Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences

Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences

2nd Edition - December 28, 2012
This is the Latest Edition
  • Editors-in-Chief: Jay Siegel, Pekka Saukko
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123821669
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123821652

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Description

Forensic science includes all aspects of investigating a crime, including: chemistry, biology and physics, and also incorporates countless other specialties. Today, the service offered under the guise of "forensic science’ includes specialties from virtually all aspects of modern science, medicine, engineering, mathematics and technology. The Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Second Edition, Four Volume Set is a reference source that will inform both the crime scene worker and the laboratory worker of each other’s protocols, procedures and limitations. Written by leading scientists in each area, every article is peer reviewed to establish clarity, accuracy, and comprehensiveness. As reflected in the specialties of its Editorial Board, the contents covers the core theories, methods and techniques employed by forensic scientists – and applications of these that are used in forensic analysis.

Key Features

  • This 4-volume set represents a 30% growth in articles from the first edition, with a particular increase in coverage of DNA and digital forensics
  • Includes an international collection of contributors
  • The second edition features a new 21-member editorial board, half of which are internationally based
  • Includes over 300 articles, approximately 10pp on average
  • Each article features a) suggested readings which point readers to additional sources for more information, b) a list of related Web sites, c) a 5-10 word glossary and definition paragraph, and d) cross-references to related articles in the encyclopedia
  • Available online via SciVerse ScienceDirect. Please visit www.info.sciencedirect.com for more information
  • This new edition continues the reputation of the first edition, which was awarded an Honorable Mention in the prestigious Dartmouth Medal competition for 2001. This award honors the creation of reference works of outstanding quality and significance, and is sponsored by the RUSA Committee of the American Library Association

Readership

Forensic practitioners (both at the crime scene and in the lab); university libraries with forensic and criminal justice programs and public libraries

Table of Contents

  • Editors-in-Chief: Biographies

    Senior Editor: Biography

    Section Editors

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Introduction

    Permission Acknowledgments

    Volume 1: A – B

    Anthropology/Odontology

    Animal Effects on Bones

    Introduction

    Search and Recovery

    Postmortem Interval Estimation

    Assessment of Lesions and Cause of Death

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    History of Forensic Anthropology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Forensic Anthropology: An Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Forensic Taphonomy

    Introduction

    History and Development of the Role of Taphonomy in Forensic Anthropology

    Time since Death (PMI) Estimation

    Trends in Current Research

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Archeology

    Background

    Search

    Recovery

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Postmortem Interval

    Entomology

    Botany

    Other Animal and Cultural Indicators

    Tissue Morphology

    Mummification

    Adipocere

    Chemical Approaches

    Radiocarbon Analysis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Species: Human Versus Nonhuman

    Introduction

    Method Selection

    Methodologies

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Sexing

    Introduction

    Sexual Dimorphism

    Sex Estimation in Subadults

    The Adult Skeleton: Morphology

    The Adult Skeleton: Metric Analysis

    Summary and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Aging the Dead and the Living

    Introduction

    The Dead

    The Living

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Stature and Build

    Introduction

    Measures of Body Build and Body Size

    Methods of Stature Estimation

    Stature Estimation from Long Bones

    Stature Estimation from Percutaneous Bone Measurements and Body Parts

    Stature Estimation from Radiographically Determined Long Bone Length

    Stature Estimation from Small Bones and Other Bones of the Body

    Estimation of Stature from Fragments of Bones

    Secular Change and Variation in Limb Proportions in Relation to Stature in Different Populations

    Factors Affecting Stature Estimation in Forensic Examinations and Making Population Standards and Databases

    See also

    Further Reading

    Ancestry

    Introduction

    Resources

    Why Do Ancestry Estimation?

    Estimation from the Cranium

    Estimation from the Postcranial Skeleton

    Statistics and Probabilities

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Facial Approximation

    Introduction

    Method History

    Contemporary Methods

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Personal Identification in Forensic Anthropology

    Introduction

    Personal Identification

    Types of Personal Identification

    Methods of Scientific Identification

    Possible Conclusions in a Scientific Identification

    Methods Contributing to Identification

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bone Pathology and Antemortem Trauma

    Introduction

    Bone Pathology

    Antemortem Trauma

    See also

    Nomenclature

    Further Reading

    Biomechanics of Bone Trauma

    Introduction

    Goals of Trauma Analysis

    Bone Structure and Material Properties

    Fracture Propagation and Fracture Types

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Bone Trauma

    Introduction

    Ante-, Peri-, or Postmortem Origin of the Bone Lesion

    Biomechanics

    Classification of the Bone Lesions

    Long Bones

    Other Locations

    Gunshot Wounds

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Identification of the Living

    Introduction

    Facial Assessment

    Further Features on the Skin, Hands, and Genitals

    Appendix Morphological Assessment of Facial Features: The DMV Atlas

    See also

    Abbreviations

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Odontology

    Definitions

    The Nature of the Work

    Why Is Dental Evidence So Good for Corroborating Identity?

    When No Antemortem Records Exist

    Interactions with Other Professionals

    Bite Marks, Bruising, and Other Injuries to Skin

    Other Skills

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Behavioral

    Autoerotic Death

    The Literature

    The Nature of Autoerotic Death

    Autoerotic Asphyxia

    Atypical Autoerotic Deaths

    Death Scene Characteristics

    Male Versus Female Practice

    Psychological Autopsy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Criminal Profiling

    The Early History of Criminal Profiling

    A Modern History of Criminal Profiling

    The Goals of Criminal Profiling

    Methods of Criminal Profiling

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Detection of Deception

    Introduction

    Early Attempts to Detect Deception

    Detecting Deception Using Behavioral Cues

    The Myths of Hypnosis and Narcoanalysis

    Integrity Tests

    Detecting Deception from Verbal Content

    Psychophysiological Detection of Deception

    Other Psychophysiological Measures

    Unobtrusive Detection of Deception

    Summary and Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Interpretation

    Introduction

    A Framework for Inference

    Current Practices and Possible Improvements

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Investigative Psychology

    Introduction

    Information Retrieval

    Investigative Decision Making

    Appropriate Inferences

    Further Reading

    Lie Detection

    Lie Detection and Truth Discovery

    Brief History of Lie Detection

    Theories of Lie Detection

    Psychophysiological Measurements in Modern Lie Detection

    Conventional Lie Detection Techniques

    Criticisms of Conventional Lie Detection

    The Goal of Lie Detection: The Discovery of Truth

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Modus Operandi

    A Short History

    The Utility of MO Analysis

    Elements of MO

    Influences on MO

    Uniqueness and Reliability

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Offender Signature

    Origins

    Offender Psychodynamics

    Behavioral Consistency Theory

    Recognizing Signature Behavior

    Active and Passive Signature Behaviors

    Limiting Factors

    Case Linkage: Offender Signature in Court

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Behavioral Forensic Science: An Overview

    Introduction

    Education and Training in Forensic Psychology

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Forensic Phonetics

    Introduction

    Signal Analysis

    Speaker Identification

    Vocal Behaviors

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Forensic Linguistics

    Written Legal Language

    Spoken Legal Language

    Investigative Linguistics and Provision of Evidence

    Conclusions and Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    Psychological Autopsies

    Introduction: Definitions and Usage

    Validity and Reliability of Psychological Autopsies

    Legal Requirements of Psychological Autopsy Testimony

    The Methodologies

    Other Protocols for Psychological Autopsies

    Ethical Elements in Psychological Autopsies

    Appendix

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Forensic Psychology and Psychiatry

    Introduction

    Historical Development

    Current Practice

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Forensic Psychiatry

    Assessment of Competence

    Risk Assessment

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Forensic Psychology

    The Psychology of Evidence

    Confession Evidence

    Psychology in the Courtroom

    Jurors

    The Strength of the Research

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Serial Killing

    Serial Murder

    Myths of Serial Murders

    An Operationalized Definition of Serial Murder and the San Antonio Symposium

    Serial Murderers as Psychopaths

    Serial Murder Profiling Strategies

    Serial Murder Signatures and Paraphilia

    See also

    Further Reading

    Stalking

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Biology/DNA

    Forensic Genetics: History

    The Early Times

    DNA Typing: Minisatellites and Short Tandem Repeats

    Polymorphisms in Sexual Chromosomes and Mitochondrial DNA

    Single–Nucleotide Polymorphisms and the Technological Revolution

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Basic Principles

    Definition

    Genetic Theory and Probabilities

    Genetic Information and DNA

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    DNA Extraction and Quantification

    DNA Extraction

    Organic (Phenol–Chloroform) Extraction

    Solid-Phase DNA Extraction Methods

    Chelating Resins (Chelex)

    DNA from FTA Spots

    Differential Lysis

    DNA Extraction from Bones and Teeth

    Laser Capture Microdissection

    Automation of DNA Extraction

    Microfluidic DNA Extraction Devices

    DNA Quantification

    Current Real-Time PCR Chemistries for Human DNA Quantification

    Real–Time PCR Nuclear DNA Quantification Assays

    Real–Time PCR Mitochondrial DNA Quantification

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Short Tandem Repeats

    The Genetics of Short Tandem Repeats. Short Tandem Repeats as a Class of Satellite DNA and the Genomic Characteristics of the Core Forensic Markers. Early Consensus on Ideal Forensic Short Tandem Repeats

    The Principles of Forensic Dye-Labeled STR Typing: PCR Amplification, the DNA Profile, and the Match Probability

    Irregularities Seen in Routine STR Profiling. Nonstandard Alleles, Complex Forensic STR Profiles, and the Importance of Detection Thresholds

    New Developments in STR Typing

    Beyond the Core Loci: New STRs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Accreditation in Forensic DNA Analysis

    Introduction

    Accreditation or Certification?

