A Textbook of Physical Chemistry

A Textbook of Physical Chemistry

2nd Edition - September 15, 1970

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  • Author: Arther Adamson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323161282

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Description

A Textbook of Physical Chemistry: Second Edition provides both a traditional and theoretical approach in the study of physical chemistry. The book covers subjects usually covered in chemistry textbooks such as ideal and non-ideal gases, the kinetic molecular theory of gases and the distribution laws, and the additive physical properties of matter. Also covered are the three laws of thermodynamics, thermochemistry, chemical equilibrium, liquids and their simple phase equilibria, the solutions of nonelectrolytes, and heterogenous equilibrium. The text is recommended for college-level chemistry students, especially those who are in need of a textbook for the subject.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Preface to the First Edition

    1 Ideal and Nonideal Gases

    1-1 Introduction

    1-2 Equations of State

    1-3 Development of the Concept of an Ideal Gas; The Absolute Temperature Scale

    1-4 The Ideal Gas Law and Related Equations

    1-5 Mixtures of Ideal Gases; Partial Pressures

    1-6 Partial Volumes; Amagat's Law

    1-7 The Barometric Equation

    1-8 Deviations from Ideality—Critical Behavior

    1-9 Semiempirical Equations of State. The van der Waals Equation

    1-10 The van der Waals Equation, Critical Phenomena, and the Principle of Corresponding States

    Commentary and Notes

    Special Topics

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises and Problems

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    2 Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases

    2-1 Introduction

    2-2 The Boltzmann Distribution Law

    2-3 The Distribution of Molecular Velocities

    2-4 Average Quantities from the Distribution Laws

    2-5 Some Applications of Simple Kinetic Molecular Theory. Collision Frequency on a Plane Surface and Graham's Law

    2-6 A Rederivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    2-7 Bimolecular Collision Frequency and Mean Free Path

    2-8 Transport Phenomena; Viscosity, Diffusion, and Thermal Conductivity

    2-9 Summary of Kinetic Molecular Theory Quantities

    Commentary and Notes

    2-CN-1 Some Further Comments on the Various Distribution Laws

    2-CN-2 Verification of the Distribution Laws

    2-CN-3 Molecular Diameters; Avogadro's Number

    2-CN-4 Transport Phenomena; Phenomenological Equations

    2-CN-5 Verification of the Kinetic Molecular Theory

    Special Topics

    2-ST-1 Use of a Lennard-Jones Potential Function

    2-ST-2 Collision Frequencies and Mean Free Paths for Mixtures

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    3 Some Additive Physical Properties of Matter

    3-1 Introduction

    3-2 Absorption of Light

    3-3 Molar Refraction

    3-4 Molar Polarization; Dipole Moments

    3-5 Dipole Moments and Molecular Properties

    Commentary and Notes

    3-CN-1 Systems of Units

    Special Topics

    3-ST-1 The Charge Distribution of a Molecule

    3-ST-2 Magnetic Properties of Matter

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    4 Chemical Thermodynamics. The First Law of Thermodynamics

    4-1 Introduction

    4-2 The Story of a Man

    4-3 Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics

    4-4 Mathematical Properties of State Functions. Exact and Path-Dependent Differentials

    4-5 Heat and Work for Various Processes

    4-6 Enthalpy. An Alternative Form of the First Law

    4-7 Applications of the First Law to Ideal Gases

    4-8 Molecular Basis for Heat Capacities. The Equipartition Principle

    4-9 Statistical Mechanical Treatment of First Law Quantities

    4-10 Translational Partition Function for an Ideal Gas

    4-11 The Rotational Partition Function

    4-12 The Vibrational Partition Function

    Commentary and Notes

    4-CN-1 Internal Pressure

    4-CN-2 Additional Aspects of Statistical Mechanical Treatments

    Special Topics

    4-ST-1 The Joule-Thomson Effect

    4-ST-2 The Heat Capacity of a Solid

    General References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    5 Thermochemistry

    5-1 Introduction

    5-2 Measurement of Heats of Reaction: Relationship between ΔE and ΔH

    5-3 Some Enthalpies of Combustion, Hydrogenation, and Solution

    5-4 Combining ΔH or ΔΕ Quantities

    5-5 Enthalpies of Formation

    5-6 Dependence of ΔH and ΔE on Temperature

    Commentary and Notes

    5-CN-1 Explosions, Flames, and Rockets

    5-CN-2 The Thermochemistry of Nutrition

    Special Topics

    5-ST-1 Chemical Bond Strengths

    5-ST-2 Internal Energy and Enthalpy Functions

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    6 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics

    6-1 Introduction

    6-2 The Carnot Cycle—Heat Machines

    6-3 Generalization of the Carnot Cycle—The Entropy Function

    6-4 Calculations of ΔS for Various Reversible Processes

    6-5 Calculation of ΔS for Various Irreversible Processes

    6-6 Free Energy. Criteria for Equilibrium

    6-7 Second Law Relationships

    6-8 The Third Law of Thermodynamics

    6-9 Statistical Mechanical Treatment of Second Law Quantities

    Commentary and Notes

    6-CN-1 Summary of the Statements of the Laws of Thermodynamics

    6-CN-2 Statistical Thermodynamics—Ensembles—and J. Willard Gibbs

    6-CN-3 Additional Comments on the Third Law of Thermodynamics and on the Attainment of 0 Κ

    Special Topics

    6-ST-1 Thermodynamic Relationships

    6-ST-2 Thermodynamic Treatment of a Nonideal Gas—Fugacity

    6-ST-3 The Free Energy Function

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    7 Chemical Equilibrium

    7-1 Introduction

    7-2 The Thermodynamic Equilibrium Constant

    7-3 The Determination of Experimental Equilibrium Constants

    7-4 The Variation of KP with Temperature

    7-5 Gas-Solid Equilibria

    7-6 Le Châtelier's Principle

    7-7 Free Energy and Entropy of Formation

    Commentary and Notes

    7-CN-1 Chemical Equilibrium and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Special Topics

    7-ST-1 Effect of Pressure on Chemical Equilibria Involving Gases

    7-ST-2 Application of Statistical Thermodynamics to Chemical Equilibrium

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    8 Liquids and Their Simple Phase Equilibria

    8-1 Introduction

    8-2 The Vapor Pressure of Liquids (and Solids)

    8-3 Enthalpy and Entropy of Vaporization; Trouton's Rule

    8-4 Liquid-Solid and Solid-Solid Equilibria. Phase Maps

    8-5 The Free Energy of a Liquid and Its Vapor

    8-6 The Surface Tension of Liquids. Surface Tension as a Thermodynamic Quantity

    8-7 Measurement of Surface Tension

    8-8 Results of Surface Tension Measurements

    8-9 The Kelvin Equation. Nucleation

    8-10 Viscosity of Liquids

    Commentary and Notes

    8-CN-1 Additional Thermodynamic Properties of Liquids

    8-CN-2 The Structure of Water

    8-CN-3 Anomalous Water

    Special Topics

    8-ST-1 Intermodular Forces

    8-ST-2 The Viscosity of Liquids

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    9 Solutions of Nonelectrolytes

    9-1 Introduction

    9-2 The Vapor Pressure of Solutions. Raoult's and Henry's Laws

    9-3 The Thermodynamics of Multicomponent Systems

    9-4 Ideal Gas Mixtures

    9-5 Ideal and Nonideal Solutions. Activities and Activity Coefficients

    9-6 The Temperature Dependence of Vapor Pressures

    9-7 Boiling Point Diagrams

    9-8 Partial Miscibility

    Commentary and Notes

    9-CN-1 Other Properties of Solutions

    9-CN-2 Ideal, Regular, and Athermal Solutions

    9-CN-3 Statistical Thermodynamics of Solutions

    Special Topics

    9-ST-1 Partial Molal Quantities

    9-ST-2 The Surface Tension of Solutions. The Gibbs Equation

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    10 Dilute Solutions of Nonelectrolytes. Colligative Properties

    10-1 Vapor Pressure Lowering

    10-2 Boiling Point Elevation

    10-3 Freezing Point Depression

    10-4 Summary of the First Three Colligative Properties

    10-5 Osmotic Equilibrium

    10-6 Activities and Activity Coefficients for Dilute Solutions

    10-7 Other Methods of Molecular Weight Determination

    Commentary and Notes

    10-CN-1 Colligative Properties and Deviations from Ideality

    10-CN-2 Relationship between Freezing Point Depression and Solubility

    10-CN-3 Osmotic Pressure

    10-CN-4 Water Desalination

    Special Topics

    10-ST-1 Dilute Solution Conventions for Activities and Activity Coefficients

    10-ST-2 Theoretical Treatment of Diffusion

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    11 Heterogeneous Equilibrium

