Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • Types of paper
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest statement
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Authorship
    • Changes to authorship
    • Acknowledgements
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Referees
    PREPARATION
    • Use of word processing software
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Graphical abstract
    • Highlights
    • Nomenclature
    • Formulae
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Illustration services
    • Tables
    • References
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission checklist
    • Additional information
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints
    • Additional information
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    Types of paper

    1. Original research papers (Research Papers)
    2. Review articles (Review Papers)
    3. Short communications
    4.Letters to the Editor
    5. Book reviews

    Original research papers should report the results of original research. The material must not have been previously published elsewhere. Articles must be as concise as possible, commensurate with reporting and discussing the research presented. As a general rule they should not occupy more than 12 printed journal pages, including figures, tables and references (about 30 manuscript pages, Times New Roman 12 pt, double-spaced, minimum 2 cm margins) . Introduction should not exceed 2 manuscript pages. Discussion should not exceed 4 manuscript pages and the number of references should be limited to 35.

    Review articles should cover subjects falling within the scope of the journal. Of particular interest are topical, short (mini) reviews in areas of current interest.

    Reviews of topics in veterinary bacteriology, mycology and virology should provide short, readable, well-referenced, up-to-date overviews of current, emerging, or neglected subjects in the discipline. Syntheses of information from diverse sources, providing clarification of areas of confusion or uncertainty, are especially desirable. It is anticipated that these reviews will provide overviews of important topics to the benefit of "curious-but-busy" readers of Veterinary Microbiology.

    Reviews should carry titles which are creative and provocative, but nonetheless descriptive, and emphasize current status and future directions of research. Historical vignettes are useful in setting the stage for addressing important contemporary questions, but should not ordinarily be the basis for an article. Manuscripts may include controversial views, if presented in a balanced fashion and supported by evidence; informed speculation is welcome.

    Before submitting a review, authors must first contact one of the Editors with an outline of a proposed review: Ben Adler (ben.adler@monash.edu) or Stefan Schwarz (stefan.schwarz@fli.bund.de) for bacteriological reviews and Uwe Truyen (truyen@vetmed.uni-leipzig.de) for those on virology. It is expected that authors submitting reviews are experts in the field. This must be supported by a strong track record of publications in the area of the proposed review. The main text of a review article should be about 15 pages of double-spaced type, supported by illustrative material and references. Figures are welcome, but review articles should normally not have more than 50 references. Manuscripts should be submitted through the EES electronic submission system, using the article type 'Review Paper'.

    Manuscripts will be processed through the normal Veterinary Microbiology review procedure, with the final decision made by the appropriate Editor.

    Short communications should report the results of original research. The material must not have been previously published elsewhere. As a general rule they should not occupy more than 6 printed journal pages, including figures, tables and references (about 15 manuscript pages, Times New Roman 12 pt, double-spaced, minimum 2 cm margins). Introduction should not exceed 1 manuscript page. Discussion should not exceed 3 manuscript pages and the number of references should be limited to 25.

    Letters to the Editor offering comment or useful critique on material published in the journal are welcomed. The decision to publish submitted letters rests purely with the Editor-in-Chief. It is hoped that the publication of such letters will permit an exchange of views which will be of benefit to both the journal and its readers.

    Book reviews will be included in the journal on a range of relevant books which are not more than 2 years old.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Ethics in animal experimentation
    Circumstances relating to animal experimentation must meet the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals as issued by the Council for the International Organizations of Medical Sciences. They are obtainable from: Executive Secretary C.I.O.M.S., c/o WHO, Via Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, or at the following URL: http://www.cioms.ch/publications/guidelines/1985_texts_of_guidelines.htm. Unnecessary cruelty in animal experimentation is not acceptable to the Editors of Veterinary Microbiology.

    Data accessibility
    Any new nucleotide or amino acid sequence data should be deposited in publicly accessible databases, such as GenBank, and the accession numbers should be included in the manuscript (Methods section) before it is finally accepted for publication. In addition, it is expected that any plasmids, transposons, viruses, microbial strains, or cell lines described for the first time in the paper will be made available to scientists for non-commercial purposes at reasonable cost following publication.

    Conflict of interest statement

    Any conflicts of interest must be disclosed at the end of the submitted manuscript under the subheading 'Conflict of interest statement'.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Authorship

    All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Acknowledgements

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in an acknowledgements section at the end of the manuscript, before the references. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

    To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The publication fee for this journal is $USD 3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/vetmic/default.asp.

    Authors should select the relevant article type (e.g. Research Paper, Review Paper, Short Communication, Letter to the Editor, Book Review), and category (e.g. Prions, Viruses, Fungi, Bacteria) for their papers as well as a set of classifications from a given list.

    Referees

    Authors are requested to provide the names of up to 4 referees (with email addresses) whom they feel are qualified to evaluate their submission (for original research papers, review articles and short communications). Submission of such names does not, however, imply that they will definitely be used as referees.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    Manuscripts of original research papers should include a structured abstract of 250 or fewer words, organised under the sections: Problem addressed; Objective; Methods and approach; Results; Conclusions. Do not actually include section headings, but use this structure for the abstract.

    Graphical abstract

    A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
    Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

    Highlights

    Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Nomenclature

    1. Authors and Editors are, by general agreement, obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid down in the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Virologists should consult the latest Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses for proper nomenclature and spelling.
    2. All biotica (crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc.) should be identified by their scientific names when the English term is first used, with the exception of common domestic animals.
    3. All biocides and other organic compounds must be identified by their Geneva names when first used in the text. Active ingredients of all formulations should be likewise identified.
    4. For chemical nomenclature, the conventions of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the official recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature should be followed.

