Guide for Authors

  • Types of contributions

    1. Original research papers (Full-length articles and Short Communications).
    2. Review articles (Mini-reviews and full-length Review Articles, and Book Reviews
    3. Scientific meeting Reports

    Original research papers:
    These should report the results of original research. The material should not have been previously published elsewhere, except in a preliminary form.
    Full-length articles should conform to the traditional format with headings for Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion section.

    A Short Communication is a concise but complete description of a limited investigation, which will not be included in a later paper. Short Communications should be as completely documented, both by reference to the literature and description of the experimental procedures employed, as a regular paper. They should not occupy more than 6 printed pages with figures, tables and references (about 12 manuscript pages including no more than a total of 4 figures and tables) and should contain an Abstract of not more than 200 words. Headings should be Introduction, Materials and Methods with the Results and Discussion combined. The maximum total text word count in these sections is 3000.

    Papers containing sequence data per se are outside of the scope of the journal but those describing sequences including utility, for example the expression and immunological function of a molecule or the generation of useful mAb, will be considered. Sequence data can be submitted to be included as supplementary information with accession numbers quoted in the text.

    Mini-reviews and opinions should cover subjects in specialised areas of veterinary immunology which are either topical, or of emerging importance, or in need of an update. They should not exceed 3000 words and be easy to read. Articles containing provocative opinions and hypotheses not yet firmly supported by experimental evidence should be suitable, provided that any biases expressed are acknowledged by the authors.

    Review Articles in a traditional, more comprehensive style are also published in the journal. Authors wishing to submit these, or Mini-reviews/opinions are asked to first submit a title plus abstract for advice on suitability to one of the Review Articles Editors. Authors in the Americas should contact S. Srikumaran at, and authors from elsewhere should contact Dirk Werling at Dwerling@RVC.AC.UK.

    Book Reviews will be included in the journal on a range of relevant books which are not more than 2 years old.

    Meeting Reports
    These will be considered for publication. The decision to publish rests purely with the Editors-in-Chief. The subject matter should be within the aims and scope of the journal. Reports may be very brief summaries of recognised International Committee recommendations and decisions, or longer reports of relevant scientific meetings. Special issues containing full papers presented at a conference/workshop will also be considered.

    Submission of manuscripts
    Submission to Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology now proceeds online via Elsevier Editorial System - Authors will be guided step-by-step through uploading files directly from their computers. Authors should select a set of classifications for their papers from a given list, as well as a category designation (Original Research Paper, Short Communication, and so on). Electronic PDF proofs will be automatically generated from uploaded files, and used for subsequent reviewing.

    Authors should send queries concerning the submission process or journal procedures to Authors can check the status of their manuscript within the review procedure using Elsevier Editorial System.

    Authors submitting hard copy papers will be asked to resubmit using Elsevier Editorial System.

    Submission of an article is understood to imply that the article is original and is not being considered for publication elsewhere. Submission also implies that all authors have approved the paper for release and are in agreement with its content. Upon acceptance of the article by the journal, the author(s) will be asked to transfer the copyright of the article to the Publisher. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information.

    All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

    All contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship as defined above should be listed in an acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a department chair who provided only general support. Authors should disclose whether they had any writing assistance and identify the entity that paid for this assistance.

    Conflict of interest
    At the end of the text, under a subheading "Conflict of interest statement" all authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organisations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.

    Role of the funding source
    All sources of funding should be declared as an acknowledgement at the end of the text. Authors should declare the role of study sponsors, if any, in the study design, in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. If the study sponsors had no such involvement, the authors should so state.Open Access
    This journal offers authors two choices to publish their research;

    1. Open Access

    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder

    2. Subscription

    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (
    • No Open Access publication fee

    All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:

    Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY NC SA).

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY): available only for authors funded by organizations with which we have established an agreement with. For a full list please see

    Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body Open Access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC-BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees.

    To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access. Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The Open Access publication fee for this journal is $USD 3,000, excluding taxes.

    Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy

    Circumstances relating to animal experimentation must meet the International Guiding Principles for Biomedical Research Involving Animals as issued by the Council for the International Organizations of Medical Sciences. They are obtainable from: Executive Secretary C.I.O.M.S., c/o WHO, Via Appia, CH-1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, or at the following URL: Unnecessary cruelty in animal experimentation is not acceptable to the Editors of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology.

    Sequence data submitted to a publicly accessible database must quote an accession number in the text (Methods section). Patents should also be referenced in the text, if appropriate.