    11-1 The Gibbs Phase Rule

    11-2 One-Component Systems

    11-3 Two-Component Systems

    11-4 Sodium Sulfate-Water and Other Systems

    11-5 Three-Component Systems

    11-6 Three-Component Solubility Diagrams

    Commentary and Notes

    11-CN-1 Definitions of the Terms Component and Phase

    Special Topics

    11-ST-1 Two-Component Freezing Point Diagrams. Partial Miscibility

    11-ST-2 Partial Miscibility in Three-Component Systems

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    12 Solutions of Electrolytes

    12-1 Introduction

    12-2 Conductivity—Experimental Definitions and Procedures

    12-3 Results of Conductance Measurements

    12-4 Some Sample Calculations

    12-5 Ionic Mobilities

    12-6 Transference Numbers—Ionic Equivalent Conductivities

    12-7 Activities and Activity Coefficients of Electrolytes

    12-8 The Debye-Hückel Theory

    12-9 Ionic Equilibria

    Commentary and Notes

    12-CN-1 Electrolytic Dissociation

    12-CN-2 Activity Coefficients for Other than Dilute Aqueous Solutions

    12-CN-3 Acids and Bases

    Special Topics

    12-ST-1 Ionic Diffusion Coefficients

    12-ST-2 The Hittorf Method

    12-ST-3 Treatment of Complex Ionic Equilibria

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    13 Electrochemical Cells

    13-1 Definitions and Fundamental Relationships

    13-2 Experimental Procedures

    13-3 Determination of E0 Values and Activity Coefficients

    13-4 Additivity Rules for Emf's. Standard Oxidation Potentials

    13-5 Emf and Chemical Equilibria

    13-6 Concentration Cells

    13-7 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

    13-8 Determination of pH

    13-9 Irreversible Electrode Processes

    Commentary and Notes

    13-CN-1 Standard Oxidation Potential E0 and Standard Electrode Potential V0

    13-CN-2 Storage Batteries

    13-CN-3 Thermodynamic Quantities for Aqueous Ions

    13-CN-4 Electrocapillarity. Absolute Electrode Potentials

    Special Topics

    13-ST-1 Liquid Junctions

    13-ST-2 Polarization at Electrodes. Polarography

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    14 Kinetics of Gas-Phase Reactions

    14-1 Introduction

    14-2 Rate Laws and Simple Mechanisms

    14-3 Experimental Methods and Rate Law Calculations

    14-4 Rate Laws and Reaction Mechanisms

    14-5 Temperature Dependence of Rate Constants

    14-6 Collision Theory of Gas Reactions

    14-7 Unimolecular Reactions

    14-8 Absolute Rate Theory. The Activated Complex

    Commentary and Notes

    14-CN-1 Termolecular Reactions

    14-CN-2 Collision versus Transition-State Theory

    14-CN-3 Radicals, Molecular Beams, and Reaction Trajectories

    14-CN-4 Explosions

    Special Topics

    14-ST-1 Heterogeneous Catalysis. Chemisorption of Gases

    14-ST-2 Statistical Thermodynamic Treatment of Transition-State Theory

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    15 Kinetics of Reactions in Solution

    15-1 Additional Comments on Rate Laws. Reversible Reactions

    15-2 Experimental Methods

    15-3 Kinetic-Molecular Picture of Reactions in Solution

    15-4 Diffusion-Controlled Reactions

    15-5 Transition-State Theory

    15-6 Linear Free Energy Relationships. Reactions Involving an Acid or a Base

    15-7 Ionic Reactions. Role of Activity Coefficients

    Commentary and Notes

    15-CN-1 Comparison of Collision-Encounter and Transition-State Theories

    15-CN-2 Relationship between the Equilibrium Constant for a Reaction and Its Rate Constants

    15-CN-3 Entropy Production during a Chemical Reaction

    Special Topics

    15-ST-1 Enzyme Catalysis

    15-ST-2 Integrated Forms for Some Additional Rate Laws

    15-ST-3 Effect of Mechanical Pressure on Reaction Rates

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    16 Wave Mechanics

    16-1 Introduction

    16-2 Energy Units

    16-3 Hydrogen and Hydrogen-Like Atoms

    16-4 The Schrödinger Wave Equation

    16-5 Some Simple Choices for the Potential Function V

    16-6 The Harmonic Oscillator

    16-7 Solutions of the Wave Equation for the Hydrogen Atom

    16-8 The Graphical Appearance of Hydrogen-Like Orbitals

    16-9 Graphical Appearance of the Electron Density around a Hydrogen-Like Atom

    16-10 Hybrid Orbitals

    16-11 The Variation Method. Polarizability of the Hydrogen Atom

    Commentary and Notes

    16-CN-1 Albert Einstein

    16-CN-2 An Alternative Interpretation of the Uncertainty Principle

    16-CN-3 Steps beyond Hydrogen-Like Wave Functions

    Special Topics

    16-ST-1 Atomic Energy States

    16-ST-2 The Rigid Rotator

    16-ST-3 First-Order Perturbation Theory

    16-ST-4 Quantum Theory of Blackbody Radiation

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    17 Molecular Symmetry and Bonding

    17-1 Introduction

    17-2 Symmetry and Symmetry Operations

    17-3 A Set of Symmetry Operations as Constituting a Group

    17-4 Representations of Groups

    17-5 Atomic Orbitals as Bases for Representations

    17-6 Character Tables

    17-7 Bonds as Bases for Reducible Representations

    Commentary and Notes

    17-CN-1 Crystal Field Theory

    Special Topics

    17-ST-1 The Direct Product

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    18 Wave Mechanics and Bonding

    18-1 Introduction

    18-2 The Valence Bond Method for the Hydrogen Molecule

    18-3 Molecular Orbitals. The Hydrogen Molecule Ion, H2+

    18-4 Variation Method for Obtaining Molecular Orbitals

    18-5 Molecular Orbital Energy Levels for Diatomic Molecules

    18-6 Triatomic Molecules. Walsh Diagrams

    18-7 Polyatomic Molecules. The Hückel Method

    Commentary and Notes

    18-CN-1 Comparison of the Valence Bond and Molecular Orbital Methods

    Special Topics

    18-ST-1 Ligand Field Molecular Orbital Diagrams

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    19 Molecular Spectroscopy and Photochemistry

    19-1 Introduction

    19-2 Excited States of Diatomic Molecules

    19-3 Electronic, Vibrational, and Rotational Transitions

    19-4 Electronic Excited States of Polyatomic Molecules

    19-5 Vibrational Spectra

    Commentary and Notes

    19-CN-1 Geometric and Electronic Nature of Ground-State Molecules

    19-CN-2 Structure and Chemistry of Excited States

    19-CN-3 Conversion of Light to Chemical Energy

    Special Topics

    19-ST-1 Emission and Absorption of Radiation. Transition Probability

    19-ST-2 Optical Activity

    19-ST-3 Vibrational-Rotational Spectra

    19-ST-4 Glossary of Abbreviations

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    20 The Solid State

    20-1 Space-Filling Lattices

    20-2 Crystal Planes; Miller Indices

    20-3 Some Simple Crystal Structures

    20-4 Some Geometric Calculations

    20-5 Diffraction by Crystals

    Commentary and Notes

    20-CN-1 Modern Crystal Structure Determination

    20-CN-2 Some Structures of Biological Importance

    20-CN-3 The Band Model for Solids. Semiconductors

    20-CN-4 Crystal Defects

    Special Topics

    20-ST-1 Symmetry Notation for Crystals

    20-ST-2 X-Ray Diffraction Intensities

    20-ST-3 Lattice Energies

    20-ST-4 Ionic Radii

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    21 Colloids and Macromolecules

    21-1 Lyophobic Colloids

    21-2 Association Colloids. Colloidal Electrolytes

    21-3 Gels

    21-4 Rheology

    21-5 Liquid Crystals. Mesophases of Matter

    21-6 Polymers

    Special Topics

    21-ST-1 Electrokinetic Effects

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    22 Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry

    22-1 Introduction

    22-2 Nuclear Energetics and Existence Rules

    22-3 Nuclear Reactions

    22-4 Absorption of Radiation

    22-5 Kinetics of Radioactive Decay

    Commentary and Notes

    22-CN-1 Theories of Radioactive Decay

    22-CN-2 Nuclear Reactors and "Atomic" Bombs

    22-CN-3 Nuclear Chemistry

    22-CN-4 Quantum Statistics

    22-CN-5 Experimental Detection Methods

    22-CN-6 The Mossbauer Effect

    Special Topics

    22-ST-1 The Natural Decay Series. Age Dating

    22-ST-2 Statistical Fluctuations in Radioactive Decay

    General References

    Cited References

    Exercises

    Problems

    Special Topics Problems

    Subject Index


Product details

  • No. of pages: 996
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1979
  • Published: September 15, 1970
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323161282

About the Author

Arther Adamson

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  • Aamir R. Wed Sep 12 2018

    good work

    dear sir I'm very happy to say that the book is very good after i studied some topics gone very well keeping my interest in. thank you so much for your service