Traditionally, fluid mixing and the related multiphase contacting processes have always been regarded as an empirical technology. Many aspects of mixing, dispersing and contacting were related to power draw, but understanding of the phenomena was limited or qualitative at the most.
In particular during the last decade, however, plant operation targets have tightened and product specifications have become stricter. The public awareness as to safety and environmental hygiene has increased. The drive towards larger degrees of sustainability in the process industries has urged for lower amounts of solvents and for higher yields and higher selectivities in chemical reactors. All this has resulted in a market pull: the need for more detailed insights in flow phenomena and processes and for better verifiable design and operation methods.
Developments in miniaturisation of sensors and circuits as well as in computer technology have rendered leaps possible in computer simulation and animation and in measuring and monitoring techniques.
This volume encourages a leap forward in the field of mixing by the current, overwhelming wealth of sophisticated measuring and computational techniques. This leap may be made possible by modern instrumentation, signal and data analysis, field reconstruction algorithms, computational modelling techniques and numerical recipes.
For researchers in academia and industry working in the field of mixing and its application to process industries.
Preface. Mixing: terms, symbols, units (European Federation of Chemical Engineering – Working Party of Mixing 1999). Turbulence Characteristics in Stirred Tanks. Trailing vortex, mean flow and turbulence modification through impeller blade design in stirred reactors (M. Yianneskis). Turbulence generation by different types of impellers (M. Schäfer et al.). Limits of fully developed turbulence in a stirred tank (K.J. Bittorf, S.M. Kresta). Measurements in Chemically Reacting Flows. Spatially resolved measurements and calculations of micro- and macromixing in stirred vessels (M. Buchmann et al.). Characterisation and modelling of a two impinging jet mixer for precipitation processes using laser induced fluorescence (N. Bénet et al.). Four-dimensional laser induced fluorescence measurements of micromixing in a tubular reactor (E. van Vliet et al.). Modelling of Micro-Mixing. Simulation with validation of mixing effects in continuous and fed-batch reactors (G.K. Patterson, J. Randick). A computational and experimental study of mixing and chemical reaction in a stirred tank reactor equipped with a down-pumping hydrofoil impeller using a micro-mixing-based CFD model (O. Akiti, P.M. Armenante). Mixing with a Pfaudler type impeller: the effect of micromixing on reaction selectivity in the production of fine chemicals (I. Verschuren et al.). Comparison of different modelling approaches to turbulent precipitation (D. Marchisio et al.). Application of parallel test reactions to study micromixing in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder (A. Rozen et al.). Solid liquid mixing at high concentration with SMX static mixers (O. Furling et al.). Effects of Viscosity and Rheology on Mixing. Influence of viscosity on turbulent mixing and product distribution of parallel chemical reactions (J. Baldyga et al.). Mixing of two liquids with different rheological behaviour in a lid driven cavity (H. Hoefsloot et al.). Mobilization of cohesive sludge in storage tanks using jet mixers (M.R. Poirier et al.). Slurry Systems. CFD simulation of particle distribution in a multiple-impeller high-aspect ratio stirred vessel (G. Montante et al.). Power consumption in slurry systems (A. Barresi, G. Baldi). Liquid-Liquid Dispersions. Drop break-up and coalescence in intermittent turbulent flow (W. Podgórska, J. Baldyga). Measurement and analysis of drop size in a batch rotor-stator mixer (R.V. Calabrese et al.). The impact of fine particles and their wettability on the coalescence of sunflower oil drops in water (A.W. Nienow et al.). Influence of impeller type and agitation conditions on the drop size of immiscible liquid dispersions (M. Musgrove, S. Ruszkowski). Experimental findings on the scale-up behaviour of the drop size distribution of liquid/liquid dispersions in stirred vessels (G.W. Colenbrander). Investigations of local drop size distributions and scale-up in stirred liquid-liquid dispersions (K. Schulze et al.). Gas-Liquid Systems. Gas-liquid mass transfer in a vortex-ingesting, agitated draft-tube reactor (C. Leguay et al.). Modelling of the interaction between gas and liquid in stirred vessels (G. Lane et al.). Experimental investigation of local bubble size distributions in stirred vessels using Phase Doppler Anemometry (M. Schäfer et