    Article Transfer Service
    This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. More information about this can be found here:

    Preparation of manuscripts
    1. Manuscripts should be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have their manuscripts checked by an English-speaking colleague prior to submission.

    Language Editing: Elsevier's Authors Home provides details of some companies who can provide English language and copyediting services to authors who need assistance before they submit their article or before it is accepted for publication. Authors should contact these services directly. For more information about language editing services, please email

    Please note that Elsevier neither endorses nor takes responsibility for any products, goods or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising. For more information please refer to our terms & conditions

    2. Manuscripts should have numbered lines, with wide margins and double spacing throughout, i.e. also for abstracts, footnotes and references. Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables, etc., should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should be made to page numbers; if necessary one may refer to sections. Avoid excessive usage of italics to emphasize part of the text.
    3. Manuscripts in general should be organized in the following order:
    Title (should be clear, descriptive and not too long)
    Name(s) of author(s)
    Complete postal address(es) of affiliations
    Full telephone, Fax No. and e-mail address of the corresponding author
    Present address(es) of author(s) if applicable
    Complete correspondence address including e-mail address to which the proofs should be sent
    Keywords (indexing terms), normally 3-6 items. Please refer to last index (Vol. 100/3-4).
    Material studied, area descriptions, methods, techniques
    Acknowledgements and any additional information concerning research grants, etc.
    Figure captions
    Tables (separate file(s))
    Figures (separate file(s)).
    4. Titles and subtitles should not be run within the text. They should be typed on a separate line, without indentation. Use lower-case letter type.
    5. SI units should be used.
    6. Elsevier reserves the privilege of returning to the author for revision accepted manuscripts and illustrations which are not in the proper form given in this guide.
    7. A number of standard accepted abbreviations can be used in the body of a manuscript without further explanation (see list below), but must be explained if used in the Title or Abstract. Non-standard abbreviations should be explained when first used in the Abstract, and again when first used in the body of a manuscript, and should also be explained in an abbreviations list to follow the list of keywords.

    List of standard abbreviations:

    AIDSAcquired immunodeficiency syndrome
    APCAntigen-presenting cell
    BCGBacillus Calmette Guerin
    BSABovine serum albumin
    CFUColony-forming unit
    ConAConcanavalin A
    cpmCounts per minute
    CSFColony-stimulating factor
    CTLCytotoxic T lymphoctye
    EDTAEthylenediaminetetraacetic acid
    ELISAEnzyme-linked Immunosorbent assay
    FabMonovalent antigen-binding fragment
    F(ab1)2Divalent antigen-binding fragment
    FBSFetal bovine serum
    FCSFetal calf serum
    Fc&Ggr;RReceptor for the Fc&Ggr; part of the IgG
    FITCFluorescein Isothiocyanate
    H chainHeavy chain of Ig
    HIVHuman immunodeficiency virus
    HLAHuman histocompatibility leukocyte antigen
    IUInternational unit
    KDDKilodalton (mol. mass)
    KLHKeyhole limpet hemocyanin
    L chainLight chain of Ig
    LAKLymphokine-activated killer (cell)
    mAbMonoclonal antibody
    MHCMajor histocompatibility complex
    MLRMixed lymphocyte (leukocyte) reaction
    MrRelative molecular mass
    nNumber in study or group
    NDNot determined
    NKNatural killer (cell)
    ODOptical density (transmission through turbid suspensions)
    OVA Ovalbumin
    PAGEPolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
    PBLPeripheral blood lymphocytes
    PBMCPeripheral blood mononucleur cells
    PCRPolymerase chain recation
    PBSPhosphate-buffered saline
    PKCProtein kinase C
    PMAPhorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate
    PMNPolymorphonuclear (cell, leukocyte)
    PPDPurified protein derivative of tuberculin
    PWMPokeweed mitogen
    RReceptor (e.g. IL-2R)
    RBCRed blood cells
    RFLPRestriction fragment length polymorphism
    SDStandard deviation
    SDSSodium dodecyl sulfate
    SEMStandard error of the mean
    SRBCSheep red blood cells
    SV40Simian virus 40
    TCRT cell receptor
    ThT helper (cell)
    TGFTransforming growth factor
    TNFTumor necrosis factor
    TsT suppressor (cell)
    V regionVariable region
    1°, 2°, 3°Primary, secondary, tertiary
    2-DTwo dimensional
    3-DThree dimensional

    The abstract should be clear, descriptive and not longer than 400 words.