    A Short Guide to Accreditation for ISO/IEC 17025

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    SNPs Versus Short Tandem Repeats

    SNP Typing Methods

    SNP Typing Assays for Human Identification

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    MiniSTRs

    Introduction

    The Definition of a miniSTR

    Benefits of miniSTRs

    Limitations of miniSTRs

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Mixture Interpretation (Interpretation of Mixed DNA Profiles with STRs Only)

    Introduction

    Determining the Number of Contributors

    Determining a Ratio of Contributors

    Alleles below the Stochastic Threshold

    Alleles above the Stochastic Threshold

    Loci without Unambiguous Minor Alleles

    Indistinguishable from Stutter

    Interpretations That Utilize the Assumption of an Individual Being Intimate to the Sample

    Mixture Deconvolution

    Probative Comparisons

    Future Considerations for DNA Mixture Interpretation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Low-Template DNA Testing

    Definition

    Applications of LT-DNA Testing

    Implementation of LT-DNA Testing

    Statistical Considerations for LT-DNA Analysis

    Casework Examples

    Other Case Examples

    Additional Considerations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    X-Chromosome Markers

    Abbreviations

    The X-Chromosome

    X-Chromosome Markers in Forensic Genetics

    Genetic Markers

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mitochondrial DNA

    Structure and Basics

    Biology and Genetics

    The Role of the Phylogeny in Forensic mtDNA Testing

    Practical Aspects of Forensic mtDNA Testing

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Introduction to Nonhuman DNA Typing

    Animal DNA Typing

    Plant DNA Typing

    Insect DNA Typing

    Microbial DNA Typing from Soil Samples

    See also

    Abbreviations

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies

    Introduction

    Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies

    Targeted Enrichment

    Applications in Forensic Sciences

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    DNA – Statistical Probability

    Introduction

    Probability

    Forensic Probabilities

    Conclusion

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Parentage Testing and Kinship Analysis

    History of Parentage Testing

    Technical Considerations

    The Methods Used in Parentage Testing

    Analysis of the Typical Parentage Trio

    Cases Lacking a Known Parent

    Special Types of DNA Testing

    Mutations and How to Deal with Them

    Future Considerations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Significance

    Introduction

    A Brief Summary of Approaches to Estimating the Significance of DNA Evidence

    Practical Application of Estimates of the Significance of DNA Evidence

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Future Analytical Techniques: DNA Mass Spectrometry

    Abbreviations

    Background

    Mass Spectrometric Methods in Forensic Genetics

    MS-Based Genotypes and Haplotypes to Aid Forensic Analysis

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    DNA Databases

    Introduction

    Criteria for the Inclusion of DNA Profiles in National DNA Databases

    Genetic Typing Systems

    Privacy Rights, Ethical Considerations, and New Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Laboratory Automation and LIMS in Forensics

    Introduction

    Selection of an ALH

    Validation of Automated Systems and Laboratory Processes

    Operation and Maintenance of Automated Instruments in Forensic Environments

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Ancestry Informative Markers

    The First Forensic Ancestry Informative Markers: Early Use of Ancestry Informative Protein Polymorphisms Demonstrated Their Value for Investigations

    Y-Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Variation

    Points of Reference: Defining Populations or Ancestries, Ancestry Informativeness Metrics, Types of Autosomal AIMs, and Population Diversity Reference Panels

    Autosomal AIM-SNPs

    Indels

    STRs

    Statistical Analysis of AIM Genotype Data

    Developments on the Horizon: Expanding Human SNP Catalogs, Combining Marker Types, Further Differentiation of Continental Population Groups, and X-Chromosome Markers

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Disaster Victim Identification

    Introduction

    Management of Disaster Victim Identification

    Principles of Identification

    Methods of Identification

    Evaluation of Identification Data

    Conclusions

    See also

    Abbreviations

    Further Reading

    Forensic DNA Advisory Groups: DAB, SWGDAM, ENFSI, and BSAG

    Introduction

    The United States

    Europe

    Australia/New Zealand

    Asia

    International Cooperation and Coordination

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Forensic Laboratory Efficiency and Funding

    General

    Method

    Discussion

    Conclusion

    See also

    Abbreviations

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Bayesian Networks

    Introduction

    Bayesian Networks

    Bayesian Networks for Probabilistic Inference in Forensic Science

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Internet Accessible Population Databases: YHRD and EMPOP

    Introduction to the Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Database Projects

    Haplotype Sampling

    The Quality Assessment Scheme of YHRD and EMPOP

    The Tool Boxes of YHRD and EMPOP

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    History of the International Society for Forensic Genetics – ISFG

    Executive Board of the ISFG

    Honorary Members

    Membership

    The Biannual ISFG Congresses

    Proceedings of the ISFG Congresses

    Scientific ISFG Prizes

    The Language-Based Working Parties

    The DNA Commission

    The European DNA Profiling Group

    Compliance with Statutes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Forensic DNA Phenotyping: DNA Testing for Externally Visible Characteristics

    Definition, Motivation, and Principle

    The Proof-of-Principle: Eye Color Prediction from DNA

    Additional Appearance Traits with Emerging Genetic and Predictive Knowledge

    Outlook: The Near and Distant Future of FDP

    See also

    Further reading

    The National Missing and Unidentified Persons System (NamUs)

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Microbiology and Bioterrorism

    Introduction

    Bioterrorism (and Its Impact)

    Biological Agents

    Microbiology as a Forensic Science

    The 2001 US Anthrax Letters

    The Application of Microbiological Procedure to the Forensic Sciences

    The Microbiological Investigation of Bioterrorism

    Final Remarks

    See also

    Nomenclature

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Biology/DNA/Botany

    Cannabis DNA Typing Methods

    Introduction

    History of Cannabis Cultivation

    History of Classification

    DNA Methods to Classify Cannabis

    Linking Sample to Source

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Biology/DNA/Entomology

    Overview

    Deoxyribonucleic Acid

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Biology/DNA/Methods/Analytical Techniques

    Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Genetics

    Introduction

    Theory of CE

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Biology/DNA/RNA

    mRNA and MicroRNA for Body Fluid Identification

    Introduction

    Messenger RNA

    MicroRNA

    Other Applications of RNA in Forensic Science

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Biology/DNA/Wildlife

    DNA and Endangered Species

    Introduction

    DNA Analysis Methods

    Validation of the DNA Identification Methods

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Volume 2: C – E

    Chemistry/Trace

    Stomach Contents Analysis

    Procedures for the Examination of Gastric Contents and Vomit Stains

    Microscopic Examinations

    Gastric Enzyme Screening Test

    Case Studies

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chemistry/Trace/Adhesive Tapes

    Adhesive Tapes

    Duct Tape

    Packaging Tape

    Electrical Tape

    Forensic Analysis of Tape Components

    Interpretation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chemistry/Trace/Decomposition Chemistry

    Decomposition Chemistry: Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Decomposition Stages

    Lipid Degradation

    Protein Degradation

    Carbohydrate Degradation

    Volatile Organic Compounds

    Preservation of Soft Tissue

    Vitreous Humor

    Bone Degradation

    Analytical Methods

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chemistry/Trace/Drugs of Abuse

    Clandestine Laboratories

    Introduction

    Scope of the Problem

    Recognition

    Forensic Components

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Analysis of Controlled Substances

    Introduction

    Analytical Strategy

    Physical Examination

    Presumptive Tests

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Chromatography

    Thin-Layer Chromatography

    High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Gas Chromatography

    Quantitative Chromatographic Analysis

    Mass Spectrometry

    Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

    Conclusions

    See also

    Abbreviations

    Further Reading

    Classification

    Introduction

    Natural Drugs

    Semisynthetic Drugs

    Synthetic Drugs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Designer Drugs

    Introduction

    Designer Drugs of Various Structural Types

    Forensic Relevance

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chemistry/Trace/Environmental Analysis

    Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation of Environmental Forensic Evidence

    Introduction

    Dating the Release of Contaminants from Underground Storage Tanks

    Additives for Age Dating TCE

    Compound Specific Isotope Analysis for Source Identification of TCE

    Surrogate Analysis

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chemistry/Trace/Explosives

    Clandestine Explosive Laboratories

    Introduction

    Recognition of Clandestine Explosive Laboratories

    Objectives of Clandestine Explosive Laboratory Examination

    The Examination of Clandestine Explosive Laboratories

    Case Study – The Explosions in London on 7 July 2005

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Improvised Explosive Devices

    Introduction

    Elements of IEDs

    Effects of IEDs

    Detection and Countermeasures to IEDs

    Forensic Science and IEDs

    The Courts

    See also

    Further Reading

    Explosives: Analysis

    Introduction

    Methods and Procedures

    Postexplosion and Trace Analysis of Explosives

    Criteria of Identification

    Interpretation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Commercial

    Introduction

    Performance Parameters

    Nitroglycerine-containing Explosives

    Ammonium Nitrate-based Explosives

    Detonating Cords

    Boosters (Primers)

    Detonators

    See also

    Further Reading

    Military

    Introduction

    High Explosives

    Propellants

    See also

    Further Reading

    Improvised Explosives

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    History

    Classifications

    Mixtures

    Synthetics

    See also

    Further Reading

    Explosions

    Explosives Effects

    Types of Explosions

    Primary Effects of an Explosion

    Results of Explosions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chemistry/Trace/Fibers

    Fibers: Overview

    Introduction

    Classification of Fibers

    Fiber Properties and Textile Fabrics

    Transfer and Persistence

    Recovery of Fibers

    Case Management

    Laboratory Examinations and Analysis

    Interpretation of Fiber Evidence

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Transfer

    Introduction

    Transfer

    Factors Affecting Transfer

    Differential Shedding

    Primary and Secondary Transfer

    Special Cases

    Mechanism of Fiber Transfer

    Fiber transfer: A Dynamic Process

    Fiber Transfer Modeling

    Concluding Comments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Persistence and Recovery

    Introduction

    Persistence

    Factors Affecting Persistence

    Effect of Fiber Size and Morphology

    Differential Loss

    Effect of Garment Cleaning

    Fiber Binding

    Fiber Redistribution

    Methods of Recovery

    Choice of Recovery Method

    Documentation and Packaging

    Contamination Issues

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Fiber: Protocols for Examination

    Introduction

    Laboratory Protocols for Fiber Examination

    Microscopic Examination

    Color Analysis

    Fiber Identification

    Comparative Examinations

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Identification and Comparison

    Introduction

    Identification

    Microscopy

    Birefringence

    Infrared Spectroscopy

    Pyrolysis

    Comparison

    Microscopic Appearance

    Color Comparison

    Microspectrophotometry

    Spectral Comparison

    Color Matching

    Dye Comparison

    Raman Spectroscopy

    Chemical Composition

    Chemical/Physical Tests

    Scheme of Analysis

    Documentation

    Resources

    See also

    Further Reading

    Textile and Fiber Damage

    Introduction

    Mechanical Damage

    Environmental and Laundering Effects

    The Influence of Heat

    Microbiological Damage

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Fiber Microscopy

    Introduction

    Instruments Used for Fiber Microscopy

    Role of Microscopy in Fiber Examinations

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Color Analysis

    Introduction

    What is Color?

    Microspectroscopy Techniques

    Transmission Microspectroscopy

    Fluorescence Microspectroscopy

    Sample Preparation

    Spectral Analysis

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Interpretation of Fiber Evidence

    Introduction

    Factors Influencing the Value of Fiber Evidence

    Information Available to Assist the Interpretation of Fiber Evidence

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chemistry/Trace/Fire Investigation

    Chemistry of Fire

    Introduction

    Conditions for a Fire

    Fire as a Chemical Reaction

    Phase Change and Pyrolysis

    Heat Source and Transfer

    Flammability Limits, Flash Point, and Fire Point

    Ignition

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Physics/Thermodynamics

    Introduction and Overview

    Physical Thermodynamics: The Relevant Background

    The Role of Thermodynamics in Fire Investigation

    Fire: Ignition and Propagation

    Thermodynamic Classification of Ignition Sources

    Smoldering

    Flames

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Thermal Degradation

    Introduction

    Thermal Degradation Effects

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Analysis of Fire Debris

    Introduction

    Evidence Collection – Sampling Containers

    Preliminary Examination of Fire Debris Samples

    Extraction and Sampling Techniques

    Analysis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Interpretation of Fire Debris Analysis

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Classification

    Interpretation of Neat Liquids

    Interpretation of Ignitable Liquid Residues

    Systematic Approach

    Significance of Findings

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chemistry/Trace/Firearm Discharge Residues

    Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    The Ammunition for Firearms from the Chemical Point of View

    Looking for FDR on Surfaces

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Chemistry/Trace/Forensic Geosciences

    Crime Scene Considerations

    Introduction

    A Team Approach to Crime Scenes

    Crime Scene Reminders

    Soil Forensic Crime Scene Specifics

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Soils

    Introduction

    Classification of Soils

    Why is Soil Evidence so Good?

    Historical Perspective

    Basic Principles Used in Forensic Soil Criminal Investigations

    Soil Evidence Collection and Characterization

    Example Case Studies

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Forensic Geoscience

    Introduction

    From the Macro- to the Microscale

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Botany

    Introduction and Scope

    Forensic Botany Starts at the Crime Scene

    Typical Sample Types Encountered in Forensic Botany

    Plant Fibers Used in Paper and Textiles

    Plant DNA Analysis

    Summary and Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chemistry/Trace/Glass

    Overview (Glass)

    Collection and Packaging of Glass Exhibits

    Types of Glass

    Glass Manufacture

    The Transfer and Persistence of Breaking Glass

    Background Glass in the Population

    Glass Analysis

    Assessing the Evidential Value

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Glass Analysis

    Introduction

    Physical Examination

    Elemental Analysis

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Interpretation of Glass Evidence

    Nomenclature

    Transfer of Glass Fragments

    Persistence of Glass Fragments on Clothing

    Presence of Background Glass

    Interpretation of Analytical Results

    Evaluating the Evidential Value of the Results

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Chemistry/Trace/Miscellaneous Unknowns

    The Forensic Analysis of Chemical Unknowns

    Introduction

    Common Submissions

    Safety Considerations and Presumptive Testing

    Contextual Information

    Analytical Approach

    Interpretation of Results

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chemistry/Trace/Paint and Coating

    Overview

    Paint as Protection

    Paint as Decoration

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Architectural Paint

    Substrates and Their Appropriate Primer and Coating

    Solvents

    Resin or Binder: The Film-Forming Portion of the Paint

    Pigments

    Coatings Application and Film Formation

    Additives

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Automotive Paint

    The Binder or Resin

    Pigments

    Solvents

    Order of Deposition and Identification of Paint Layers

    Application Techniques

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Forensic Paint Analysis

    Forensic Considerations About Paint Evidence

    Evidence Collection

    Optical Examination

    IR Spectroscopy

    Raman Spectroscopy

    Pyrolysis–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Elemental Analysis (Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive x-Ray Analysis, Micro x-Ray Fluorescence)

    Microspectrophotometry

    Other Analytical Techniques

    Illustration of Different Techniques

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Interpretation of Paint Evidence

    Evaluation of the Paint Samples for Analysis

    Variations in the Samples

    Interpretation of Data from Instruments Commonly Used in Paint Analysis

    Determination of the Significance of an Association

    Example of Levels of Association

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chemistry/Trace/Trace Evidence

    Trace Evidence Overview

    Introduction

    Trace, Physical Evidence, or Trace Evidence?

    Locard Exchange Principle

    The Three Rs of Trace Evidence – Recognition, Recording, and Recovery

    Recovery of Trace Evidence

    Examination of Trace Evidence

    Interpretation of Trace Evidence

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Microchemistry

    Introduction

    Types of Microchemical Reactions

    Microchemical Analysis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Digital Evidence

    Child Pornography

    Introduction

    International Law

    Harm

    Typologies of Child Pornography

    Internet Sex Offenders

    Risk

    Digital Child Pornography

    User-Generated Content and Sexting

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Cellular Phones

    Introduction

    Mobile Phone Network Technology

    Mobile Phone Hardware Components

    Mobile Phone Software

    The Mobile Phone Forensics Hierarchy

    Seizing and Handling Cell Phones

    Mobile Phone Forensic Tools

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Digital Imaging: Enhancement and Authentication

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Digital Imagery: Legal Constraints

    Digital Image Enhancement Techniques

    Digital Image Authentication Techniques

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Digital Evidence/Audio Forensics

    Audio Enhancement and Authentication

    Introduction

    Forensic Audio Enhancement

    Forensic Audio Authentication

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Digital Evidence/Black Boxes and Security Cameras

    Aircraft Flight Data Recorders

    Introduction

    Pursuit of Truth

    Desired Knowledge

    Role of Evidence in Establishing Truth

    Aircraft Flight Data Recorder History

    Current Recorder State-of-the-Art

    Cultural Repercussion of Recorders

    Technical Investigation

    Criminal Investigation

    Expanded Employment of Recorders

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Digital Evidence/Photography and Digital Imaging

    Digital Imaging and Photography: An Overview

    History of Images in Forensic Science

    Forensic

    Technical Photography Versus Creative Photography

    The Film Camera

    The Digital Camera

    Digital Imaging

    Digital SLR

    Scientific Working Group on Imaging Technology

    Admissibility in Court of Digital Photo Images

    Official Images

    Photographic Filters

    Fuji IS Pro

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Documents

    Analytical Methods

    Introduction

    The Traditional Methods

    The Newer Trends

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Document Dating

    Paper Products

    Inks and Writing Instruments

    Commercially Printed Documents

    Handwriting and Signatures

    Contents of a Document

    Computer-Printed Documents

    Facsimile Documents

    Cachet Impressions

    Glues, Tapes, and Paper Fasteners

    Indented Writing

    Guillotine Marks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Forgery/Counterfeits

    Introduction

    The Nature of Documents Used for Deceit

    Combating Counterfeit and Forged Documents

    The Examination Role

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Handwriting

    Introduction

    Theoretical Basis for Handwriting Comparison

    Handwriting Comparison Method

    Feature Comparison

    Evaluation and Opinion

    Signature Comparison Method

    Un-Natural Handwriting Behaviors

    Examination of Nonoriginal Writing

    Recent Research in Handwriting Comparisons

    Reporting Opinions

    Other Examinations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Ink Analysis

    Introduction

    Composition of Major Types of Writing Inks

    Ink Comparisons and Identifications

    Dating of Inks

    Accelerated Aging

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Paper Analysis

    Paper Manufacturing Process

    Forensic Examination of Paper

    Dating

    Miscellaneous

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    History of the Forensic Examination of Documents

    Introduction

    The Letters of Junius

    The Dreyfus Case

    The Lindbergh Case

    The Peter Weinberger Case

    The Hitler Diaries

    The Mormon Forgeries and Murders

    The Howard Hughes ‘Mormon Will’ Case

    The Alger Hiss Case

    The Unabomber

    The Killian Memos

    The Jon Benet Ramsey Case

    The Zodiac Killer

    Admissibility

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Overview of Forensic Document Examination

    What is a Forensic Document Examiner?

