A Historical Perspective on Evidence-Based Immunology - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780123983817, 9780123983756

A Historical Perspective on Evidence-Based Immunology

1st Edition

Authors: Edward Moticka
eBook ISBN: 9780123983756
Paperback ISBN: 9780123983817
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 27th November 2015
Page Count: 394
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A Historical Perspective on Evidence-Based Immunology focuses on the results of hypothesis-driven, controlled scientific experiments that have led to the current understanding of immunological principles. The text helps beginning students in biomedical disciplines understand the basis of immunologic knowledge, while also helping more advanced students gain further insights.

The book serves as a crucial reference for researchers studying the evolution of ideas and scientific methods, including fundamental insights on immunologic tolerance, interactions of lymphocytes with antigen TCR and BCR, the generation of diversity and mechanism of tolerance of T cells and B cells, the first cytokines, the concept of autoimmunity, the identification of NK cells as a unique cell type, the structure of antibody molecules and identification of Fab and Fc regions, and dendritic cells.

Key Features

  • Provides a complete review of the hypothesis-driven, controlled scientific experiments that have led to our current understanding of immunological principles
  • Explains the types of experiments that were performed and how the interpretation of the experiments altered the understanding of immunology
  • Presents concepts such as the division of lymphocytes into functionally different populations in their historical context
  • Includes fundamental insights on immunologic tolerance, interactions of lymphocytes with antigen TCR and BCR, and the generation of diversity and mechanism of tolerance of T and B cells


graduate and undergraduate students entering the fields of immunology, molecular biology and other biomedical disciplines, their instructors and mentors. Researchers, practitioners and those interested in the evolution of ideas and scientific methods

Table of Contents

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  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Dedication
  • Copyright
  • Foreword
  • Glossary of Historical Terms
  • Chapter 1. Innate Host Defense Mechanisms and Adaptive Immune Responses
    • Introduction
    • Innate Defense Mechanisms
    • Adaptive Immune Responses
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 2. Hallmarks of the Adaptive Immune Responses
    • Introduction
    • Immunologic Specificity
    • Self–Non-Self-Discrimination
    • Immunologic Memory
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 3. Two Effector Mechanisms of the Adaptive Immune Response
    • Introduction
    • Antibody
    • Cell-Mediated Immunity
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 4. The Small Lymphocyte Is the Antigen Reactive Cell
    • Introduction
    • The Small Lymphocyte
    • Passive Transfer Experiments
    • Migratory Pathways of Small Lymphocytes
    • Depletion Experiments
    • Immunocompetence of Thoracic Duct Lymphocytes
    • Morphological Changes of Activated Small Lymphocytes
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 5. Lymphocytes Transform into Plasma Cells and Produce Antibodies
    • Introduction
    • Cells and Antibodies
    • Antigens and Antibodies in Lymphoid Organs
    • Lymphocyte–Plasma Cell Debate
    • Passive Transfer Studies
    • Visualization of Antibody-Forming Cells
    • Transformation of Small Lymphocytes into Plasma Cells
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 6. The Clonal Selection Theory of Antibody Formation
    • Introduction
    • Early Models of Antibody Formation
    • Challenges to Instruction Models
    • Paradigm Shift: From Instruction to Selection
    • The Clonal Selection Theory
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 7. Plasma Cells Produce Antibody of a Single Specificity
    • Introduction
    • Single Cell Experiments: Development of the Microdrop Technique
    • Immunofluorescent Studies
    • Antigen Receptors on B Lymphocytes
    • Multiple Myeloma and the One Cell: One Antibody Concept
    • Development of Monoclonal Antibodies
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 8. Self–Non-self Discrimination: How the Immune System Avoids Self-Destruction
    • Introduction
    • Horror Autotoxicus
    • Production of Autoantibodies
    • An Experiment of Nature
    • Acquisition of Self–Non-self Discrimination
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 9. The Thymus in Lymphocyte Maturation
    • Introduction
    • Early History of the Thymus
    • Serendipity and Neonatal Thymectomy
    • Naturally Occurring Examples of Euthymic States
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 10. The Bursa of Fabricius in Lymphocyte Maturation
    • Introduction
    • Early History of the Bursa of Fabricius
    • Serendipity and Bursectomy
    • Rediscovery of the Role of the Bursa of Fabricius
    • Search for the Bursa Equivalent in Mammals
    • Division of Lymphocytes into Two Functionally Distinct Populations
    • Markers to Differentiate T and B Lymphocytes
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 11. Revealing the Structure of the Immunoglobulin Molecule
    • Introduction
    • The Unitarian Hypothesis of Antibodies
    • The Composition and Structure of Antibodies
    • Development of the Four Chain Model of Antibody
    • Location of the Antigen Binding Site
    • Immunoglobulin Isotypes (Classes)
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 12. Complement
    • Introduction
    • Early Evidence for Complement
    • The Classical Pathway
    • The Alternate (Properdin) Pathway
    • The Lectin Pathway
    • Biological Activity of Complement and Its Fragments
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 13. Antibody Production Requires Thymus-Derived and Bone Marrow (Bursa)-Derived Lymphocyte Interactions
    • Introduction
    • The Hemolytic Plaque Assay
    • T-B Lymphocyte Collaboration in Antibody Formation
    • T-Independent Antigens
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 14. Cell Collaboration in the Antibody Response: Role of Adherent Cells
    • Introduction
    • Morphological Changes
    • Information Exchange
    • Collaboration Between Adherent and Nonadherent Cells
    • Genetic Control of Macrophage–Lymphocyte Interactions
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 15. Recognition Structures on Cells of the Innate Host Defense Mechanisms
    • Introduction
    • Early Investigations on Recognition by Phagocytic Cells
    • Discovery of Pattern Recognition Receptors
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 16. The Adaptive Immune Response and Histocompatibility Genes
    • Introduction
    • Discovery of Histocompatibility Antigens and Genes
    • Regulation of the Adaptive Immune Response by MHC Genes
    • Correlation of MHC Gene Expression with Pathology
    • Molecular Structure of MHC-Coded Proteins
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 17. Interaction of Lymphocytes with Antigen: Identification of Antigen-Specific Receptors
    • Introduction
    • Discovery of the B Cell Receptor
    • Discovery of the T Cell Receptor
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 18. Generation of Diversity in the Adaptive Immune Response
    • Introduction
    • Generation of Diversity in B Lymphocytes
    • Generation of Diversity in T Lymphocytes
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 19. B Lymphocyte Activation
    • Introduction
    • Two-Signal Model of B Lymphocyte Activation
    • Signal 1: The B Cell Receptor
    • Signal 2: Soluble Factors and Cell-to-Cell Interactions
    • Isotype Switching
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 20. Activation of T Lymphocytes and MHC Restriction
    • Introduction
    • Experimental Approaches to Measure T Lymphocyte Activation
    • The Two-Signal Hypothesis of T Lymphocyte Activation
    • Signal 1: TCR Recognition
    • MHC Restriction
    • Role of CD3 Molecules in T Lymphocyte Activation
    • Signal 2: Role of Costimulatory Molecules
