This is defined as the use or posting of articles:
- For commercial gain without a formal agreement with the publisher.
- For example by associating advertising with the full-text of the article, by providing hosting services to other repositories or to other organizations (including where an otherwise non-commercial site or repository provides a service to other organizations or agencies), or charging fees for document delivery or access
- To substitute for the services provided directly by the journal.
- For example article aggregation, systematic distribution of articles via e-mail lists or share buttons, posting, indexing, or linking for promotional/marketing activities, by commercial companies for use by customers and intended target audiences of such companies (e.g. pharmaceutical companies and healthcare professionals/physician-prescribers).