5G Core Networks - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780081030097, 9780081030103

5G Core Networks

1st Edition

Powering Digitalization

Authors: Stefan Rommer Peter Hedman Magnus Olsson Lars Frid Shabnam Sultana Catherine Mulligan
Paperback ISBN: 9780081030097
eBook ISBN: 9780081030103
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 13th November 2019
Page Count: 502
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5G Core Networks: Powering Digitalization provides an overview of the 5G Core network architecture, as well as giving descriptions of cloud technologies and the key concepts in the 3GPP rel-15/16 specifications. Written by the authors who are heavily involved in development of the 5G standards and who wrote the successful book on EPC and 4G Packet Networks, this book provides an authoritative reference on the technologies and standards of the 3GPP 5G Core network.

Content includes:

  • An overview of the 5G Core Architecture
  • The Stand-Alone and Non-Stand-Alone Architectures
  • Detailed presentation of 5G Core key concepts
  • An overview of 5G Radio and Cloud technologies


  • The differences between the 5G Core network and previous core network generations
  • How the interworking with previous network standards is defined
  • Why certain functionality has been included and what is beyond the scope of 5G Core
  • How the specifications relate to state-of-the-art web-scale concepts and virtualization technologies
  • Details of the protocol and service descriptions
  • Examples of network deployment options

Key Features

  • Provides a clear, concise and comprehensive view of 5GS/5GC
  • Written by established experts in the 5GS/5GC standardization process, all of whom have extensive experience and understanding of its goals, history and vision
  • Covers potential service and operator scenarios for each architecture
  • Explains the Service Based Architecture, Network Slicing and support of Edge Computing, describing the benefits they will bring
  • Explains what options and parts of the standards will initially be deployed in real networks, along with their migration paths


R&D engineers working in cellular communication systems, telecommunications business managers and consultants, post graduate students and university researchers in mobile and wireless communications