    Formulae

    1. Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used.
    2. For simple fractions use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line.
    3. Equations should be numbered serially at the right-hand side in parentheses. In general only equations explicitly referred to in the text need be numbered.
    4. The use of fractional powers instead of root signs is recommended. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp.
    5. In chemical formulae, valence of ions should be given as, e.g. Ca2+ , not as Ca++.
    6. Isotope numbers should precede the symbols, e.g. 18O.
    7. The repeated writing of chemical formulae in the text is to be avoided where reasonably possible; instead, the name of the compound should be given in full. Exceptions may be made in the case of a very long name occurring very frequently or in the case of a compound being described as the end product of a gravimetric determination (e.g. phosphate as P2O5).

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    1. Footnotes should only be used if absolutely essential. In most cases it should be possible to incorporate the information in normal text.
    2. If used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers, and kept as short as possible.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    1. All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) should be submitted as separate files, though they may also be embedded within the manuscript file for ease of reading during the review process.

    2. Illustrations should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. References should be made in the text to each illustration.

    3. Illustrations should be designed with the format of the page of the journal in mind. Illustrations should be of such a size as to allow a reduction of 50%.

    4. Lettering should be big enough to allow a reduction of 50% without becoming illegible, any lettering should be in English. Use the same kind of lettering throughout and follow the style of the journal.

    5. If a scale should be given, use bar scales on all illustrations instead of numerical scales that must be changed with reduction.

    6. Explanations should be given in the figure legend(s). Drawn text in the illustrations should be kept to a minimum.

    7. Photographs are only acceptable if they have good contrast and intensity.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Illustration services

    Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/illustrationservices) offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    1. Authors should take notice of the limitations set by the size and lay-out of the journal. Large tables should be avoided. Reversing columns and rows will often reduce the dimensions of a table.

    2. If many data are to be presented, an attempt should be made to divide them over two or more tables.

    3. Tables should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. The text should include references to all tables.

    4. Tables should be provided as separate files independent of the main manuscript file.

    5. Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title.

    6. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be added between parentheses.

    7. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead.

    8. Any explanation essential to the understanding of the table should be given as a footnote at the bottom of the table.

    References

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Reference style
    1. All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of author names and dates are exactly the same in the text as in the reference list. For original research papers, the list should not exceed 35 references (it may be longer for review articles).
    2. In the text, refer to the author's name (without initial) and year of publication, followed – if necessary – by a short reference to appropriate pages. Examples: "Since Peterson (1988) has shown that..." "This is inagreement with results obtained later (Kramer, 1989, pp.12–16)".
    3. If reference is made in the text to a publication written by more than two authors, the name of the first author should be used followed by "et al.". This indication, however, should never be used in the list of references. In this list the names of first author and co-authors should be included.
    4. References cited together in the text should be arranged chronologically. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically by author name, and chronologically per author. If an author's name in the list is also mentioned with co-authors, the following order should be used: publications of the single author, arranged according to publication dates – publications of the same author with one co-author – publications of the author with more than one co-author. Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 1974a, 1974b, etc.
    5. Abbreviate the titles of periodicals mentioned in the list of references; according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations mentioned below. The correct abbreviation for this journal is Vet. Microbiol.
    6. In the case of publications in any language other than English, the original title is to be retained. However, the titles of publications in non-Latin alphabets should be transliterated, and a notation such as "(in Russian)" or "(in Greek, with English abstract)" should be added.
    7. Work accepted for publication but not yet published should be referred to as "in press".
    8. References concerning unpublished data and "personal communications" should not be cited in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text.
    9. Web references may be given. As a minimum, the full URL is necessary. Any further information, such as Author names, dates, reference to a source publication and so on, should also be given.
    10. Articles available online but without volume and page numbers may be referred to by means of their Digital Object identifier (DOI).
    11.

    Use the following system for arranging your references:
    a. For periodicals
    Chin, J.C., Dai, Y., Watts, J.E., 1995. Antibody response against Pseudomonas aeruginosa membrane proteins in experimentally infected sheep. Vet. Microbiol. 43, 21–32.
    b. For edited symposia, special issues, etc. published in a periodical
    Caffrey, J.P., 1994. Status of bovine tuberculosis eradication programmes in Europe. In: Wood, P.R., Monaghan, M.L., Rothel, J.S. (Eds.), Bovine Tuberculosis. Vet. Microbiol. 40, 1–4.
    c. For books
    Armitage, P., Berry, G., 1987. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 94–100, 411–416.
    d. For multi-author books
    Butler, J.E., 1981. A concept of humoral immunity among ruminants and an approach to its investigation. In: Butler, J.E., Nielson, K., Duncan, J.R. (Eds.), The Ruminant Immune System, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 3–55.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Additional information

    1. Manuscripts should have numbered lines with wide margins and double spacing throughout, i.e. also for abstracts, footnotes and references. Every page of the manuscript should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should made to page numbers; if necessary, one may refer to sections. Avoid excessive usage of italics to emphasize part of the text.

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    Complete correspondence address including e-mail address to which the proofs should be sent
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    Keywords (indexing terms), normally 3 – 6 items.
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    Acknowledgements and any additional information concerning research grants, etc.
    References
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    5. Elsevier reserves the privilege of returning to the author for revision accepted manuscripts and illustrations which are not in the proper form given in this guide.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

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    Additional information

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