    1. Authors should take notice of the limitations set by the size and lay-out of the journal. Large tables should be avoided. Reversing columns and rows will often reduce the dimensions of a table.
    2. If many data are to be presented, an attempt should be made to divide them over two or more tables.
    3. Tables should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. The text should include references to all tables.
    4. Each table should occupy a separate page of the manuscript. Tables should never be included in the text.
    5. Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title.
    6. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should be added between parentheses.
    7. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead.
    8. Any explanation essential to the understanding of the table should be given as a footnote at the bottom of the table.

    1. All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) should be submitted as separate files, preferably in TIFF or EPS format.
    2. Illustrations should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. References should be made in the text to each illustration.
    3. Illustrations should be designed with the format of the page of the journal in mind. Illustrations should be of such a size as to allow a reduction of 50%.
    4. Lettering should be big enough to allow a reduction of 50% without becoming illegible. Any lettering should be in English. Use the same kind of lettering throughout and follow the style of the journal.
    5. If a scale should be given, use bar scales on all illustrations instead of numerical scales that must be changed with reduction.
    6. Each illustration should have a caption. The captions to all illustrations should be typed on a separate sheet of the manuscript.
    7. Explanations should be given in the figure legend(s). Drawn text in the illustrations should be kept to a minimum.
    8. Photographs are only acceptable if they have good contrast and intensity.
    9. If you submit usable colour figures, Elsevier would ensure that these figures appeared free-of-charge in colour in the electronic version of your accepted paper, regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in colour in the printed version. Colour illustrations can only be included in print if the additional cost of reproduction is contributed by the author: you would receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article.

    Please note that because of technical complications which may arise by converting colour figures to 'grey scale' (for the printed version, should you not opt for colour in print), you should submit in addition usable black and white figures corresponding to all colour illustrations.
    10. Advice on the preparation of illustrations can be found at the following URL:

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Preparation of supplementary data
    Elsevier now accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, movies, animation sequences, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published free of charge online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please ensure that data are provided in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit

    1. All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of author's names and dates are exactly the same in the text as in the reference list.
    2. In the text refer to the author's name (without initial) and year of publication, followed – if necessary – by a short reference to appropriate pages. Examples: "Since Peterson (1988) has shown that..." "This is in agreement with results obtained later (Kramer, 1989, pp. 12–16)".
    3. If reference is made in the text to a publication written by more than two authors the name of the first author should be used followed by "et al.". This indication, however, should never be used in the list of references. In this list names of first author and co-authors should be mentioned.
    4. References cited together in the text should be arranged chronologically. The list of references should be arranged alphabetically on author's names, and chronologically per author. If an author's name in the list is also mentioned with co-authors the following order should be used: publications of the single author, arranged according to publication dates – publications of the same author with one co-author – publications of the author with more than one co-author. Publications by the same author(s) in the same year should be listed as 1974a, 1974b, etc.
    5. Use the following system for arranging your references:
    a. For periodicals
    Harp, J.A., Walters, T.E., Goff, J.P., 2004. Lymphocyte subsets and adhesion molecule expression in milk and blood of periparturient dairy cattle. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 102, 9-17.
    b. For edited symposia, special issues, etc., published in a periodical
    Miller, L.C., Fox, J.M., 2004. Apoptosis and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. In: Murtaugh, M.P., Rowland, R.R.R. (Eds), Immunology and Immunopathology of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS). Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 102, 131-142.
    c. For books
    Gershwin, M., Naguwa, S., 2005. Allergy and Immunology Secrets, Elsevier, 352 pp.
    d. For multi-author books
    Butler, J.E., 1981. A concept of humoral immunity among ruminants and an approach to its investigation. In: Butler, J.E., Nielson, K., Duncan, J.R. (Eds.), The Ruminant Immune System, Plenum Press, New York, pp. 3-55.
    6. Abbreviate the titles of periodicals mentioned in the list of references in accordance with BIOSIS Serial Sources, published annually by BIOSIS. The correct abbreviation for this journal is Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
    7. In the case of publications in any language other than English, the original title is to be retained. However, the titles of publications in non-Latin alphabets should be transliterated, and a notation such as "(in Russian)" or "(in Greek, with English abstract)" should be added.
    8. Work accepted for publication but not yet published should be referred to as "in press".
    9. References concerning unpublished data and "personal communications" should not be cited in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text.
    10. Web references may be given. As a minimum, the full URL is necessary. Any further information, such as Author names, dates, reference to a source publication and so on, should also be given.
    11. Articles available online but without volume and page numbers may be referred to by means of their Digital Object identifier (DOI) code.

