A Handbook for Sensory and Consumer-Driven New Product Development

A Handbook for Sensory and Consumer-Driven New Product Development

Innovative Technologies for the Food and Beverage Industry

1st Edition - September 13, 2016

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  • Author: Maurice O'Sullivan
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081003572
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081003527

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A Handbook for Sensory and Consumer Driven New Product Development explores traditional and well established sensory methods (difference, descriptive and affective) as well as taking a novel approach to product development and the use of new methods and recent innovations. This book investigates the use of these established and new sensory methods, particularly hedonic methods coupled with descriptive methods (traditional and rapid), through multivariate data analytical interfaces in the process of optimizing food and beverage products effectively in a strategically defined manner. The first part of the book covers the sensory methods which are used by sensory scientists and product developers, including established and new and innovative methods. The second section investigates the product development process and how the application of sensory analysis, instrumental methods and multivariate data analysis can improve new product development, including packaging optimization and shelf life. The final section defines the important sensory criteria and modalities of different food and beverage products including Dairy, Meat, Confectionary, Bakery, and Beverage (alcoholic and non-alcoholic), and presents case studies indicating how the methods described in the first two sections have been successfully and innovatively applied to these different foods and beverages. The book is written to be of value to new product development researchers working in large corporations, SMEs (micro, small or medium-sized enterprises) as well as being accessible to the novice starting up their own business. The innovative technologies and methods described are less expensive than some more traditional practices and aim to be quick and effective in assisting products to market. Sensory testing is critical for new product development/optimization, ingredient substitution and devising appropriate packaging and shelf life as well as comparing foods or beverages to competitor’s products.

Key Features

  • Presents novel and effective sensory-based methods for new product development—two related fields that are often covered separately
  • Provides accessible, useful guidance to the new product developer working in a large multi-national food company as well as novices starting up a new business
  • Offers case studies that provide examples of how these methods have been applied to real product development by practitioners in a wide range of organizations
  • Investigates how the application of sensory analysis can improve new product development including packaging optimization


NPD managers/practitioners in the food industry, consumer and market research practitioners, R&D managers in the food industry, SME food manufacturers and postgraduate students in sensory science and food new product development

Table of Contents

    • Related Titles
    • Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
    • Preface
    • Part I. Sensory Methods
      • Chapter 1. Difference Methods
        • Introduction
        • The A – Not A Method
        • The Paired Comparison Test and the 2-AFC (Alternative Forced Choice) Test
        • The Duo-Trio Test
        • The Triangle Test and the 3-AFC Test
        • The Ranking Test
        • The Tetrad Test
        • Other Tests
      • Chapter 2. Descriptive Methods
        • Introduction
        • Environment and Panel Conditions
        • The Panellist
        • Sample Presentation Order
        • Panel Screening
        • Case Study – Demonstration of Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. The Descriptive Profile Training Process
        • Initial Vocabulary Development
        • Data Analysis During Vocabulary Development
        • Protocol for the Examination of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Development
        • Method for Quantification of Discriminative Ability
        • The Descriptor Leverage Method
        • Development of Preliminary List of Terms
        • Examination of the Effectiveness of Vocabulary Development
        • Quantification of Discriminative Ability
        • Descriptor Leverage to Determine the Effectiveness of the Sensory Term Reduction Protocol
        • Summary
      • Chapter 3. Sensory Affective (Hedonic) Testing
        • Introduction
        • Qualitative Affective Testing-Focus Groups
        • Sensory Acceptance Testing
        • Case Studies – Sensory Acceptance Tests
        • Case Study 1
        • Case Study 2
        • Preference Tests
        • Ranking Preference Tests
        • Consumer Acceptance Tests
        • Market Research
        • Questionnaire Design
        • Open-Ended Questions and Closed-Option Questions
        • Conjoint Analysis
        • Sample Presentation (Randomisation, Presentation Order, Blind Tasting and Branding Effects)
      • Chapter 4. Rapid Sensory Profiling Methods
        • Introduction – The Need for New Methods
        • Ranking Test
        • Flash Profiling
        • Ranking Descriptive Analysis
        • Free Sorting
        • Projective Mapping: Napping, Partial Napping, Sorted Napping and Ultraflash Profiling
        • Rapid Profiling Using References: Polarised Sensory Positioning, the Optimised Sensory Profile Method, Off-Flavour Quantification, Polarised Projective Mapping and Ranked-Scaling
        • Check-All-That-Apply
        • Temporal Dominance of Sensations
        • Just About Right Scales
        • The Ideal Profile Method
      • Chapter 5. Multivariate Data Analysis for Product Development and Optimisation
        • Introduction
        • Multivariate Data Analysis
        • Principal Component Analysis
        • Naïve Assessor Reliability
        • Generalised Procrustes Analysis
        • Preference Mapping
        • Partial Least Squares Regression
        • Case Study – Multivariate Data Analysis of Sensory Profiling and Instrumental Data
    • Part II. Product Quality, Development and Optimisation
      • Chapter 6. Shelf Life and Sensory Quality of Foods and Beverages
        • Introduction
        • Microbial Loading
        • Sensory Shelf Life Testing
        • Sensory Shelf Life Methods
        • Colour and Sensory Shelf Life
        • Texture and Sensory Shelf Life
        • Shelf Life and Flavour Profile Changes
        • Chemical Analysis
        • Accelerated Storage Tests
      • Chapter 7. Packaging Technologies for Maintaining Sensory Quality
        • Introduction
        • Packaging Materials
        • Modified Atmosphere Packaging
        • Low O2 Modified Atmosphere Packaging
        • Vacuum Packaging
        • Active and Intelligent Packaging
      • Chapter 8. Instrumental Assessment of the Sensory Quality of Food and Beverage Products
        • Introduction
        • Instrumental Methods of Colour Analysis
        • Instrumental Methods for Measuring Texture
        • Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry
        • The Electronic Nose
        • Near Infrared and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
      • Chapter 9. Nutritionally Optimised Low Fat Foods
        • Introduction
        • Fat Replacers
        • Fat Substitutes
        • Fat Mimetics
        • Meat Products
        • Dairy Products
        • Confectionary Products
        • Salad Dressing and Sauces
      • Chapter 10. Sensory and Consumer-Led Innovative Product Development – From Inception to the Shelf (Current and Future Methodologies)
        • Introduction
        • New Product Development Teams – Managed and Resourced for Success
        • R&D Process Stages
        • Ideation
        • Project Preplanning
        • Validation of Proof of Concept
        • Regulatory Guidelines
        • Least Cost Formulation
        • Technological Capability
        • Contingency of Supply
        • Copycatting and Reverse Engineering
        • Line Extension, Brand Extension and Cannibalisation!
        • Process Optimisation and Upscaling
        • Marketing
        • Pre- and Postapproval – Shelf Life Testing
        • Technological Developments, Internet Testing, Immersive Technology, Mobile Applications and Eye Tracking
        • Sensory Methodology – Consumer Evaluation, Focus Groups, Validation, Ideal Profiling
        • Case Studies
    • Part III. Case Studies: Sensory and Consumer DrivenNPD in Action
      • Chapter 11. Sensory Properties Affecting Meat and Poultry Quality
        • Introduction
        • Microbiological Stability
        • Factors Affecting Meat Colour
        • Factors Affecting Meat Flavour
        • Factors Affecting Meat Tenderness
        • Salt and Nitrate Reduction Strategies in Processed Meats
        • Salt in Processed Meats
        • Nitrate and Nitrite in Processed Meats
        • Human Health Impact of Nitrate and Nitrite
        • Innovative Packaging (Active, Intelligent) of Meat Products
        • Evaluating the Shelf Life of Meat and Poultry – Sensory Analysis
        • Case Study – Sensory Profiling (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis) of Pork Meat Samples Over Different Time Points (Days, Shelf Life) and Correlation With Physicochemical Data
        • Results and Discussion
      • Chapter 12. Sensory Properties of Dairy Products
        • Introduction
        • Sensory Properties of Milk
        • Sensory Properties of Milk Powder
        • Sensory Properties of Butter
        • Sensory Properties of Yoghurt
        • Sensory Properties of Ice Cream
        • Sensory Properties of Cheese
        • Case Study: Sensory Quality of Unheated and Heated Mozzarella
      • Chapter 13. Sensory Properties of Beverage Products (Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic)
        • Introduction
        • Sensory Properties of Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices
        • Sensory Properties of Coffee
        • Sensory Properties of Cream Liqueurs
        • Sensory Properties of Wine
        • Sensory Properties of Distilled Spirits
        • Sensory Properties of Beer
        • Case Study: Sensory Effects of Residual Oxygen in Bottled Beer
      • Chapter 14. Sensory Properties of Bakery and Confectionary Products
        • Introduction
        • Sensory Properties of Biscuits and Cookies
        • Sensory Properties of Cakes and Muffins
        • Sensory Properties of Chocolate
        • Sensory Properties of Sugar
        • Calorie Reduction Strategies
        • Gluten-Free Products
        • Shelf Life – Microbiological Spoilage, Staling and Oxidative Stability
        • Antistaling Strategies
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 370
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2016
  • Published: September 13, 2016
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780081003572
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780081003527

About the Author

Maurice O'Sullivan

Maurice O'Sullivan
Dr. Maurice O'Sullivan has worked in the food industry as a flavor chemist for Diageo Baileys and Guinness as well as holding the position of Global Regulatory Affairs Manager for Diageo Baileys. He has also worked as a food technologist and product development scientist for Dawn Farm Foods. He has a Ph.D. in Sensory and Consumer science from the Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark as well as MSc. and BSc. Degrees in Food Science and Technology from University College Cork (UCC). Currently he is working in the School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork as a Senior Lecturer, as well as managing sensory and flavour based projects involving a diverse selection of products. He has published over 200+ research papers as well as +100 conference presentations and 46 book chapters. He collaborates extensively with the food industry on varied product optimization and development projects. He is a member of the European Sensory Network (ESN) as well as research coordinator for the FoodUnique network. He is also the author of A Handbook for Sensory and Consumer Driven New Product Development: Innovative Technologies for the Food and Beverage Industry (331 pages) with Elsevier/Woodhead Publishing Ltd., United Kingdom.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Lecturer at the School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University College Cork, Ireland

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  • MauriceO'Sullivan Sun Oct 27 2019

    A Handbook for Sensory and Consumer Driven Product Development

    Excellent, well written, comprehensive and innovative book on the topic.