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 21. Development of Tolerance to Self in B Lymphocytes
    • Introduction
    • Development of Central Tolerance to Self
    • Peripheral B Lymphocyte Unresponsiveness
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 22. Development of Tolerance to Self in T Lymphocytes
    • Introduction
    • Differentiation of T Lymphocytes in the Thymus
    • Positive Selection of T Lymphocytes
    • Negative Selection of T Lymphocytes
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 23. T Lymphocyte Subpopulations
    • Introduction
    • Antibody Studies to Identify T Lymphocyte Subsets
    • Cytokines Secreted by T Lymphocyte Subpopulations
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 24. T Lymphocyte Control of the Immune Response: From TS to TREG
    • Introduction
    • Suppressor T Lymphocytes
    • Rise of T Regulatory Lymphocytes
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 25. Intercellular Communication in the Immune System
    • Introduction
    • Early Studies of Soluble Factors in the Immune Response
    • Identification of Other Select Cytokines
    • Chemokines
    • Nomenclature
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 26. Antibody-Mediated Effector Mechanisms
    • Introduction
    • Neutralization
    • Activation of Complement
    • Opsonization
    • Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity
    • Release of Vasoactive Mediators
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 27. T-Lymphocyte-Mediated Effector Mechanisms
    • Introduction
    • Cell-Mediated Immune Responses
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 28. Lymphocytes that Kill: Natural Killer (NK) and Natural Killer T (NKT) Lymphocytes
    • Introduction
    • Discovery of NK Lymphocytes
    • NK Lymphocytes
    • Self–Non-self Recognition by NK Lymphocytes
    • NKT Lymphocytes
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 29. Role of Dendritic Cells in the Adaptive Immune Response
    • Introduction
    • Dendritic Cells in the Adaptive Immune System
    • Characterization of Dendritic Cells
    • Functional Characterization of Dendritic Cells
    • Relationship Between Langerhans Cells and Dendritic Cells
    • Dendritic Cell Vaccines
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 30. The Mucosal Immune System and Secretory IgA
    • Introduction
    • Identification of Mucosal-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT)
    • Evidence for a Separate Mucosal Immune System
    • Discovery of Secretory IgA
    • Migratory Path of Lymphocytes in the Mucosal Immune System
    • Discovery of Microfold (M) Cells and Their Function
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 31. Disorders of the Innate Host Defenses
    • Introduction
    • Deficiencies of the Cells of Innate Host Defense Mechanisms
    • Deficiencies of the Complement System
    • Autoinflammatory Diseases
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 32. Defects in the Adaptive Immune Response Leading to Recurrent Infections
    • Introduction
    • Primary (Congenital) Immunodeficiencies
    • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 33. Pathologies Resulting from Aberrant Immune Responses
    • Introduction
    • Type I Hypersensitivities
    • Type II Hypersensitivity
    • Type III Hypersensitivity
    • Type IV Hypersensitivity
    • Immune-Mediated Pathologies Secondary to Infections
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 34. Immune Responses Directed Against Self
    • Introduction
    • Early Studies on Autoimmune Reactivity and Disease
    • Autoimmune Diseases—New Pathologic Mechanisms for Old Diseases
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 35. Lymphoproliferative Diseases
    • Introduction
    • Lymphoma
    • Leukemia
    • Monoclonal Gammopathy (Paraproteinemia)
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 36. Transplantation Immunology
    • Introduction
    • Clinical Experience with Transplantation
    • Immunology of Transplant Rejection
    • Antigenic Stimulus for Graft Rejection
    • Mechanism of Graft Rejection
    • Control of Graft Rejection
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 37. Tumor Immunology
    • Introduction
    • Tumor Antigens
    • Adaptive Immune Responses to Tumors
    • Immunotherapeutic Approaches
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 38. Therapies That Manipulate Host Defense Mechanisms
    • Introduction
    • Active Immunization
    • Passive Transfer of Immunity
    • Immunosuppression
    • Reconstitution of Immunodeficiencies
    • T Regulatory (TREG) Lymphocytes as Therapeutic Agents
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 39. Techniques to Detect and Quantify Host Defenses
    • Introduction
    • The Cells of Host Defense Mechanisms
    • Functional Studies of Lymphocytes
    • Skin Tests
    • Measurement of Antibodies
    • Quantitative Techniques Using Immunologic Principles
    • Conclusion
  • Chapter 40. The Future of Immunology
    • Introduction
    • Basic Science
    • Clinical Applications
    • Conclusion
  • Index


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About the Author

Edward Moticka

Professor Edward J. Moticka, is a full professor Immunology and Microbiology at the A.T. Still University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Mesa, AZ.

He has taught immunology to medical and graduate student for more than 40 years. Currently he is responsible for all the immunology didactic teaching for first and second year medical students at the School of Osteopathic Medicine.

He has been a member of the American Association of Immunologists since 1976, and an Adjunct Professor in the Biodesign Institute and the School of Life Sciences at Arizona State University since 2005. In addition to teaching and research, Dr. Moticka is an expert in the area of research management including research compliance issues relating to human and animal subjects protection and technology transfer

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, A.T. Still University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Mesa, AZ, U.S.A.