al.). Void fraction and mixing in sparged and boiling reactors (Z. Gao et al.). Particle Collisions in Crystallisation. A numerical investigation into the influence of mixing on orthokinetic agglomeration (E.D. Hollander et al.). An experimental method for obtaining particle impact frequencies and velocities on impeller blades (K.C. Kee, C.D. Rielly). Advanced CFD. Comparison between direct numerical simulation and &kgr;-&egr; prediction of the flow in a vessel stirred by a Rushton turbine (C. Bartels et al.). The use of large eddy simulation to study stirred vessel hydrodynamics (A. Bakker et al.). Compartmental modelling of an 1100L DTB crystallizer based on large eddy flow simulation (A. ten Cate et al.). Posters. Detailed CFD prediction of flow around a 45° pitched blade turbine (J.K. Syrjänen, M.T. Manninen). Comparison of CFD methods for modelling of stirred tanks (G.L. Lane et al.). Predicting the tangential velocity field in stirred tanks using the Multiple Reference Frames (MRF) model with validation by LDA measurements (L. Oshinowo et al.). Numerical simulation of flow of Newtonian fluids in an agitated vessel equipped with a non standard helical ribbon impeller (G. Delaplace et al.). A contribution to simulation of mixing in screw extruders with commercial CFD-software (M. Motzigemba et al.). Experimental and CFD characterization of mixing in a novel sliding-surface mixing device (J.M. Rousseaux et al.). An investigation of the flow field of viscoelastic fluid in a stirred vessel (W. Ju et al.). Flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in an agitated vessel equipped with a non-standard anchor impeller (G. Delaplace et al.). Characterization of convective mixing in industrial precipitation reactors by real-time processing of trajectography data (B. Barillon, P.H. Jézéquel). Characterization of flow and mixing in an open system by a trajectography method (P. Pitiot, L. Falk). Characterization of the turbulence in a stirred tank using particle image velocimetry (M. Perrard et al.). Turbulent macroscale of the impeller stream of a Rushton turbine (R. Escudié et al.). Analysis of macro-instabilities (MI) of the flow field in stirred tank reactor (STR) agitated with different axial impellers (V. Roussinova, S.M. Kresta). Local dynamic effect of mechanically agitated liquid on a radial baffle (J. Kratěna et al.). Interpretation of macro- and micro-mixing measured by dual-wavelength photometric tomography (M. Rahimi et al.). Effect of tracer properties (volume, density and viscosity) on mixing time in mechanically agitated contactors (A. Pandit et al.). Mixing, reaction and precipitation: an interplay in continuous crystallizers with unpremixed feeds (N.S. Tavare). Simulation of a tubular polymerisation reactor with mixing effects (E. Fournier, L. Falk). Mixing equipment design for particle suspension - generalized approach to designing (F. Rieger, P. Ditl). Characterization and rotation symmetry of the impeller region in baffled agitated suspensions (Z. Yu, A. Rasmuson). Solids suspension by the bottom shear stress approach (M. Fahlgren et al.). A phenomenological model for the quantitative interpretation of partial suspension conditions in stirred vessels (G. Micale et al.). A self-aspirating disk impeller - an optimization attempt (C. Kuncewicz, J. Stelmach). A novel gas-inducing agitator system for gas-liquid reactors for improved mass transfer and mixing (E.A. Brouwer, C. Buurman). Hold-up and gas-liquid mass transfer performance of modified Rushton turbine impellers (S.C.P. Orvalho et al.). A simple method for detecting individual impeller flooding of dual-Rushton impellers (A. Bombač, I. Žun). Numerical simulation of gas-liquid flow in a parallelepiped tank equipped with a gas rotor-distributor (E. Waz et al.). Experimental and modelling study of gas dispersion in a double turbine stirred tank (S. Alves et al.). Local heat transfer in liquid and gas-liquid systems agitated by concave disc turbine (J. Karcz, A. Abragimowicz). Effect of the viscosity ratio &eegr;d/&eegr;c on the droplet size distributions of emulsions generated in a colloid mill (C. Dicharry et al.). Experimental measurement of droplet size distribution of a MMA suspension in a batch oscillatory baffled reactor of 0.21m diameter (G. Nelson et al.). Power consumption in mechanically stirred crystallizers (R. Bubbico et al.). Fluid dynamic studies of a large bioreactor with different cooling coil geometries (H. Patel et al.). Author index.
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- © Elsevier Science 2000
- 14th June 2000
- Elsevier Science
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Kramers Laboratorium voor Fysische Technologie, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands