A History of Modern Psychology

A History of Modern Psychology

2nd Edition - January 1, 1975

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  • Author: Duane Schultz
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483270081

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Description

A History of Modern Psychology, Second Edition discusses the development and decline of schools of thought in modern psychology. The book presents the continuing refinement of the tools, techniques, and methods of psychology in order to achieve increased precision and objectivity. Chapters focus on relevant topics such as the beginning of the history of psychology; the philosophical and physiological influences on psychology; the details of various schools of thought in psychology; and the contemporary psychology of America and other countries. Undergraduate students of psychology and related fields will find the book invaluable in their pursuit of knowledge.

Table of Contents


  • Contents

    Preface

    1 The Study of the History of Psychology

    Introduction

    The Physiological Influence

    The Relevance of the Past for the Present

    Where Does the History of Psychology Begin?

    The Development of Schools of Thought in Psychology

    Conceptions of Scientific History: Personalistic and Naturalistic

    2 Direct Philosophical Influences on Psychology

    The Spirit of Mechanism: The Universe as a Machine

    The Beginnings of Modern Science: Descartes (1596-1650)

    The Life of Descartes The Contributions of Descartes

    British Empiricism and Associationism

    John Locke (1632-1704) George Berkeley(1685-1153) David Hume (1111-1116) David Hartley (1105-1151) James Mill (1113-1836)

    Contributions of Empiricism to Psychology

    3 Physiological Influences on Psychology

    Developments in Early Physiology: An Overview

    The Beginnings of Experimental Psychology

    Why Germany? Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) Ernst Weber (1195-1818) Gustav Theodor Fech7ier (1801-1881)

    The Formal Founding of the New Science

    A Note on "Founding"

    4 The New Psychology: Structuralism and Its Early Opponents

    An Overview of Structuralism

    Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920)

    The Life of Wundt The Wundtian System

    The Research Topics of the Leipzig Laboratory

    In Retrospect

    Other Early European Psychologists

    Hermann Ebbinghaus (1850-1909) George Elias Müller (1850-1934) Franz Brentano(1838-1911) Carl Stumpf (1848-1936) Oswald Külpe (1862-1915)

    Comment

    5 Structuralism: Final Form

    Edward Bradford Titchener (1867-1927)

    The Life of Titchener

    Titchener's Systenatic Position

    Original Source Material on Structuralism: From A Text-Book of Psychology

    The Fate of Structuralism

    Criticisms of Structuralism Contributions of Structuralism

    6 Functionalism: Antecedent Influences

    What Is Functionalism?

    Historical Overview of Functionalism

    The Evolution Revolution: Charles Darwin (1809-1882)

    The Life of Darwin The Works of Darwin

    The Influence of Darwin upon Psychology

    Individual Differences: Sir Francis Galton -(1822-1911)

    The Life of Galton The Works of Galton

    Comment

    Animal Psychology

    A Final Note

    7 Functionalism: American Pioneers

    "Only in America"

    Anticipator of Functional Psychology: William James (1842-1910)

    The Life of James The Contributions of James

    Comment

    G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924)

    The Life of Jiall The Works of Hall Comment

    James McKeen Cattell (1860-1944)

    The Life of Cattell The Works of Cattell

    Comment

    Ganz Amerikanisch

    8 Functionalism: Formal Development

    The Founding of Functionalism

    The Chicago School

    John Dewey (1859-1952) James Rowland

    Angell (1869-1949) Harvey A. Carr (1873-1954)

    Original Source Material on Functionalism: From Psychology

    Functionalism at Columbia: Robert Sessions Woodworth (1869-1962)

    Criticisms of Functionalism

    Contributions of Functionalism

    9 Behaviorism: Antecedent Influences

    Introduction

    Animal Psychology

    Edward Lee Thorndike (1874-1949)

    The Life of Thorndike Thorndike's Connectionism Comment

    Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov (1849-1936)

    The Life of Pavlov Pavlov's Research Comment

    Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927)

    Comment

    Functionalism

    10 Behaviorism: The Beginning

    Introduction: John B. Watson (1878-1958)

    Original Source Material on Behaviorism: From "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views It"

    Comment

    The Methods of Behaviorism

    The Subject Matter of Behaviorism

    Specific Views and Concepts

    Instinct Learning Emotion Thought

    Watson's Popular Appeal

    A Final Note

    Criticisms of Watsonian Behaviorism

    Contributions of Watsonian Behaviorism

    11 Behaviorism: After the Founding

    Early Behaviorists

    Edwin B, Holt (1873-1946) Albert P. Weiss (1879-1931) Karl Lashley (1890-1958)

    The Influence of Operationism

    More Recent Behaviorists

    Edward Chace Tolman (1886-1959) Edwin Ray Guthrie (1886-1959) Clark Leonard Hull(1884-1952) Burrhus Frederick Skinner (1904-)

    Concluding Commentary on Behaviorism

    12 Gestalt Psychology

    Introduction

    Antecedent Influences

    The Founding of Gestalt Psychology

    Max Wertheimer (1880-1943) Kurt Koffka (1886-1941) Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967)

    The Nature of the Gestalt Revolt

    Original Source Material on Gestalt Psychology: From "Gestalt Theory"

    Werthelmer's Principles of Organization

    Gestalt Principles of Learning

    The Mentality of Apes: Köhler Productive Thinking: Wertheimer

    The Principle of Isomorphism

    The Reaction in America

    Post-Founding Developments

    The Spread of Gestalt Psychology after the Founding Field Theory: Kurt Lewin (1890-1947) Lewin and Social Psychology

    Criticisms of Gestalt Psychology

    Contributions of Gestalt Psychology

    13 Psychoanalysis: The Beginnings

    Introduction

    Historical Antecedents

    Early Theories of the Unconscious The Influence from Psychopathology Other Sources of Influence

    Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) and the Development of Psychoanalysis

    Psychoanalysis as a Method of Treatment

    Freud's Method of Research

    Psychoanalysis as a System of Personality

    The Unconscious and Conscious Aspects of Personality Instincts Anxiety Stages of Personality Development

    Mechanism and Determinism in Freud's System

    Early Conflicts between Psychology and Psychoanalysis

    Criticisms of Psychoanalysis

    Contributions of Psychoanalysis

    14 Psychoanalysis: After the Founding

    Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)

    The Life of Jung Jung's System: Analytical Psychology The Structure of Personality Personality Development Introversion-Extraversion Word Association Comment

    Social-Psychological Theories in Psychoanalysis: The Zeitgeist Strikes Again

    Alfred Adler (1870-1937): Individual Psychology

    Karen Horney (1885-1952)

    Horney's System Horney's Theory of Neurosis

    Comment

    Erich Fromm (1900-)

    Comment

    Critique of the Social-Psychological Theories

    The Mainstream after Freud

    15 Epilogue: More Recent Developments

    The Dissolution of the Schools

    Contemporary American Psychology

    Methods Major Research Areas

    Professionalization

    Contemporary Psychology in Other Countries

    Germany England Soviet Union Japan

    Other Countries

    The Future: Humanistic Psychology?

    References

    Index






Product details

  • No. of pages: 416
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1975
  • Published: January 1, 1975
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483270081

About the Author

Duane Schultz

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