    What are the Duties of a FDE?

    Exploring FDE Casework

    Qualifications of a Modern FDEs

    Issues for the Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Engineering

    Forensic Engineering/Accident Reconstruction/Biomechanics of Injury/Philosophy, Basic Theory, and Fundamentals

    Introduction

    Basic Principles

    Methodology

    Accident Reconstruction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Accident Investigation – Determination of Cause

    Introduction

    Targets

    Accident Analysis

    Material Properties in the Contact Area

    Eccentric Impacts

    The Full Impact

    The Sliding Impact

    Energy Equivalent Speed

    The Driver’s Reaction

    Sample Case

    Results

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Airbag Related Injuries and Deaths

    Introduction

    Historical Context

    Automotive Industry

    Human Injuries

    Specific Injury Patterns

    Sample Cases

    Forensics of Air Bag Injuries

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Electronic Data Recorders (EDRs, Black Boxes)

    Abbreviations

    Background of Electronic Data in Ground Vehicles

    Retrieving ECU NVRAM Data for Use in Crash Investigations

    The Use of ECU NVRAM Data in Crash Investigations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Analog Tachograph Chart Analysis

    Introduction

    The Forensic Use of Tachograph Data

    The Tachograph Chart

    The Tachograph Instrument

    The Principles of Chart Analysis

    The Accuracy of the Speed Record

    Falsifications and Diagnostic Signals

    Case Example

    Digital Tachographs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Human Factors Investigation and Analysis of Accidents and Incidents

    HFACS – A Human Factors Investigative Tool

    Using HFACS to Identify and Address Threats to Quality and Safety

    Closing Thoughts

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Railroad Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

    Introduction

    Types of Railroad Accidents

    Event Recorders

    Procedural Steps to Follow in Railroad Accident Investigation and Reconstruction

    Human Factors Considerations – Level Crossing Accidents

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Analysis of Digital Evidence

    History/Background

    Current Context

    Standards

    Digital Evidence Life Cycle

    DE Process Model

    Digital Evidence Artifacts

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary (SWGDE, 2011)

    Investigation and Analysis of Structural Collapses

    Overview

    First Steps

    The Investigation

    The Investigator/Expert

    Postinvestigation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Biomechanics of Human Gait – Slip and Fall Analysis

    Biomechanics of Human Gait

    Gait Characteristics Influencing Slip Initiation, Detection, and Recovery

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Forensic Chemical Engineering Investigation and Analysis

    Introduction

    Fires and Explosions

    Pollution and Toxic Substances

    Unrecognized Hazards and Unexpected Consequences

    Epilog

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Materials Analysis and Failure Analysis

    The Role of Materials Analysis in Determining Causation of Failure

    Techniques for Determining Morphology

    Techniques for Determining Composition

    Selecting the Appropriate Technique

    See also

    Further Reading

    Investigation and Analysis of Electrical Accidents

    Investigation

    Analysis

    Casework/Examples

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Volume 3: F – M

    Forensic Medicine/Causes of Death

    Blunt Injury

    Introduction

    Blunt Injuries to the Integument

    Head Injuries

    Injuries of the Chest

    Abdominal Injuries

    Injuries to the Extremities

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Burns and Scalds

    Introduction

    External Findings

    Internal Findings

    Toxicology

    Histology

    Diagnosis of Vitality

    Determination of the Cause of Death

    Scalds

    External Findings

    Internal Findings

    See also

    Further Reading

    Asphyctic Deaths – Overview and Pathophysiology

    Introduction

    Signs of Asphyxia

    Mechanisms of Asphyxia

    Suffocation

    Smothering

    Plastic Bag Asphyxia

    Choking

    Compression of the Neck

    Traumatic (Crush) Asphyxia

    Burking

    Positional and Restraint Asphyxia

    Drowning

    Autoerotic Sexual Asphyxia

    The Choking Game

    Chemical Asphyxiants

    Conclusions

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Strangulation

    Airway Occlusion

    Compression of the Cervical Arteries

    Occlusion of the Neck Veins

    Autopsy Findings

    Reflex Mechanisms

    Hanging

    Strangulation by Ligature

    Manual Strangulation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Traumatic and Postural Asphyxia, Physical Restraint

    Traumatic Asphyxia

    Postural or Positional Asphyxia

    Restraint Asphyxia

    Other Mechanical Asphyxia Cases

    Mechanical Asphyxia during Institutional Restraint

    Incaprettamento

    Burking

    Constrictor Snakes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Immersion Deaths

    Introduction

    Physiopathology

    Autopsy Findings

    Histology

    The Biochemical Markers

    The Diatom Test

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Sharp Trauma

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Wound Morphology and Biomechanics

    Sequelae and Causes of Death

    Homicide, Suicide, and Accident

    Capability of Acting

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Systemic Response to Trauma

    Introduction

    Systemic Responses Immediately Caused by Traumas

    Shock: A Systemic Response to Traumas in Acute Phase

    Advanced Systemic Responses to Traumas in Early Phase

    Delayed Complications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Sudden Natural Death

    Definition

    Criminalistic Aspects

    Special Categories

    Classification According to the Morphological Substrate

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)

    Introduction

    Definition

    Epidemiology and Risk Factors

    Results of Autopsy

    Typical Macroscopic Findings

    Histological Changes

    Postmortem Investigation

    Death Scene

    Autopsy

    Clinical History

    Cause of Death

    Hypotheses of Possible Causes of SIDS

    See also

    Further Reading

    Gunshot Wounds

    Introduction

    Wound Ballistics

    Criminalistic Aspects

    Entrance and Exit Wounds

    Classification of Entrance Wounds in Relation to the Range from Muzzle to Target

    Shotgun Injuries

    Internal Findings

    Forensic Examination and Documentation

    Manner of Death

    Injuries Caused by Explosives

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Forensic Medicine/Clinical

    Clinical Forensic Medicine – Overview

    Introduction

    Clinical Examination of Living Victims

    Injuries of Surviving Victims and of Assailants Following Attempted Manual or Ligature Strangulation

    Medical Hazards in Police Custody

    Torture

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Domestic Violence

    Introduction

    Definition

    Epidemiology

    Diagnosis of DV

    Aspects for the Criminal Prosecution

    Sexual Violence and DV

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Sexual Violence

    Definition and Epidemiology

    Risk Factors

    Forms of Sexual Assault

    Examination

    Documentation

    Case Management

    See also

    Further Reading

    Child Abuse

    Introduction

    Physical Abuse

    Sexual Abuse

    The Interpretation of Medical Findings

    Recording the Findings in Possible Child Abuse Cases

    Interpretation of Findings

    See also

    Further Reading

    Defense Wounds

    Introduction

    Defense Wounds from Knife Attacks

    Defense Wounds due to Blunt Force

    Defense Wounds from Other Weapons

    Misleading Findings Similar to Defense Wounds

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Self-Inflicted Injury

    Introduction

    Simulation of Criminal Offenses

    Self-Mutilation for the Purpose of Insurance Fraud

    Voluntary Self-Mutilation and/or Malingering Among Prisoners and Soldiers

    Artifacts in Patients with Psychic Disturbances or Mental Diseases

    Attempted Suicide

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Elder Abuse

    Age-Related Changes in the Body of an Elder

    Who, Where, Why, When

    Physical Neglect

    Physical Abuse

    Restraints

    Toxicology

    Sexual Abuse

    Institutions

    Autopsy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Torture

    Introduction

    Forms

    Fingers

    Hands and Arms

    Foot and Leg

    Head

    Neck

    Trunk

    Electric Torture

    Psychological Torture

    Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis

    Ethics

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Forensic Age Estimation

    Introduction

    Age Estimation in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Age Diagnostics in Child Victims in Child Pornographic Image Documents

    Age Diagnostics in Older Adults for Clarification of Pension Entitlements

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Hyperthermia and Hypothermia

    Introduction

    Hyperthermia

    Hypothermia

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Electrocution and Lightning Strike

    Introduction

    Low-Voltage Effects

    Electric Burn

    High-Voltage Effects

    Lightning Strikes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Neonaticide

    Introduction

    Incidence

    Methods

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Identification

    Introduction

    Part I. Unidentified Cadavers

    Part II. Personal Identification: Comparison between Antemortem and Postmortem Data

    Conclusions

    Well-Preserved Body

    Putrefied, Burnt, Partly, or Completely Skeletonized Human Remains

    See also

    Further Reading

    Deaths in Custody

    Introduction

    Frequency of Death in Police Custody

    Distribution of Age and Gender

    Manner and Cause of Death

    Error Analysis for Deaths in Police Custody

    Forensic Assessment

    Criminal Prosecution in Cases of Death in Custody

    A Case History

    Prevention of Death in Custody

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Suicide

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Fundamentals and Definitions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Traffic Injuries and Deaths

    Road Traffic

    Railway

    Air Traffic

    See also

    Further Reading

    Airplane Crashes and Other Mass Disasters

    Definition

    Tasks

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Forensic Medicine/Pathology

    Forensic Pathology – Principles and Overview

    Introduction

    Role of the Forensic Pathologist

    Medicolegal Systems and Investigation of Deaths

    Aims of Medicolegal Autopsy

    Cause of Death

    Manner of Death

    Medicolegal Autopsy

    External Examination

    Internal Examination

    Importance of Additional Investigations

    Evidentiary Material Collected at Autopsy

    Attendance of a Forensic Pathologist at the Scene of Crime/Death

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    External Postmortem Examination

    Introduction

    External Examination Before Death Certification

    Determination of Death/Death and Dying

    Apparent Death

    Brain Death

    Time Since Death

    Determining the Cause of Death

    Consistency Between Cause of Death Diagnosis on the Death Certificate and Following Autopsy

    Manner of Death

    Problem Areas

    See also

    Further Reading

    Autopsy

    Short Historical Overview

    The Present Use of Autopsy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Histopathology

    Brief Historical Introduction to Histopathology

    Pathology/Histopathology as a Medical Specialty

    Autopsy Histopathology

    Forensic Histopathology

    Quality

    Guidelines

    Methods

    Histopathological Diagnosis

    Histological Findings as Forensic Evidence

    Problem Areas

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Early and Late Postmortem Changes

    Introduction

    Supravitality

    Mechanical Excitability of the Muscle

    Electrical Excitability of the Skeletal Muscle

    Pharmacological Excitability of the Iris

    Algor Mortis, Postmortem Body Cooling

    Postmortem Changes

    Preservation of Decomposing Bodies

    Preservation Processes in Cadavers

    See also

    Further Reading

    Estimation of the Time Since Death

    Introduction

    Temperature of Corpses

    Rectal Temperature Time of Death Nomogram

    Brain Temperature Time of Death Nomogram(s1)

    Field Studies

    Cooling Dummy

    Compound Method

    Further Methods

    Putrefaction

    Putrefaction in Water

    Immunohistochemical Detection of Insulin, Thyroglobulin, and Calcitonin

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Vital Reactions and Wound Healing

    Physiology of Skin Wound Healing

    Principles of Forensic Wound Age Estimation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Postmortem Imaging

    Introduction

    Postmortem Changes: Gas and Fluids

    Fluid

    Gunshot

    Explosion

    Sharp Trauma

    Suffocation and Strangulation

    Deceleration Trauma, Compression, Blunt Trauma, and Blows

    Water-Logged Corpse, Drowning, and Aspiration

    Sudden Death

    Identification

    Reanimation

    Invasive Medicine and Care

    Child Abuse, Infanticide, Neonaticide, and Stillbirth

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Deaths Associated with Medical Procedures

    Introduction

    An Overview of Procedural Complications Commonly Encountered in Forensic Practice

    The Forensic Evaluation of Periprocedural Deaths

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Foundations

    History of Forensic Sciences

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Principles of Forensic Science

    What Is Forensic Science?

    The Trace as the Basic Unit of Forensic Science

    Two Native Principles

    Nonnative Principles

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Evidence/Classification

    Introduction

    Relevant Evidence

    Direct and Circumstantial Evidence

    Real Evidence

    Parole Evidence

    Class and Individual Evidence

    Reliable Evidence

    Hearsay Evidence

    Tendency, Coincidence, and Propensity Evidence

    Expert and Lay Evidence

    Fact and Opinion Evidence

    See also

    Further Reading

    The Frequentist Approach to Forensic Evidence Interpretation

    Example

    Range Tests

    Formal Hypothesis Tests

    Significance Levels and Small or Big Values

    The Two-Sample t-Test

    Confidence Intervals

    Controversies and Issues

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Statistical Interpretation of Evidence: Bayesian Analysis

    Introduction

    Bayes’ Rule

    The Value of Evidence

    Categorical Data and Discrete Hypotheses

    Continuous Data and Discrete Hypotheses

    Principles of Evidence Evaluation

    Interpretation

    Pitfalls of Intuition

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Forensic Intelligence

    Introduction

    Traces as Forensic Case Data, Sign, Information, Evidence, and Intelligence

    Intelligence-Led Policing

    Intelligence-Led Systems and Examples of Forensic Intelligence Activities

    Limits of Forensic Intelligence, and Requirements

    Challenges and Tensions

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Overview and Meaning of Identification/Individualization

    The Identification Process: A Reduction Process to a Single Source

    The Inferential Schemes

    Relationship with Probabilities

    The Bayesian Framework for Evaluating Identification Findings

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Semiotics, Heuristics, and Inferences Used by Forensic Scientists

    General Consideration and Semiotics

    Inferences

    Heuristics

    Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning

    Investigation and Evaluation

    Bayesian Reasoning

    Synthesis

    The Interest of a Coordination

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Interpretation/The Comparative Method

    Introduction

    Analogy and Comparison Within a Forensic Process

    The Comparative Method Within Forensic Science

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Forensic Classification of Evidence

    Introduction

    Methods of Classification

    Class Level Information

    Uniqueness and Individualization

    Relationships and Context

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Foundations/Fundamentals

    Measurement Uncertainty

    Nomenclature

    Measurement

    Measurement to Meaning

    Measurement Uncertainty

    Meaning Requires Uncertainty

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Investigations

    Collection and Chain of Evidence

    Introduction

    Scene Examination

    Evidence Collection

    Control Samples

    Chain of Custody

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Contamination

    Definition

    Background

    Steps to Avoid Contamination

    Choosing Who Should Examine the Scene (Location, Person, or Item)

    Actions Within the Examination

    The Use of Blanks and Controls

    Demonstrating the Integrity of Items and Investigations

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Relevant Website

    Forensic Intelligence Analysis

    Intelligence Analysis and Forensic Science

    What Is Forensic Intelligence Analysis?

    Similarities between Forensic Science and Intelligence Analysis

    Intelligence Failures

    The Benefits of Structured Analytic Techniques

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Fingerprints

    Introduction

    What Is a Fingerprint?

    Recovery of Fingerprints from Scenes

    Fingerprint Practice

    Current Issues in the Field

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Major Incident Scene Management

    Background

    Scene Control and Coordination

    Approach to Crime Scene Investigation

    Initial Assessment

    Scene Security

    Occupational Health and Safety

    Systematic Collection of Potential Evidence

    Systematic and Sequential Approach to the Search and Recovery of Potential Evidence

    Examination Records

    Ongoing Case Management

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Packaging

    Background

    Paper as a Packaging Medium

    Infested Material

    Collection of Items

    Labeling

    Collection

    Summary

    Appendix 1 Collection and Packaging

    Ammunition

    Bite Marks

    Suspect

    Blood

    Whole Blood

    Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation

    Cigarette Butts

    Clothing

    Documents

    Fibers

    Fire Debris

    Firearms Discharge Residue

    Projectile Hole in Clothing

    Projectile Hole in Dead Skin

    Glass

    Hairs

    Control Samples

    Insects: Flies

    Paint

    Postmortem Samples

    Safe Insulation and Safe Surface Paint

    Saliva

    Seminal Stains

    Soil from Scene and Suspect’s Clothing and/or Environment

    Tools

    Toolmark(s)

    Vegetation

    Wires

    Notes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Preservation

    Preservation: A Time Frame Process

    Threats to Evidence

    See also

    Further Reading

    Recording

    Background

    Notes

    Photographs

    Digital Photography

    Video Recording

    Plans

    Computer-Aided Design

    Photogrammetry

    Sketch Plan

    Coordinate and Triangulation Methods of Measuring Crime Scenes

    Procedure for Measuring Crime Scenes

    Scale Plan

    Computers

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Recovery of Human Remains

    Introduction

    Search Techniques

    Recovery of Human Remains

    Forensic Anthropology

    Other Considerations at the Crime Scene

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Crime Scene Analysis and Reconstruction

    Crime Analysis and Reconstruction

    Phases of a Crime

    Evidence Dynamics

    Role of Physical Evidence

    Reconstruction – Historical Perspective

    Who Does Reconstruction

    Methods of Reconstruction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Suspicious Deaths

    Cause of Death

    Manner of Death

    Death Scene

    Postmortem Examination

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Evidence Collection at Fire Scenes

    Introduction and Overview

    Sample Selection and Documentation

    Comparison Samples

    Packaging Options

    Clothing and Shoes

    Liquids for Comparison

    Evidence Collection for Other Types of Testing

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Fire Scene Inspection Methodology

    Introduction and Overview

    First Assumptions

    Planning the Investigation

    Initial Evaluation: Can This Inspection Be Conducted Safely?