    1. Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used.
    2. For simple fractions use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line.
    3. Equations should be numbered serially at the right-hand side in parentheses. In general only equations explicitly referred to in the text need be numbered.
    4. The use of fractional powers instead of root signs is recommended. Also powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp.
    5. Levels of statistical significance which can be mentioned without further explanation are * P<0.05, ** P<0.01 and *** P<0.001.
    6. In chemical formulae, valence of ions should be given as, e.g., Ca2+ not as Ca++.
    7. Isotope numbers should precede the symbols, e.g., 18O.
    8. The repeated writing of chemical formulae in the text is to be avoided where reasonably possible; instead, the name of the compound should be given in full. Exceptions may be made in the case of a very long name occurring very frequently or in the case of a compound are being described as the end product of a gravimetric determination (e.g., phosphate as P2O5).

    1. Footnotes should only be used if absolutely essential. In most cases it should be possible to incorporate the information in normal text.
    2. If used, they should be numbered in the text, indicated by superscript numbers, and kept as short as possible.

    1. Authors and editors are, by general agreement, obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid down in theInternational Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
    2. All biotica (crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc.) should be identified by their scientific names when the English term is first used, with the exception of common domestic animals.
    3. All biocides and other organic compounds must be identified by their Geneva names when first used in the text. Active ingredients of all formulations should be likewise identified.
    4. For chemical nomenclature, the conventions of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the official recommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature should be followed.

    If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the Author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by Authors in these cases: contact Elsevier's Rights Department, Oxford, UK: phone (+1) 215 239 3804 or +44(0)1865 843830, fax +44(0)1865 853333, e-mail Requests may also be completed online via the Elsevier homepage

    Material in unpublished letters and manuscripts is also protected and must not be published unless permission has been obtained.

    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to sign a "Journal Publishing Agreement"(for more information on this and copyright see Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail (or letter) will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a Journal Publishing Agreement form.

    Some funding bodies require public posting of articles based on research which they funded for which a charge is made. For more details, see clause below on 'Funding body agreements and policies'.

    Authors Rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) may do the following:
    • make copies (print or electronic) of the article for your own personal use, including for your own classroom teaching use
    • make copies and distribute such copies (including through e-mail) of the article to research colleagues, for the personal use by such colleagues (but not commercially or systematically, e.g., via an e-mail list or list server)
    • post a pre-print version of the article on Internet websites including electronic pre-print servers, and to retain indefinitely such version on such servers or sites
    • post a revised personal version of the final text of the article (to reflect changes made in the peer review and editing process) on your personal or institutional website or server, with a link to the journal homepage (on
    • present the article at a meeting or conference and to distribute copies of the article to the delegates attending such a meeting
    • for your employer, if the article is a 'work for hire', made within the scope of your employment, your employer may use all or part of the information in the article for other intra-company use (e.g., training)
    • retain patent and trademark rights and rights to any processes or procedure described in the article
    • include the article in full or in part in a thesis or dissertation (provided that this is not to be published commercially)
    • use the article or any part thereof in a printed compilation of your works, such as collected writings or lecture notes (subsequent to publication of your article in the journal)
    • prepare other derivative works, to extend the article into book-length form, or to otherwise re-use portions or excerpts in other works, with full acknowledgement of its original publication in the journal

    Funding body agreements and policies
    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors who publish in Elsevier journals to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit

    One set of page proofs will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post). Elsevier now sends PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 available free from on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs. The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe Site:

    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post.
    Only typesetter's errors may be corrected; no changes in, or additions to, the edited manuscript will be allowed.

    Elsevier will do everything possible to get your article corrected and published as quickly and accurately as possible. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Subsequent corrections will not be possible, so please ensure your first sending is complete.


    The corresponding author will, at no cost, be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.

    Authors can also keep a track of the progress of their accepted article, and set up e-mail alerts informing them of changes to their manuscript's status, by using the "Track your accepted article" option on the journal's homepage For privacy, information on each article is password-protected. The author should key in the "Our Reference" code (which is in the letter of acknowledgement sent by the Publisher on receipt of the accepted article) and the name of the corresponding author.

    Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology has no page charges


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