Table of Contents


Foreword ix

Acknowledgments xi

1. Introduction 1

1.1 5G—A new era of connectivity 1

1.2 A step change 1

1.3 A new context for operators 2

1.4 The road to 5G network deployments 2

1.5 3GPP release 15 and 16 2

1.6 Core requirements 4

1.7 New service grades 4

1.8 Structure of this book 5

2. Drivers for 5G 7

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 New use cases 7

2.3 New technologies 9

3. Architecture overview 15

3.1 Introduction 15

3.2 Two perspectives on 5G Core 19

3.3 Service-based architecture (SBA) 22

3.4 The core of the core 26

3.5 Connecting the core network to mobile devices and radio networks 28

3.6 Mobility and data connectivity 30

3.7 Policy control and charging 35

3.8 5GC interworking with EPC 37

3.9 Voice services 41

3.10 Messaging services 44

3.11 Exposure of network information 46

3.12 Device positioning services 48

3.13 Network analytics 49

3.14 Public warning system 50

3.15 Support for devices connected over non-3GPP access networks 52

3.16 Network slicing 54

3.17 Roaming 55

3.18 Storage of data 59

3.19 5G radio networks 59

4. EPC for 5G 73

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 Key EPC functions 77

4.3 (Enhanced) Dedicated Core Networks ((e)DECOR) 84

4.4 Control and User Plane Separation (CUPS) 89

5. Key concepts 105

5.1 Architecture modeling 105

5.2 Service Based Architecture 105

5.3 Identifiers 107

6. Session management 111

6.1 PDU Session concepts 111

6.2 PDU Session types 114

6.3 User plane handling 121

6.4 Mechanisms to provide efficient user plane connectivity 126

6.5 Edge computing 132

6.6 Session authentication and authorization 134

6.7 Local Area Data Network 135

7. Mobility Management 137

7.1 Introduction 137

7.2 Establishing connectivity 138

7.3 Reachability 144

7.4 Additional MM related concepts 146

7.5 N2 management 150

7.6 Control of overload 157

7.7 Non-3GPP aspects 161

7.8 Interworking with EPC 162

8. Security 171

8.1 Introduction 171

8.2 Security requirements and security services of the 5G system 172

8.3 Network access security 176

8.4 Network domain security 192

8.5 User domain security 198

8.6 Lawful intercept 198

9. Quality-of-Service 203

9.1 Introduction 203

9.2 Flow based QoS framework 205

9.3 Signaling of QoS 207

9.4 Reflective QoS 210

9.5 QoS parameters and characteristics 213

10. Policy control and charging 217

10.1 Introduction 217

10.2 Overview of policy and charging control 217

10.3 Access and mobility related policy control 222

10.4 UE policy control 224

10.5 Management of Packet Flow Descriptions 227

10.6 Network status analytics 228

10.7 Negotiation for future background data transfer 228

10.8 Session Management related policy and charging control 229

10.9 Additional session related policy control features 237

10.10 Charging 242

11. Network slicing 247

11.1 Introduction 247

11.2 Management and orchestration 249

11.3 Network Slice selection framework 251

12. Dual connectivity 265

12.1 Introduction 265

12.2 Multi-RAT Dual Connectivity overall architecture 268

12.3 MR-DC: UE and RAN perspective 272

12.4 MR-DC: Subscription, QoS flows and E-RABs, MR-DC bearers 274

12.5 Managing secondary RAN node handling for mobility and session

management 278

12.6 Security 282

12.7 Reporting User Data Volume traversing via SN 283

13. Network functions and services 287

13.1 5G core network functions 287

13.2 Services and service operations 293

14. Protocols 337

14.1 Introduction 337

14.2 5G non-access stratum (5G NAS) 337

14.3 NG application protocol (NGAP) 343

14.4 Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) 347

14.5 Transport layer security (TLS) 360

14.6 Packet forwarding control protocol (PFCP) 363

14.7 GPRS tunneling protocol for the User Plane (GTP-U) 378

14.8 Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) 379

14.9 IP security (IPSec) 382

14.10 Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) 387

14.11 Generic routing encapsulation (GRE) 392

15. Selected call flows 395

15.1 Introduction 395

15.2 Registration and deregistration 396

15.3 Service Request 400

15.4 UE Configuration Update 404

15.5 PDU Session Establishment 407

15.6 Inter-NG-RAN handover 409

15.7 EPS interworking with N26 416

15.8 EPS fallback 422

15.9 Procedures for untrusted non-3GPP access 424

16. Architecture extensions and vertical industries 431

16.1 Overview 431

16.2 Architecture enhancements and extensions 431

16.3 New feature capabilities 437

17. Future outlook 465

References 467

Abbreviations 471

Index 475


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© Academic Press 2020
13th November 2019
Academic Press
Paperback ISBN:
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About the Author

Stefan Rommer

Stefan Rommer is a Senior Specialist at Ericsson in Gothenburg, Sweden. Since joining Ericsson in 2001 he has worked with different areas of telecommunications, primarily with packet core network standardization and development. He has been involved in 5G standardization from the start and participated actively in 3GPP for several years. Stefan holds an M.Sc. in engineering physics and a Ph.D. in theoretical physics, both from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.

Affiliations and Expertise

Senior Specialist, Ericsson in Gothenburg, Sweden

Peter Hedman

Peter Hedman joined Ericsson in 2000 after previously working for the company for five years as a consultant within different areas such as Intelligent Networks and GSM/NMT Gateway development. Since joining Ericsson he has been attending 3GPP SA WG2 contributing to the standardization of e.g. GPRS, EPS, IMS, WiFi-3GPP access interactions, M2M/IoT and 5GS. His current focus is 5G standardization and he is rapporteur for the 5G System procedures specification specified by 3GPP SA WG2. He received his Master's in Computer Science from Lund Institute of Technology.”

Affiliations and Expertise

Consultant, Ericsson

Magnus Olsson

Magnus Olsson is an expert in system architecture and standardization at Ericsson. He has worked with the overall mobile network architecture since joining Ericsson in 1995 and has over 10 years of experience in the standardization of mobile systems. He served as the chairman of 3GPP TSG SA WG2 (Architecture Working Group) for four years and has contributed to numerous specifications within this forum. He has been involved in driving the System Architecture Evolution (SAE) work item since its inception within 3GPP. He holds an MSc in Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering from the Linköping Institute of Technology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Ericsson, Sweden

Lars Frid

Lars Frid is a Director of Strategic Product Management of 5G Core Networks at Ericsson, currently based in Stockholm, Sweden. He has over 25 years of experience of working with wireless data communications in Sweden and in Silicon Valley, California, US. His area of work has covered global standards and technologies for 2G, 3G, and 4G mobile data communications, as well as IP routing, satellite systems, and dedicated mobile data systems for industries and enterprises.His current priorities is to drive product strategies for 5G systems, with a specific focus on business modelling and business development in relation to 5G network architectures and capabilities.Lars holds several patents in mobile communications and is the co-author of two books. He has a Master’s degree in Electrical Engineering from studies at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg, Sweden, and Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine in London, UK.

Affiliations and Expertise

Director of Strategic Product Management of 5G Core Networks, Ericsson, Stockholm, Sweden

Shabnam Sultana

Shabnam Sultana is an expert in standardization architecture at Ericsson. She has worked with the overall mobile network architecture since joining Ericsson in 1993 and has over 15 years of experience in the standardization of mobile systems. She has worked in the areas of North American Systems and associated Standards prior to joining 3GPP. She has been involved in driving the IP Multimedia System (IMS) and System Architecture Evolution (SAE) work since their inception within 3GPP. She holds an Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from Concordia University, Montreal, Canada.

Affiliations and Expertise

Systems Architect, Ericsson

Catherine Mulligan

Dr Cathy Mulligan is a Researcher at Imperial College and Co-Director of the ICL Centre for Cryptocurrency Research and Engineering. She also holds an Honorary Research position at University College London, where she is Chief Technology Officer of the GovTech Lab and DataNet, which focuses on the potential and application of blockchain, AI and advanced communications technologies such as cloud and 5G as a foundational part of the world’s governments and economy. Cathy is an expert and fellow of the World Economic Forum’s Blockchain council and a member of the United Nations Secretary General’s High Level Panel on Digital Co-Operation. Prior to her academic career she spent 15 years in various technical roles in the telecommunications industry. She holds a PhD and MPhil from the University of Cambridge and is the author of several books on telecommunications including EPC and IoT. Until December 2017, Cathy served as the Vice-Chairman of the ETSI ISG on Context Information Management and as the Standardisation lead for Open Agile Smart Cities (OASC), covering ITU, ISO and ETSI standards streams.

Affiliations and Expertise

Imperial College, London, UK

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