Animal Biotechnology

Animal Biotechnology

Models in Discovery and Translation

1st Edition - November 4, 2013

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  • Editors: Ashish Verma, Anchal Singh
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124160026
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123914347

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Description

Animal Biotechnology introduces applications of animal biotechnology and implications for human health and welfare. It begins with an introduction to animal cell cultures and genome sequencing analysis and provides readers with a review of available cell and molecular tools. Topics here include the use of transgenic animal models, tissue engineering, nanobiotechnology, and proteomics. The book then delivers in-depth examples of applications in human health and prospects for the future, including cytogenetics and molecular genetics, xenografts, and treatment of HIV and cancers. All this is complemented by a discussion of the ethical and safety considerations in the field.Animal biotechnology is a broad field encompassing the polarities of fundamental and applied research, including molecular modeling, gene manipulation, development of diagnostics and vaccines, and manipulation of tissue. Given the tools that are currently available and the translational potential for these studies, animal biotechnology has become one of the most essential subjects for those studying life sciences.

Key Features

  • Highlights the latest biomedical applications of genetically modified and cloned animals with a focus on cancer and infectious diseases
  • Provides firsthand accounts of the use of biotechnology tools, including molecular markers, stem cells, and tissue engineering

Readership

Students of biotechnology, biochemistry, molecular medicine, genetics, genomics and other life science courses; researchers in these areas

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Contributors

    Foreword

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    Section I: Human Diseases: In Vivo and In Vitro Models

    Chapter 1. Drosophila: A Model for Biotechnologists

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    History

    Principle

    Methodology

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    Drosophila Models of Human Disease

    Drosophila-Based Therapeutic Peptide Production

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 2. Animal Models of Tuberculosis

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Comparative Pathology of TB in Humans and Animals

    Pathogen Diversity: Crossing Species Barriers

    Host Diversity: Fundamental Processes and Fine Tuning

    Animal Models of TB: Limits and Lessons

    Various Animal Models

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    Protocols

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 3. Animal Models for Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Principles

    Methodology

    Examples and Their Applications

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 4. Epigenetics and Animal Models: Applications in Cancer Control and Treatment

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    History: Landscape of Epigenetics

    Principle

    Methodology

    Protocols

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 5. Development of Mouse Models for Cancer Research

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    History

    Principle

    Methodology

    Examples with Applications

    Checklist for a Successful in vivo Experiment

    Protocols

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questons

    Chapter 6. Human Papillomavirus (HPV): Diagnosis and Treatment

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Classification of Cancer

    Cancer-Causing Agents

    Cervical Cancer

    Prevalence and Epidemiology of Cervical Cancer

    Ethical Issues

    Public Health Concerns About Vaccine Implementation

    Treatment

    Translational Significance

    Therapeutic HPV Vaccines

    Genetic-Based DNA Vaccines

    Issues/Unanswered Questions Associated with HPV Vaccines

    Future Prospects of HPV with Respect to Biotechnology

    Conclusion

    Key Points

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 7. Human DNA Tumor Viruses and Oncogenesis

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You CAN Expect To Know

    History and Methods

    Transformation and Oncogenesis

    History of Human DNA Tumor Viruses and Cancer

    Current Research Perspectives

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers To Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 8. Animal Models for Human Disease

    Abstract

    Summary

    What you CAN Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Multiple Sclerosis

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 9. HIV and Antiretroviral Drugs

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Discovery and Origin of HIV

    History of HIV and AIDS

    Global Disease Burden

    Clinical Stages of HIV

    Molecular Biology of HIV

    Replication: Steps and Drug Targets

    Antiretroviral Drugs

    HIV Resistance and Antiretroviral Treatment

    New Types of Antiretrovirals

    Methodology and Principles

    NeuroAIDS: An Emerging Health Concern

    Bone Marrow Transplantation: A Probable Cure for HIV

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 10. Animal Biotechnology as a Tool to Understand and Fight Aging

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Principle

    Methodology: Measurement of Free Radicals and Methods to Monitor Aging

    Common Laboratory Animal Experimental Models for Aging Research

    Polyphenols as an Agent to Fight Aging

    Animal Biotechnology as a Tool to Understand and Fight Aging

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Section II: Animal Biotechnology: Tools and Techniques

    Chapter 11. Multicellular Spheroid: 3-D Tissue Culture Model for Cancer Research

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    MULTICELLULAR Tumor Spheroids

    Historical Facts Towards the Development of Tissue Culture Technology from 2-D and 3-D Cultures

    Techniques for the Generation of Spheroids

    Protocol for Tumor SPHEROID Generation

    Drug Treatment Protocol

    Parameters to Monitor Drug Efficacy in 3-D Cultures

    Radiation Response of Tumor Cells and its Modifications

    Response to Anticancer Drugs

    Response to Photodynamic Therapy

    Response to Anti-Angiogenesis Therapeutics

    Evaluation of Response to Immunotherapy

    Application of 3-D Cultures in Other Diseases

    Conclusions

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 12. Animal Tissue Culture: Principles and Applications

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Development of Animal Cell Culture

    Basic Concept of Cell Culture

    Types of Cell Culture

    Cell Line

    Growth Cycle

    Monitoring Cell Growth

    Cell Viability

    Culture Media

    Characterization of Cell Lines

    Advantages of Animal Cell Culture

    Disadvantages of Animal Cell Culture

    Ethical Issues

    Use of Fetal Bovine Serum in Animal Culture of Media

    Translational Significance

    Anti-Viral Vaccines

    Recombinant Therapeutic Proteins

    Gene Therapy

    Biopesticides

    Monoclonal Antibodies

    Stem Cells

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 13. Concepts of Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Summary

    What you can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    History

    Basic Approach to Tissue Engineering: Principles and Methodology

    Scaffold Design

    Materials for Scaffolds

    Scaffold Fabrication Methods

    Examples of Tissue-Engineered Organs

    Tissue Engineering Using Stem Cells

    Issues and Challenges

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 14. Nanotechnology and Its Applications to Animal Biotechnology

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    What You can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Methodologies

    Examples of Nanotechnology Applications To Animal Biotechnology

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 15. Antibodies: Monoclonal and Polyclonal

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    What You can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Tiselius and Kabat’s Experiment

    History

    Elucidation of Immunoglobulin Structure

    Immunoglobulin G: A Prototype for Immunoglobulin

    Polyclonal Antibody versus Monoclonal Antibody

    Naming Monoclonal Antibodies

    Antibodies as Therapeutics: Adverse Effects

    Applications of Antibodies

    Methodology, Principles, and Protocols

    Biochemical Pathway: Hybridoma Selection

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 16. Molecular Markers: Tool for Genetic Analysis

    Abstract

    Summary

    What you can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Methodology

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 17. Gene Expression: Analysis and Quantitation

    Abstract

    Summary

    What you can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Principles

    Methodology

    Protocols

    Examples

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 18. Ribotyping: A Tool for Molecular Taxonomy

    Abstract

    Summary

    What you CAN Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Historical Developments in Bacterial Taxonomy

    Typing Methods Used for Bacterial Systematics

    Basis of Using rRNA and rRNA Genes as Taxonomic Tools

    Different Techniques of Ribotyping

    Limitations of Ribotyping

    Future Perspectives

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 19. Next Generation Sequencing and Its Applications

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    History of DNA Sequencing

    Generation of Sequencing Technologies

    Principle of Sanger Sequencing vs. Next Generation Sequencing

    Next Generation/Second Generation Technologies

    Third Generation Sequencing Technologies

    Other/4th Generation Sequencing Technologies

    Downstream Bioinformatics

    General Principles of NGS Methods in Various Applications

    Animal Biotechnology and the Cattle Genome

    Applications of NGS in Animal Biotechnology

    Applications of NGS in Human Health

    Future Perspectives

    Challenges

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 20. Biomolecular Display Technology: A New Tool for Drug Discovery

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Principle

    Necessity: Small Molecule vs. Biomolecular (Biologics) Drugs

    Methodology: Biomolecular Display Technologies

    Conclusion and Future Perspectives

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Anwers Questions

    Answers to Short Answers Questions

    Chapter 21. In Silico Models: From Simple Networks to Complex Diseases

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Bioinformatics and Systems Biology

    Common Computational Methods in Systems Biology

    Experimental Methods in Systems Biology

    Protein–Protein Interactions (PPIs)

    Transcriptional Control Networks

    Signal Transduction Networks

    Mathematical Modeling Techniques

    The Concept of Modeling

    In Silico Models of Cells

    Applications of In Silico Disease Modeling in Practice

    Conclusion

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Section III: Animal Biotechnology: Applications and Concerns

    Chapter 22. Transgenic Animals and their Applications

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    Introduction

    Creating Transgenic Animals

    Transgenic Animals as Disease Models

    Transgenic Animals as Biological Models

    Transgenic Animals as Xenotransplanters

    Transgenic Animals as Food Sources

    Transgenic Animals for Drug and Industrial Production

    Transgenic Animals’ Impact on the Environment

    Patenting Transgenic Animals

    Ethical Issues

    FDA Guidelines on Genetically Engineered Animals

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 23. Stem Cells: A Trek from Laboratory to Clinic to Industry

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    History of Stem Cell Research

    What are Stem Cells and Why are They Important?

    What Makes Stem Cells Special?

    Differentiation Potential/Potency of Stem Cells

    Are Stem Cells Immortal?

    Characteristics of Stem Cells

    Where to Find Stem Cells?

    Where do Stem Cells Come From?

    How are Stem Cells Identified, Isolated, and Characterized?

    The Stem Cell Niche

    Growing Stem Cells in the Laboratory

    iPSCs: A Stem Cell Research Breakthrough

    Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs)

    Protocols for Hoechst 33342 or DCV Staining and Stem Cell Purification

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    How are Stem Cells Used In Cell-Based Regenerative Therapies?

    Can Stem Cells Be Used to Find New Medicines?

    Potential Uses of Stem Cells

    Stem Cell Banking

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 24. Role of Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics in Human Health and Medicine

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Cytogenetics: An Overview

    Chromosome Morphology and Classification

    Chromosomal Disorders

    Methodology: Application of Different Cytogenetic Techniques in Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders

    Molecular Genetics: an Overview

    Methodology: Application of Different Molecular Techniques for Diagnosis of Genetic Disorders

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 25. Antibodies and Their Applications

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    Pros

    Cons

    Websites

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 26. Vaccines: Present Status and Applications

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Types of Vaccines

    Molecular Farming Using Plants as Bio-Reactors

    Role of Adjuvants

    Immune-Stimulating Complexes (ISCOMs)

    Protocol for the Development of Vaccines

    Future Challenges in Vaccine Development

    Ethical Issues

    Mandates

    Vaccine Research and Testing

    Informed Consent

    Access Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 27. Safety Assessment of Food Derived from Genetically Modified Crops

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Rationale for the Allergenicity Assessment of GM Foods

    Mechanism of Food Protein-Induced Allergenicity

    Simulated Gastric Fluid (SGF) Assay

    Simulated Intestinal Fluid (SIF) Assay

    Thermal Treatment Assay

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 28. Nanotechnology and Detection of Microbial Pathogens

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Indicators of Microbial Water Quality

    Need for Detection of Water- and Food-Borne Pathogens

    Conventional Methods to Detect Fecal Indicator Organisms and Other Pathogenic Bacteria

    Molecular Methods Based on Genetic Signature of Target Pathogen

    Nanotechnology and Its Promise

    History

    Detection Principle

    Methodology

    Examples

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    Future Approaches

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 29. Biotechnological Exploitation of Marine Animals

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Marine Bioresources and Biotechnology

    Genetic Engineering and Its Application in Aquaculture

    Marine Ornamental Fish Trade and Chromosomal Manipulation

    Advances in Mariculture

    Marine Genomics

    Disease Diagnosis of Cultivable Animals

    Therapeutics from Marine Animals

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    Future Directions

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 30. Herbal Medicine and Biotechnology for the Benefit of Human Health

    Abstract

    Summary

    What you can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Methodology

    Biotechnological Approaches for Herbal Drug Production

    Opportunities and Challenges

    Conclusions and Outlook

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 31. Perspectives on the Human Genome

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    Human Genome Sequencing Project

    Principle

    Methodology

    Examples with Applications

    Ethical Issues

    Translational Significance

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Abbreviations

    Glossary

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Chapter 32. Ethical Issues in Animal Biotechnology

    Abstract

    Summary

    What You Can Expect to Know

    History and Methods

    A Brief Overview of Ethical Thoughts and Principles

    Principles

    Methodology

    Application of Ethics in Animal Biotechnology

    Ethical Concerns in Animal Biotechnology

    Some Challenging Ethical Issues in Animal Biotechnology

    Translational Significance

    Conclusions

    World Wide Web Resources

    References

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Abbreviations

    Long Answer Questions

    Short Answer Questions

    Answers to Short Answer Questions

    Index

    Color Plates

Product details

  • No. of pages: 668
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: November 4, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780124160026
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123914347

About the Editors

Ashish Verma

He has published more than thirty articles in peer reviewed journals, co-edited five books, and authored five individual book chapters. Dr. Verma serves as Associate Editor of the Journal of Agricultural and Biological Research, Research Journal of Immunology, International Journal of Virology, Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences and Advances in Integrative Omics and Applied Biotechnology. He also serves as Chief Editor of Biolixer and is a full member of the Indian Immunology Society, the Association of Microbiologists of India, the Society of Biological Chemists, the Society of Toxicology, the Indian Science Congress, and the Biotechnology Society of India. Dr. Ashish has been an invited guest speaker at numerous international scientific meetings, chaired ten scientific meetings in India and abroad, and received research grants and awards from the Indian Ministry of Education, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, the International Union of Immunology, the Weizmann Institute of Science, and the Catholic University of Rome among other organizations.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor and Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Jadavpur University, Kolkatta, India

Anchal Singh

Dr. Singh teaches biochemistry and immunology to post graduate students at Baranas Hindu University and her research interests and areas of expertise include parasite immunology, immunodiagnostics, animal cell cultures, in vitro assays, and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Her research has been funded by the Indian Department of Science and Technology and the Indian Department of Biotechnology. She has co-edited five books, authored articles for peer reviewed journals, and authored nine individual book chapters in her various research areas. Additionally, Dr. Singh is a full member of the Association of Microbiologists of India, the Society of Biological Chemists, and AIDSCON and has served as Treasurer of “National Symposium on HIV and AIDS: Biology to Bedside” held at Amity University (2012), the “International Symposium on Frontiers in Cancer Research: Prevention to Therapeutics” at Amity University (2013), and the “26th National Congress of Parasitology” held at Banaras Hindu University (2016).

Affiliations and Expertise

Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India

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