and School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention and Treatment
  • Introduction
  • Brief Overview: Neuroscience and Adolescents
  • Negative Consequences of Drug Use on Teen Cognitive Function
  • Brain Development and School-Based Drug Use Prevention and Treatment
  • Schools as a Modality for Implementation of Cessation Programming
  • Conclusions and Future Directions
  • 49. The Therapeutic Community for Drug Abuse Treatment: A Journey Yet Unfolding in the Recovery Movement
  • Introduction
  • Origins
  • Early Expansion
  • The Formative Years
  • The Therapeutic Community’s Coming of Age
  • To the 21st Century
  • Conclusion
  • 50. Substance Use–Focused Mutual-Help Groups: Processes and Outcomes
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Major Types of Substance Use-Focused Mutual-Help Groups
  • Participation in Mutual-Help Groups and Substance Use Outcomes
  • Connections Between Mutual-Help Groups and Treatment
  • Personal Factors, Participation, and Mutual-Help Group Outcomes
  • Active Ingredients of Mutual-Help Groups
  • Conclusions
  • Part VIII. Treatment and Application Pharmacotherapy
  • 51. Pharmacotherapy for Alcoholism and Some Related Psychiatric and Addictive Disorders: Scientific Basis and Clinical Findings
  • Introduction
  • Opioids: Mu Receptor Antagonist—Naltrexone
  • Glutamate
  • GABA Synthesis and Glutamate Synthesis Modulator—Gabapentin
  • Serotonin
  • Acetylcholine: Cholinergic Receptor Antagonist—Varenicline
  • Dopamine
  • Alcohol Metabolism Disruptor: Disulfiram
  • Potential Treatments on the Horizon
  • Combination Treatments
  • Conclusions
  • 52. Alcohol Withdrawal: Treatment and Application
  • Introduction
  • Anticonvulsants in the Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal
  • Other Anticonvulsant Agents
  • Alpha-2 Adrenergic Agonists
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 53. Pharmacotherapy of Cocaine Addiction
  • Strategies for Selecting Candidate Medications for Testing
  • Clinical Trials in Cocaine Addiction
  • Summary
  • 54. Opioid Overdose
  • History
  • Definitions
  • Epidemiology
  • Pathophysiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Prevention
  • Management
  • Supports Following an Overdose
  • Conclusion
  • 55. Methamphetamine
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Use of Methamphetamine
  • Diagnosis of Methamphetamine Use Disorder
  • Escalation of Methamphetamine Use
  • Pharmacokinetics of Methamphetamine
  • Mechanisms of Methamphetamine Reward
  • Human Studies in the Treatment of Methamphetamine Use Disorder
  • Conclusions
  • 56. Potential Pharmacotherapies for Cannabis Dependence
  • Introduction
  • Detoxification and Relapse Prevention or Maintenance Phase
  • Cannabinoid Neuropharmacology
  • Abstinence Symptoms Treatment Medications
  • Relapse Prevention Medications
  • Future Directions in Medication Development for Cannabis Dependence
  • 57. Hallucinogens
  • Historical Perspectives
  • Epidemiology
  • Basic Pharmacology
  • Psychological and Biological Effects
  • Hallucinogen Use Disorders
  • Hallucinogens as Treatment Tools for Addiction?
  • Part IX. Molecular Genetics, Alternative Therapies, and Other Topics in the Treatment of Addiction
  • 58. Molecular Genetics and the Treatment of Addiction
  • Overview
  • Genetics and the Treatment of Addictions
  • Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics
  • Nicotine
  • Alcohol
  • Cocaine
  • Opiates
  • An Intermediate Phenotype-Driven Pharmacogenetics Approach
  • Optimizing Psychosocial Treatments Through Genetics
  • Translating Pharmacogenetic Approaches Into Practice
  • Future Directions of Molecular Genetics and Addiction Treatment
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 59. Physical Considerations for Treatment Complications of Alcohol and Drug Use and Misuse
  • Introduction
  • Liver
  • Gut and Pancreas
  • Nervous System
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Oncology
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Body Composition
  • 60. Quadruple Diagnosis: Substance Use Disorder, Comorbid Psychopathology, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, and Hepatitis C Virus Infection
  • Introduction
  • Scope of the Problem
  • Substance Use Disorders (SUDs)
  • Psychiatric Disorders Other Than SUDs
  • Psychiatric Disorders in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
  • Psychosocial Issues in Persons Living With HIV
  • Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection
  • Stigma, HIV Infection, Hepatitis C Virus Infection, Substance Misuse and SUDs, and Other Psychiatric Disorders
  • Role of SUDs and Other Psychiatric Disorders in the Treatment With and Adherence to Effective ART for HIV Infection and DAAs for HCV Infection
  • Risk-Taking Behaviors
  • Assessment of the Quadruply Diagnosed
  • SUD Treatment of the Quadruply Diagnosed
  • Summary and Conclusions
  • 61. Substance Use Stigma As a Barrier to Treatment and Recovery
  • Introduction
  • What Is Stigma?
  • Types and Levels of Stigma Toward Substance Abuse
  • The Need to Study Stigma in Context
  • The Impact of Stigma on Individuals With Substance Abuse Problems
  • Stigmatizing Attitudes and Behavior of Friends and Family
  • Stigma in Treatment Settings
  • Interventions to Reduce Stigma
  • Conclusions
  • 62. Religiousness, Spirituality, and Addiction: An Evidence-Based Review
  • Introduction
  • Section I
  • Section II
  • Section III
  • Summary and Future Directions
  • Part X. Computer Modeling
  • 63. In Silico Models of Alcohol Kinetics: A Deterministic Approach
  • Introduction
  • Mechanisms of Alcohol Intoxication
  • Mathematical Modeling of the Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol
  • In Silico Studies of Blood Ethanol Time-Concentration
  • Conclusion
  • 64. In Silico Models of Alcohol Dependence Treatment: A Stochastic Approach
  • Introduction
  • Methods
  • Results
  • Conclusions
  • 65. Dynamic and Systems-Based Models for Evaluating Hypotheses Related to Predicting Treatment Response
  • Introduction
  • Personalized Alcoholism Treatment
  • Pharmacogenetics
  • The Johnson Model
  • A Dynamic Systems-Based Model
  • Modeling and the Personalized Treatment of Alcoholism
  • Conclusions
  • Part XI. Dependence in Specific Populations
  • 66. Enhancing Positive Outcomes for Children of Substance-Abusing Parents
  • Introduction
  • Higher Risk for Addictions
  • Genetic Risks
  • Fetal Alcohol and Drug Exposure
  • The Family
  • Effective Prevention Programs
  • Programs That Increase Behavioral Control and Social Competency
  • Programs to Increase Emotional Resilience, Happiness, Self-Esteem, and Humor
  • Programs for Educational Interventions, Screening, and Referral
  • Summary of Recommendations for Future Research and Policy Improvements
  • 67. Alcohol and Substance Abuse in African Americans
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Preventive and Risk Factors
  • Impact on the Individual
  • Comorbidity
  • Treatment
  • Conclusions
  • 68. Substance Use Disorders in Health Care Professionals
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology of Alcohol and Other Drug Use by Health Care Professionals
  • Etiology of Substance Use Disorders in Health Care Professionals
  • Drug Access
  • Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use in the Health Care Professions
  • The Intervention of Health Care Professionals
  • 69. Identification and Treatment of Alcohol or Drug Dependence in the Elderly
  • Introduction
  • Prevalence and Impact of Substance Use Among Older Adults
  • Identifying Alcohol and Drug Use Problems in Older Adults
  • Use of Brief Alcohol Interventions With Older Adults With Substance Dependence
  • 70. Alcohol and Drugs of Abuse in Pregnant Women: Effects on the Fetus and Newborn, Mode of Action, and Maternal Treatment
  • Introduction
  • Effects of Maternal Alcohol (Ethanol) Consumption During Pregnancy
  • Heroin-Dependent Mothers in Pregnancy
  • Effects on Postnatal Development
  • Mothers Using Cannabis (Marijuana, Hashish) During Pregnancy
  • Mothers Using Cocaine in Pregnancy
  • Part XII. Legal, Disability, and Rehabilitative Issues
  • 71. Forensic Issues
  • Introduction
  • The Forensic Evaluation Process
  • Medical and Legal Terminology and Reports of Evaluation
  • Working With Attorneys: Testimony
  • Compulsion and Responsibility
  • Civil Matters
  • Criminal Matters
  • Regulatory Matters
  • Conclusions
  • 72. Disability and Addiction
  • Introduction
  • Discrimination Protections for Persons With Disabilities
  • Key Case Law for the Americans With Disabilities Act, 1990
  • Americans With Disabilities Act Amendments Act of 2008
  • History of Entitlements for People With Disabilities and the Place for People With Substance Use Disorders
  • Policy, Treatment, and Medical Coverage
  • Substance Use Disorders and Comorbid Disability
  • Conclusions
  • 73. The Homeless
  • Introduction
  • Homelessness
  • Substance Use Disorders
  • Alcohol Use Disorder
  • Other Drug Use Disorders
  • Nonsubstance Psychiatric Disorders
  • Services for the Homeless
  • Conclusions
  • 74. Opening New Vistas in Basic and Preclinical Addiction Research
  • A Retrospective View on the Hallmarks of Neurobiological Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research
  • New Vistas in Neurobiological Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research
  • New Vistas on the Genetic Level
  • New Vistas on the Molecular Level
  • New Vistas in Alcohol- and Drug-Induced Synaptic Plasticity
  • New Vistas on Neuronal Network Activity
  • Animal Brain Imaging to Identify the Neuroanatomical and Neurochemical Substrates of Addictive Behavior
  • New Vistas on Studying Alcohol- and Drug-Related Behaviors
  • Summary
  • 75. Therapeutic Use of Noninvasive Neuromodulation for Addictions
  • Introduction
  • Neurobiology of Addiction
  • Noninvasive Brain Stimulation Techniques: An Overview
  • tES and TMS in Addictive Disorders
  • Safety and Tolerability
  • Summary and Future Directions
  • Part XIII: National Guidelines
  • Appendix 1. National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA): Medications to Treat Opioid Use Disorder
  • Appendix 2. TIP 63: Medications for Opioid Use Disorder
  • Appendix 3. The ASAM National Practice Guideline for the Use of Medications in the Treatment of Addiction Involving Opioid Use
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1136
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Saunders 2019
  • Published: December 12, 2019
  • Imprint: Saunders
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780323754408
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323680530

About the Author

Bankole Johnson

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