    Documentation

    Reconstruction

    Inventory

    Avoiding Spoliation

    Origin Determination

    Cause Determination

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Fire Patterns and Their Interpretation

    Introduction and Overview

    Plume-Generated Patterns

    Confinement Patterns

    Movement Patterns

    Irregular Patterns

    Spalling

    Electrical Damage

    Clean Burn

    Intensity Patterns

    Ventilation-Generated Fire Patterns

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Types of Fires

    Theory of Fire

    Physical States of Fuel

    The Fire Triangle

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Counterfeit Goods

    Introduction

    Counterfeits as an Insight to Classification

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Counterfeit Currency

    Genuine Currency

    Applied Security Features

    Currency Authentication

    Counterfeit Examinations

    Chemical and Instrumental Examinations

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Identity Theft

    Introduction

    Identity Related to Biometrics

    Virtual Identities

    Forensic Properties of Verification and Identification Systems

    Examples of Identity Fraud (Skimming, Wrong Persons in Prisons, Banking Fraud, and Spoofing) and Relating them to Other Articles

    Future Expectations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Forensic Accounting

    Introduction

    Forensic Accounting for Criminal Investigations

    Forensic Accounting Tools

    Surveillance and Investigation Tools

    Forensic Accounting for Civil Litigation

    Forensic Accounting to Discover Hidden Assets

    Conclusion

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Payment Cards

    Payment Cards and Criminal Activity

    What Are Payment Cards?

    Payment Card Fraud

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Crime Scene to Court

    Introduction

    Task

    Models

    Forensic Strategies

    Integrated Case Management

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Explosions

    Preface

    Scope

    Introduction

    The Initial Response

    Postexplosion Scene Control

    Health and Safety

    Preparation and Planning for Forensic Recovery

    Contamination Control, Continuity, and Evidence Integrity

    What Might be Recovered?

    Types of Explosives

    Recovery of Chemical and Physical Evidence

    Evidence from Bodies

    Incident Reconstruction

    Interpretation

    Political Considerations

    Summary

    See also

    Glossary

    Further Reading

    Legal

    The Innocence Project

    Overview of the Innocence Project and Innocence Network

    History

    The Educational Mission

    The Policy Mission

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    DNA Exonerations

    Discovery of Wrongful Convictions Through DNA Testing

    Emergence of DNA as a Forensic Tool

    Preservation of and Access to DNA Evidence

    DNA Exonerations Today

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Expert Witness Qualifications and Testimony

    Introduction

    Selecting an Expert

    Qualifications

    Experience as an Expert Witness

    Education and Training

    Membership in Professional Associations

    Increased Scrutiny of Experts

    Weight of the Evidence

    Conclusion

    Further Reading

    Forensic Laboratory Reports

    Contents of a Report – A ‘Science’ Standard

    Contents of Report: Legal Standards

    Reports: Stand-Alone Evidence or Support for a Testifying Expert

    Ethical Considerations and Forensic Reports

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Legal Aspects of Forensic Science

    Introduction

    Chain of Custody: Collection, Transport, Handling, and Storage of Samples

    Admissibility of Forensic Science

    Expert Evidence at Trial

    Appellate Review and Postconviction

    Lay Assessment of Forensic Science

    Plea Bargains and Interrogations

    Wrongful Convictions

    Expert Witness Immunity

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Legal Systems: Adversarial and Inquisitorial

    Introduction

    Some Historical Watersheds in Criminal Procedure Reform

    The Adversarialization of the Inquisitorial Preliminary Investigation

    The Decline of the Inquisitorial Trial Judge

    The Eclipse of Adversarial and Inquisitorial Procedure?

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    When Science Changes, How Does Law Respond

    Introduction

    The Filtering of Scientific Evidence into Courtrooms

    Law as an Adversarial System

    Law’s Reliance on Past Decisions

    Law as an Arbiter of Disputes

    The Law Requires Binary Decisions

    Judges May Lack the Scientific Expertise to Judge the Reliability of Scientific Evidence

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    History of the Law’s Reception of Forensic Science

    Origins

    Legal Reception Generally

    Legal Control over Admission of Expert Evidence

    Reception of Science-Based Forensic Sciences and Semi-Science-Based Forensic Sciences

    Reception of Individualization Claims

    Lessons of Legal History for Future Law–Forensic Science Interaction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    International Courts and Forensic Science

    The Current Contribution of Forensic Science to the ICTs

    Problems for Forensic Science in ICTs

    The Future of Forensic Science Within ICTs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Management/Administration of Forensic Science

    International Organizations and Cooperation

    Introduction

    A History Lesson – The Road to IFSA

    Challenges for Success

    Progress

    United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

    The International Forensic Summit

    Business Networks

    Obstacles to Cooperation – The Gill Report

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Principles for the Organization of Forensic Support

    Scope of Forensic Support

    An Ideal Organizational model?

    Organizational Theory

    Forensic Organizations – A Special case?

    Public Versus Private Providers

    People Are Our Most Valuable Asset!

    Conclusions

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Management/Quality in Forensic Science

    Principles of Quality Assurance

    Quality Assurance

    General Principles

    Essential Elements of a QA Program

    ISO, ISO 17025, and ISO 17020

    Standard Procedures

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Accreditation

    Introduction

    Defining Accreditation

    Competence

    Cost of Accreditation

    Certification and Registration

    Validation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Certification

    Introduction – What Is certification?

    First-, Second-, and Third-Party Certification

    Certification of Individuals

    Certification versus Accreditation

    International Certification Schemes

    Certification Overview and Conclusions

    Certification of Objects

    See also

    Relevant Websites

    Standard Methods

    Introduction

    Why Standards Are Required?

    The United States National Academy of Sciences Report 2009

    Global Standard Environment

    Challenges in Developing Standards

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Risk Management

    Introduction – Why Do We Need Risk Management?

    Defining Risk

    Risk Appetite or Attitude

    Risk Management Principles, Process, and Framework

    Risk Considerations for the Forensic Industry

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Effectiveness

    Introduction

    Knowledge Workers

    Effectiveness and Efficiency

    The FORESIGHT Project

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Health and Safety

    Occupational Health and Safety Policy

    Specific Laboratory Hazards

    Hazards in the Field

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Sequential Unmasking: Minimizing Observer Effects in Forensic Science

    The Concept of Sequential Unmasking

    The Foundational Basis for Cognitive Effects

    Support for Blind Testing in Forensic Science

    Arguments Against Blind Testing in Forensic Science

    Sequential Unmasking in Forensic Science

    Domain-Relevant (and Domain-Irrelevant) Information

    Exemplar Line-Ups

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Methods

    Capillary Electrophoresis: Basic Principles

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Fundamentals of CE

    Background Electrolytes

    Modes of Separation in Electrophoresis

    Instrumentation and Sample Handling

    Future Directions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Biology

    Introduction

    CE Methodology

    CE Typing Methodologies Used by Forensic Biologists

    The Future of CE in Forensic Biology

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Chemistry

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chromatography: Basic Principles

    Introduction

    Classification of Chromatographic Techniques

    Chromatographic Distribution Equilibria

    Band Broadening in Chromatography

    Additional Comments on Band Broadening

    Optimization of Chromatographic Performance

    See also

    Abbreviations

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Gas Chromatography

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    GC Columns

    Gas Pressure and Flow Control

    Oven Temperature

    Sample Introduction

    Pyrolysis GC

    Simple Injection – Dual Detection

    Detectors

    See also

    Further Reading

    Liquid and Thin-Layer Chromatography

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Column (or Liquid–Solid) Chromatography

    HPLC and Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Thin-Layer Chromatography

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Introduction

    Ionization Techniques

    Sample Preparation and Injection Techniques

    Matrix Effects

    Overview of State-of-the-Art LC–MS Instrumentation

    Application of LC–MS to Forensic Sciences

    See also

    Abbreviations

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Multiplied Powers

    Different Ways of Looking at Data

    Requirements

    Instrumentation

    Forensic Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Mass Spectrometry

    Introduction

    Instrumentation

    Sample Introduction

    Ion Source

    Mass Analyzer

    Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Ion Detector

    Data Interpretation

    Forensic Applications of MS

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Analytical Light Microscopy

    Introduction

    Microscopes Used in Analysis in the Forensic Sciences

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Microscopy (Electron)

    Introduction

    Additional Instrumentation for Electron Microscope Applications

    Forensic Applications of SEM

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Presumptive Chemical Tests

    Introduction

    Chemical Tests on Drug Evidence

    Chemical Tests on Explosives Evidence

    Chemical Tests on Biological Specimens

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Nonchromatographic Separation Techniques

    Introduction

    Physical Separations

    Volatile Materials

    Chemical Separations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Spectroscopic Techniques

    Nomenclature

    Introduction

    Identification of Substances

    Quantification of Substances

    Related Techniques

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Spectroscopy: Basic Principles

    Introduction

    Electromagnetic Radiation and Light

    Matter

    Interaction Between Radiation and Matter

    Instrumentation and Techniques

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Field-Deployable Devices

    Introduction

    Hazardous Material Identification

    Explosives Detection and Identification

    Clandestine Laboratories

    The Challenge of ‘In-Field’ Monitoring, Detection, and Identification

    Principles of Operation of Field-Deployable Devices

    Spectroscopic Techniques

    Flame Ionization Techniques

    Photoionization Detection

    Ion Mobility Spectroscopy

    MS and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS)

    Other Detection Technologies

    Discussion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Chemometrics

    Introduction

    Preprocessing Techniques

    Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering

    Principal Component Analysis

    Discriminant Analysis

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Volume 4: P – T

    Pattern Evidence

    Vehicle Tire Marks and Tire Track Measurement

    Introduction

    Sidewall Information

    Tire Construction

    Tire Designs and Databases

    Original Equipment Tires Versus Replacement Tires

    Noise Treatment

    Tread-Wear Indicators

    Known Standards of Tires

    Examination of Tire Impressions

    Vehicle Dimensions and Turning

    Recovery Methods Specific to Tires

    Retreaded Tires

    See also

    Further Reading

    Plastic Bag Striations

    Introduction

    Background

    Physical Features

    Methods for Visualization of Physical Features

    Chemical Methods

    Protocol for Forensic Examination of Plastic Bags and Films

    Value of Plastic Bag Evidence

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Bare Footprint Marks

    History

    Crime Scene Evidence Collection

    Collection of Exemplars from a Person of Interest

    Methodology for Examination of Foot Morphology Cases

    Analysis of Crime Scene Impressions

    Analysis of the Known Exemplars

    Comparison

    Evaluation

    Verification

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    The Friction Ridge Skin of the Feet

    Introduction

    History

    Embryology and Development of the Friction Ridges of the Foot

    Recording Known Impressions of the Foot

    Ridge Flow of the Feet

    Toes

    See also

    Further Reading

    Palm Prints

    Interdigital Region

    Hypothenar

    Thenar

    See also

    Further Reading

    Footwear Marks

    Introduction

    Types of Footwear Marks

    Recovery of Impressions

    Examination Process

    The Footwear Expert

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Serial Number

    Introduction

    Methods of Application

    Removal Methods

    Restoration Methods: Metals

    Reagent Recipes

    Photography

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Shotgun Ammunition on a Target

    Introduction

    The Shot Shell

    The Barrel

    Shooting Range Estimation

    Adaptations

    Some Misconceptions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Physical Match

    Introduction: What is a ‘Physical Match’

    The Uniqueness of a Fracture Line

    Obstacles to Performing a Physical Match

    Mathematical and Statistical Evaluation

    On ‘Identification’ and ‘Degree of Certainty’

    Summary

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Tools

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Brief History of Toolmark Identification Applied to Forensic Science

    Application of Toolmark Identification in Forensic Science

    Important Considerations

    Casework Examples

    Future of Toolmark Identification

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation, and Verification (ACE-V)

    Introduction

    History and Etiology

    The Process

    Quality and Quantity of Detail

    Testing

    Forensic Disciplines that Have not Adopted ACE-V

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Pattern Evidence/Fingerprints (Dactyloscopy)

    Friction Ridge Print Examination – Interpretation and the Comparative Method

    Friction Ridge Print Examination – Interpretation and the Comparative Method

    Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation, and Verification

    ACE-V as an Applied Science

    Blind Verification

    Consultation

    Complex Prints

    Conflict Resolution

    Documentation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Automated Methods, Including Criminal Records Administration

    Introduction

    Brief History of Fingerprint Classification

    History of Criminal Identification

    History of Fingerprint Automation

    Criminal History Information Systems

    Current Practice and Future Improvement

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS)

    Introduction

    Exemplar Database

    Searching Latent Prints in AFIS

    AFIS Results

    Interoperability

    The Future of AFIS

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Chemistry of Print Residue

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Sources of Fingerprint Residue

    Factors Affecting Fingerprint Composition

    Future Directions and Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Identification and Classification

    Introduction

    Development of Friction Ridge Skin

    Structure of Friction Ridge Skin

    Historical Scientific Research into Friction Ridge Skin

    Uniqueness and Permanence – The Foundations of Friction Ridge Identification

    Early Applications of Friction Ridge Identification

    Criminal Identification Prior to the Use of Fingerprints

    Development of Friction Ridge Classification Systems

    Incorporation of Computers into the Science of Friction Ridge Identification

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Sequential Treatment and Enhancement

    Introduction

    Sequential Application of Fingerprint Development Techniques

    Process Compatibility

    Other Factors to be Considered

    Photographic Recording of Developed Fingerprints

    Fingerprints in Contaminants

    Contaminated Exhibits

    Packaging and Handling of Evidence

    Preliminary Procedures

    Sequence Selection and Complex Exhibits

    Initial Visual Examination – All Exhibits

    Initial Fluorescence Examination – All Exhibits

    Surface Compatibility and Performance

    Operational Performance

    Process Selection Charts

    Difficult Surface Types

    Metal Surfaces

    Fabrics

    Skin

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Friction Ridge Skin Impression Evidence – Standards of Proof

    Introduction

    Historical Milestone

    Current Views and Practice

    Range of Possible Conclusions in the Field

    The Move Toward Quality

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Visualization or Development of Crime Scene Fingerprints

    Introduction

    Origins of Fingerprint Deposits

    Fingerprint Patterns, Characteristics, and Detail

    Imaging of Developed Fingerprints

    Development or Visualization of Latent Fingerprints

    Latent Fingerprint Chemical Constituents

    Operational Methods of Visualizing Fingerprints

    Choice of Technique

    Packaging and Handling of Evidence

    Operational Fingerprint Development Processes

    Health and Safety Procedures

    1, 8-Diazafluoren-9-one (DFO)

    Gun Bluing and Similar Metal-Toning Treatments

    Iodine Vapor Fuming

    Indanedione

    Ninhydrin

    Physical Developer

    Powders

    Powder Suspensions

    Small Particle Reagent

    Basic Violet 3 (Gentian Violet, Crystal Violet, CI 42555)

    Superglue

    Vacuum Metal Deposition

    Development of Contaminated Fingermarks

    Other Reported Techniques

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Pattern Evidence/Firearms

    Humane Killing Tools

    Introduction

    Captive-Bolt Humane Killers

    Injuries from Captive-Bolt Narcotic Devices

    Fatalities from Humane Killers

    Stud Guns

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Laboratory Analysis

    Examination of Firearms

    Examination of Fired Ammunition Components

    Recent Developments

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Range

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Residues

    See also

    Further Reading

    Pattern Evidence/History

    Fingerprint Sciences

    Introduction

    Early History (221 BC–AD 220)

    Recognition of Friction Ridge Skin (1684–1858)

    Criminal Applications and as a Means of Identification (1880–1905)

    Developments in Comparison and Identification (1914–73)

    Recent (1990–Present)

    Early Scientific Foundation

    Further Scientific Research

    Fingerprint Detection and Enhancement

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Professional

    Accreditation of Educational Programs

    Introduction

    What Is Accreditation?

    Accreditation of Educational Programs in North America

    Accreditation of Educational Programs in the United Kingdom

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Certification and Licensing

    Certifying Bodies

    Other Certification Programs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Continuing Professional Development

    Types of Continuing Professional Development

    Sources of Continuing Professional Development

    Administration of Continuing Professional Development

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Education and Accreditation in Forensic Science

    Historical Perspectives

    Forensic Science as a Recognized Discipline

    1999 NIJ Review of Forensic Science

    TWGED

    Undergraduate Curriculum

    Graduate Curriculum

    Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission

    NAS Report – Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States

    Future Educational Needs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Ethics

    Introduction

    Forensic Science Ethics and Personal Ethics

    Organizational Forensic Science Ethics

    Basic Minimal Ethics and Aspirational Ethics

    Codes of Ethics in Forensic Science Practice

    Standards for Good Forensic Practice

    Ethical Problems in the Forensic Sciences

    Foundations of Ethics

    Ethical Dilemmas

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Research and Publishing

    Introduction

    Research

    Publication

    The Publication Process

    Types of Publications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Training to Competence

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    National Academy of Sciences (NAS)

    Introduction

    Relevance to Forensic Science

    Funding

    Rationale for Reports

    Scope

    Composition of Committees

    Additions and Subtractions from Committees

    Data-Gathering Process

    Committee Deliberation

    Dissension Within Committees

    Peer Review

    Primary Findings

    NRC Reports and Legal Issues

    Dissemination

    Impact

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS)

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society (ANZFSS)

    Introduction

    See also

    Relevant Website

    American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors (ASCLD)

    Introduction

    Accreditation

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI)

    Introduction

    See also

    Relevant Website

    International Association for Identification (IAI)

    Introduction

    The IAI Collection

    See also

    Further Reading

    National Association of Medical Examiners (NAME)

    Introduction

    See also

    Further Reading

    Senior Managers of Australian and New Zealand Forensic Laboratories (SMANZFL)

    Introduction

    See also

    Relevant Website

    Toxicology

    Toxicology: History

    Introduction

    Important Historical Milestones

    Evolution of Drugs and Poisons

    Recent Developments in Analytical Methods

    Alternative Matrices

    Drug-Facilitated Crime

    Drugs and Driving

    Famous Poisoning Cases

    See also

    Abbreviations

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Glossary

    Pharmacology and Mechanism of Action of Drugs

    Introduction

    Affinity, Efficacy, and Potency

    Antagonism and Potentiation

    Signal Transduction

    Tolerance and Dependence

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Toxicology: Overview and Applications

    Introduction

    Applications of Forensic Toxicology

    Initial Tests and Confirmation

    Common Drugs and Poisons

    Scope of Testing Protocols

    Specimens

    General Techniques

    Quality Assurance and Validation

    Estimation of Dose

    Interpretation of Toxicological Results

    Court Testimony

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Drug Screening in Sport

    Introduction

    What is Doping in Sport?

    Context of Adjudication of Anti-Doping Rule Violations in Sport

    The List of Prohibited Compounds and Methods to be Screened

    Biological Sample Identity and Integrity

    Specific Procedures in Dedicated Laboratories

    Practical Analytical Approach

    The Biological Passport

    Developments for the Future

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Volatile Substances and Inhalants

    Diagnosis of VSA

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Interpretation of Results

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Forensic Urine Drug Testing

    Human Performance Toxicology

    Postmortem Toxicology

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Methods of Analysis – Initial Testing

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Sample Selection

    Immunoassays

    Sample Extraction

    Screening by Liquid Chromatography

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Methods of Analysis – Confirmatory Testing

    Abbreviations

    Principles of Confirmatory Testing

    Certified Reference Standards

    MS in Confirmatory Testing

    Internal Standardization

    Minimum Required Identification Criteria

    Minimum Required Quantification Criteria

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Postmortem Specimens

    Introduction

    Blood, Serum, and Plasma

    Urine

    Vitreous Humor

    Bile

    The Liver

    The Brain

    Lungs

    The Kidney

    Skeletal Muscle

    Other Tissues and Fluids

    Special Considerations

    See also

    Further Reading

    Herbal Psychoactive Substances

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Traditional Drugs of Abuse of Herbal Origin

    Emerging and Popular Herbal Drugs of Abuse

    Analytical Methods

    Summary and Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Herbal Medicines and Phytopharmaceuticals – Contaminations

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Common Forms of Contamination/Adulterants

    Analytical Strategy

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Behavioral Toxicology

    What Is Behavioral Toxicity?

    Mechanisms of Action

    Alcohol

    Stimulants (Amphetamines and Cocaine)

    Anabolic Steroids

    Hallucinogens

    Benzodiazepines

    Cannabis

    Psychoses

    Tolerance and Withdrawal

    See also

    Further Reading

    Postmortem Toxicology: Artifacts

    Introduction

    The Pre-Final Phase

    The Corpse

    The Sample

    The Compound

    The Analytical Assay

    Conclusions

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Toxicology/Alcohol

    Blood

    Introduction

    Blood Collection

    Analysis

    See also

    Further Reading

    Urine and Other Body Fluids

    Introduction

    Absorption

    Distribution

    Elimination

    Analysis of Urine and Other Body Fluids for Alcohol

    Urine

    Saliva/Oral Fluid

    Vitreous Humor

    Cerebrospinal Fluid

    Synovial Fluid

    Bile

    Liver and Other Tissues

    Sequestered Hematomas

    Stomach Contents

    Putrefactive Blisters

    Sweat

    Tears

    See also

    Further Reading

    Breath Alcohol

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Historical Aspects

    Alcohol in the Blood and Breath

    Analytical Methods

    Types of Breath Alcohol Testing Instruments

    Forensic Issues

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Alcohol Congeners and the Source of Ethanol

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Congener Content of Beverages

    Methods

    Disposition

    Toxicity of Congeners

    Hip Flask Defense

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Alcohol: Interpretation

    Abbreviations

    Symbols

    Introduction

    Pharmacokinetics of Ethanol

    Estimation of Dose and BAC

    Effects of Alcohol

    Activities Associated with Alcohol Abuse

    Alcohol-Derived Driving Limits

    Drug Interactions with Alcohol

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Alcohol: Postmortem

    Introduction

    Collection of Specimens

    Analysis

    Postmortem Changes in Blood Concentration

    Reporting Alcohol Concentrations

    Examples

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Metabolites of Ethanol

    Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Ethyl Glucuronide

    Ethyl Sulfate

    Ethyl Phosphate

    Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters

    Phosphatidylethanol

    Summary and Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Website

    Toxicology/Drugs of Abuse

    Blood

    Introduction

    Types of Blood Specimens

    Drug Monographs

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Oral Fluid

    Introduction

    What is Oral Fluid?

    Collection of Oral fluid

    Factors Affecting Drug Presence in Oral Fluids

    Applications of Oral Fluid Drug Testing

    Analytical Testing Methods

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Drug-Facilitated Crimes

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault

    Typical Drugs in DFC

    Alcohol in DFC

    The Role of the Forensic Medical Examiner/Forensic Nurse in DFC Cases

    Samples Types in DFC

    Analytical Issues in DFC

    Interpretation of Toxicological Results in DFC

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Abbreviations

    Drug-Impaired Driving

    Introduction

    Influence of Drugs on Performance

    Epidemiology and Crash Risk

    Legislation

    ‘Per se’ Legislation

    Detection of Drugs in Drivers

    Evidentiary Analysis

    Conclusion

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Drugs in Hair

    Introduction

    Biology of Hair

    Hair Analysis

    Applications

    See also

    Further Reading

    Relevant Websites

    Glossary

    Postmortem Blood

    Introduction

    Sample Collection and Chain of Custody

    Toxicology Testing

    Postmortem Changes in Drug Concentration

    See also

    Further Reading

    Glossary

    Urine

    Introduction

    Urine Specimen Characteristics and Specimen Integrity

    Application of Immunoassays to Urine Drug Testing

    Application of GC-MS in Urine Drug Testing

    Correlation of Immunoassay and GC-MS Test Results

    Issues in the Interpretation of Urine Drug-Testing Results

    See also

    Further Reading

    Validation of Twelve Chemical Spot Tests for the Detection of Drugs of Abuse

    Introduction

    Materials and methods

    Results and discussion

    Conclusions

    See also

    References

    Index

    Author Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 2250
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: December 28, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123821669
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123821652
  • About the Editors in Chief

    Jay Siegel

    Jay Siegel
    Jay Siegel, PhD is retired Director of the Forensic and Investigative Sciences Program and Chair of the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis. He was Director of the Forensic Science Program at Michigan State University for 25 years from 1980-2004 until his retirement as Professor Emeritus. Dr. Siegel is a Distinguished Member of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences and was named as Distinguished Alumni Scholar by his alma mater, George Washington University in 2011. He is co-editor of Forensic Science Policy and Management: An International Journal. He was a member of the National Academy of Sciences Forensic Science Committee from 2006-09.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Director, Forensic and Investigative Sciences Program, Indiana University - Purdue University, Indianapolis, IN, USA

    Pekka Saukko

    Pekka Saukko

    Dr. Saukko is currently Professor of Forensic Medicine and Head of the Department of Forensic Medicine of the University of Turku, Finland.

    He graduated in medicine from the University of Vienna, Austria in 1975 and was certified as a Specialist in Forensic Medicine in 1981 by the National Board of Health, Finland. In 1983 he received a Doctorate in Medical Science (MD) by thesis in Forensic Pathology by the University of Oulu, Finland and was appointed Adjunct Professor of Forensic Medicine of the same University in 1986. From 1978 to 1989 he held the position of the Provincial Medical Officer, Medico-legal Expert, Provincial Government of Oulu. In 1989 he was appointed the Professor of Forensic Medicine of the University of Tampere, Finland and since 1992 he holds the current position at the University of Turku.

    He has published widely as an author, co-author in scientific journals, book and encyclopedia chapters and is the co-author of the “Atlas of Forensic Medicine” (CD-ROM) (Elsevier Science, 2003), “Knight’s Forensic Pathology” (Arnold, 2004) and “Forensic Medicine in Europe” (Schmidt-Römhild, 2008).

    Dr. Saukko is the recipient of the Ajtai K. Sandor Medal and an Honorary Doctorate in Medicine (Dr. h.c.) from the Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary. His expert work as consultant includes needs assessment of the forensic facilities in Cambodia for the UNDP (1996), the Working Party on the Harmonization of Autopsy Rules for the Council of Europe (1997-1998), quality assessment of the Portuguese Departments of Forensic Pathology, as a member of an international team of experts (2001), the external case review panel for the Office of the Chief Coroner, Toronto, Canada (2006) and the consultant panel and expert witness for the Inquiry Into Pediatric Forensic Pathology In Ontario, Canada (2007) and forensic expert for the UNDP/NHRC in Kathmandu, Nepal (2008).

    Since 1993, he is the Editor-in-Chief of the journal Forensic Science International, by Elsevier, and Editorial Board Member of a number of other national and international scientific journals of forensic medicine and science.

    He is a Member of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and an Honorary Member of the Hungarian Forensic Science Society, the Royal Belgium Society of Forensic Medicine, the German Society of Legal Medicine, the Japanese Society of Legal Medicine and a Founding and Honorary Fellow of the Faculty of Forensic & Legal Medicine, Royal College of Physicians (London).

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Chairman, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland