Guide for Authors

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    INTRODUCTION
    • Types of article
    • Contact details for submission
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Editorial Process
    • Conflict of interest
    • Support/Financial Disclosures
    • Submission declaration
    • Open access
    • Submission
    PREPARATION
    • NEW SUBMISSIONS
    • References
    • Formatting requirements
    • REVISED SUBMISSIONS
    • Article structure
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Submission Checklist
    • Submission checklist
    • Proofs

    Your Paper Your Way
    your paper your way



    Manuscripts submitted to UROLOGY will receive a timely review and the journal strives to provide authors with a decision within 30 days of submission as long as all reviews have been received. Accepted manuscripts will be published within six months of the date of final acceptance (except where noted otherwise) provided all production materials have been delivered to the Editorial Office.

    Types of article

    1. AMBULATORY, OFFICE-BASED, and GERIATRIC UROLOGY: This section features manuscripts relating to the innovative practice of office urology, advances in ambulatory surgery, as well as socioeconomic issues important to the practicing urologist across all age groups, including the elderly.

    2. AUTHOR REPLY (TO EDITORIAL COMMENT) is solicited by the Editor and should not be submitted without prior invitation.

    3. BASIC and TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE: This section will focus on original basic and translational science work related to all aspects of urology.

    4. BIOGRAPHY: An original manuscript with a detailed description of a person who has contributed significantly to the field of urology.

    5. BOOK REVIEW: These are solicited by the Editor, will go through the peer review process, and will cover recently published books in the field of Urology.

    6. COMMENTARY: A mini-review article that highlights the importance of a particular topic and provides recently published supporting data.

    7. EDITORIAL COMMENTS: are solicited by the Editor and should not be submitted without prior invitation.

    8. EDUCATION: This section features manuscripts covering topics on the instruction of physicians and or patients.

    9. ENDOUROLOGY and STONES: This section features manuscripts relating to endourologic approaches to the diagnosis of stones and other urologic diseases.

    10. FEMALE UROLOGY: This section will focus on original work on all aspects of female urology.

    11. GRAND ROUNDS: This section, which is solicited by the Editor, will incorporate the format of Grand Rounds at most hospitals throughout the world where an interesting case is presented, most often with radiologic, surgical, and pathologic findings, followed by a discussion. Medical students, residents, fellows and junior faculty are particularly encouraged to prepare submissions to this new section in UROLOGY. In addition, a senior person from the institution will be required to submit an accompanying discussion concerning diagnosis and management, as would be the case at regular hospital grand rounds. When appropriate, an editorial comment may be added by the editors. A photo of the contributing student/resident will be published along with the article. Please refer to Elsevier's general artwork instructions, located here: http://www.elsevier.com/author-schemas/artwork-and-media-instructions

    12. HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH: This section features manuscripts relating to all aspects of research in health outcomes for urology related procedures, treatments, diseases, and conditions.

    13. IMAGES IN CLINICAL UROLOGY: Concise, one-page pictorial description of a unique case.

    14. INFECTIOUS DISEASES: This section will feature manuscripts relating to infectious diseases in all areas of urology.

    15. INFERTILITY: This section will focus on original work on all aspects of male and/or female infertility.

    16. LETTER-FROM-THE-EDITOR: Periodic messages from the Editor on timely topics.

    17. LAPAROSCOPY and ROBOTICS: This section features manuscripts relating to laparoscopic and robotic surgery for all urologic diseases.

    18. LETTERS-TO-THE-EDITOR: Short communications regarding recent articles or comments on timely topics in letter form that should be supported by relevant references. Authors of the cited article will have the opportunity to read and reply to the letter. All LETTERS TO THE EDITOR must be submitted within one month of the publishing date of the cited article. Letters if accepted will be published as space permits.

    19. MALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION: This section will focus on original work related to male sexual dysfunction including erectile dysfunction, peyronie's disease, priapism, and ejaculatory dysfunction.

    20. MEDICAL ONCOLOGY: This section features original work relating to non-surgical aspects of urologic malignancies.

    21. ONCOLOGY: This section will highlight articles relating to diagnosis and surgical management of urologic cancers.

    22. PEDIATRIC CASE REPORTS: Unique cases demonstrating concepts of diagnosis and management in children that are relevant to the practicing urologist. Accepted manuscripts will be published in their entirety electronically at http://www.goldjournal.net and also in the print edition.

    23. PEDIATRIC UROLOGY: This section will feature original work relating to all aspects of pediatric urology.

    24. POINT- COUNTERPOINT: This section is solicited by the Editor and will present opposite points of view on current topics in all aspects of urology related to diagnosis, treatment, and management.

    25. PROSTATIC DISEASES AND MALE VOIDING DYSFUNCTION: This section will feature original work relating to all aspects of prostatic diseases (NOTE: Articles dealing with the diagnosis or treatment of prostate cancer should be submitted to the "Oncology" section)

    26. RAPID COMMUNICATION: Manuscripts that are extremely timely, of utmost importance, and which the Editor deems warrant rapid publication. Two expert consultants will review these manuscripts within 48 hours and the authors will receive notification of the status within 72 hours. The manuscript will be published in the next available issue of UROLOGY. The submission/processing fee for a Rapid Communication Article is $300. Payment may be made via credit card or check (please make checks payable to: Elsevier). Payment must be received prior to beginning the review process. Manuscripts that the Editorial Board believes do not warrant rapid communication will have the submission fee returned and the authors may choose to have the manuscript continue with the standard 30-day UROLOGY review process. Manuscripts processed as a Rapid Communication that are not found acceptable for publication will NOT have the submission fee returned. Please note that this opportunity is for RAPID COMMUNICATION of important timely findings and does not represent a means to obtain a RAPID REVIEW.

    27. RECONSTRUCTIVE UROLOGY: This section features articles relating to all aspects of reconstructive urology, including urinary diversion and undiversion, bladder augmentation, and urethral and penile surgery and reconstruction.

    28. REVIEW ARTICLE: This is a comprehensive article that covers timely urologic topics of clinical relevance and must be well referenced. These articles should serve as a source for the practicing urologist and resident-in-training of current information on a clinically useful subject. REVIEW ARTICLES are pre-screened by the Editor and should not be submitted without prior written approval. Please send a summary of your proposed review article to: goldjournal@ccf.org. The Editor will review the summary and decide if the article should be submitted. If the Editor is interested, a formal invitation will be sent to the authors to submit the manuscript online in EES.

    30. SURGEON'S WORKSHOP: Short, concise articles plus photos and/or drawings on "how I do it" techniques.

    31. SURGICAL TECHNIQUES IN UROLOGY: This section should represent clear descriptions of complex surgical procedures with excellent pictorial illustration.

    32. TECHNOLOGY and ENGINEERING: This section will feature original work relating to the technical aspects of a cutting edge technology or reports the initial laboratory or clinical experience with a strong technology or engineering emphasis.

    33. UPDATE: This shorter review-type article covers current urologic topics of clinical relevance. These articles serve as an update of current information on a clinically useful subject. UPDATES are solicited by the Editor and should not be submitted without prior written approval.

    34. UROLOGIC CONGENITALISM: This section features manuscripts that focus on transitioning children born with complex genitourinary malformations into adulthood and the associated medical and psychological problems.

    Contact details for submission

    Submit manuscripts to the UROLOGY Editorial Office via the Elsevier Editorial system (EES): http://ees.elsevier.com/url/ > Submit Paper. All correspondence regarding submitted manuscripts will be handled via e-mail through EES. Send all other correspondence to:

    Eric Klein, MD
    Editor-in-Chief, UROLOGY
    Glickman Urologic and Kidney Institute, Q10
    9500 Euclid Ave
    Cleveland, OH 44195

    Phone: 216-445-6664/216-445-9738 (Editorial Office)
    Fax: 216-636-5104
    E-mail: goldjournal@ccf.org

    Editorial Process

    Peer Review:
    Manuscripts will be reviewed by internationally recognized experts on the subject. When relevant, a biostatistician, radiologist, or pathologist consultant will also review the manuscript. The reviewers will be blinded to the names of the authors and the institution from which the manuscripts have been sent.

    Authorship:
    Authorship should be finalized during the submission process. Please ensure that all authors are listed and in the correct order, because changes are not permissible once the accepted manuscript goes into production.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Authors should also disclose conflict of interest with products that compete with those mentioned in their manuscript. The Editor will discuss with the authors on an individual basis the method by which any conflicts of interest will be communicated to the readers.

    Support/Financial Disclosures

    The second page of each manuscript should acknowledge research support (from funding agencies or industry) and disclose any potential financial conflicts of interest for each author. Any meaningful affiliation or involvement, either direct or indirect, with any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed (e.g., employment, consultancies, grants, honoraria) must be disclosed. Specifics of the disclosure will remain confidential. If deemed appropriate by the Editor, a general statement regarding disclosure will be included in the Acknowledgment section of the manuscript. The Acknowledgment section must also reveal all sources of support for the work, both financial and material. If no financial conflict of interest is identified, 'none' should be written next to the author's name. Note: If the manuscript is accepted for publication, a summary of the relevant information will be transferred to the "Support" and "Financial Disclosure" sections of the Acknowledgements.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Manuscripts will be accepted for consideration with the understanding that they are contributed solely to UROLOGY, have never before been published, nor submitted simultaneously elsewhere, and become the property of the publisher. The publisher is not responsible for the loss of manuscripts through circumstances beyond its control.

    Manuscripts are subject to editorial modification to bring them into conformity with the style of the journal. Statements in articles or opinions expressed by any contributor in any article, including changes made by the copy editor, are not the responsibility of the editors or the publishers.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • A open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $3,000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Manuscripts must be submitted via the Elsevier Editorial System (EES) website for this journal, go to http://ees.elsevier.com/url and select "Submit Paper". You will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files and data. Once the uploading is done, the system automatically generates an electronic (PDF) proof, which is then used for reviewing. All correspondence regarding submitted manuscripts will be handled via e-mail through EES. The article must be typed in 12-point type, double-spaced with one-inch margins with all pages numbered consecutively. The file should follow the general instructions on style/arrangement. The file should use the wrap-around end-of-line feature, i.e., returns at the end of paragraphs only. Place two returns after every element, such as title, headings, paragraph. The Title page must contain the complete list of authors, the corresponding author with his/her contact information, and the word counts for the Abstract and for the manuscript text (do not include references or figure legends); and a list of 4-6 key words. Unless specifically indicated in the various categories listed, each manuscript should contain an Abstract and Introduction, Material and Methods, Results, Comment, and Conclusions sections. Structured Abstracts should be 250 words or less and divided into four sections with the subheadings: (1) Objectives, (2) Methods, (3) Results, and (4) Conclusions. **The OBJECTIVE in an abstract must always begin with "To...", as per journal style. Using lower-case superscript letters, link each author with the appropriate affiliation. Manuscripts with incorrect format or that are over maximum length will be returned unreviewed for modifications (see table for correct format/length).

    Submit your article

    NEW SUBMISSIONS

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
    As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.

    References

    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

    Formatting requirements

    There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
    If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
    Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

    The Title page must contain the complete list of authors, the corresponding author with his/her contact information, and the word counts for the Abstract and for the manuscript text (do not include references or figure legends); and a list of 4-6 key words.

    Figures and tables embedded in text
    Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.

    REVISED SUBMISSIONS

    Use of word processing software
    Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article structure

    Guidelines for Data Analysis and Reporting

    1. Randomized trials must include a description of the method used for randomization and be reported according to CONSORT guidelines (see http://www.consort-statement.org/consort-statement/overview0/), including a FLOW DIAGRAM. In addition, the primary and secondary endpoints of the study must be clearly stated, and a power calculation justifying the sample size for the primary endpoint must be included. Manuscripts not containing ALL of these elements will not be sent out for review.
    2. The Methods section should be clear and sufficiently thorough to permit another statistician to replicate the analysis provided by the authors.
    3. It should be clear which statistical test is associated with each p value reported. Rarely used statistical techniques should be described and justified.
    4. When reporting outcomes by subgroup, fractions should accompany percentages (For example: Of the patients, 25/60 (42%) were dry 3 weeks after the procedure)
    5. Median survival (using Kaplan-Meier plots), rather than mean survival, should be reported for outcomes with censored events (ie, where some patients had not reached a specified outcome at the time of last follow-up).
    6. Use appropriate figures for data presentation.
      a. Scatter plots are useful for illustrating important correlations between variables.
      b. Box and whisker plots are best for data that is not normally distributed.
      c. If individual subjects have repeated measurements over time, each one's set of points should be joined with line segments.
      d. Be sure that lines in a graph or bars in a chart showing outcomes for different groups are sufficiently distinct by varying shading, thickness, pattern, or symbols to be easily distinguished when reproduced in black and white, unless you are willing to pay for color reproduction. Different symbols should be used when points are stacked on top of each other.
      e. When regression lines are appropriate, they should be overlaid on raw data and not extend beyond the range of the predictor variable.
    7. Use appropriate and clearly labeled tables.
      a. Means should generally be accompanied by some measure of their uncertainty, such as 95% confidence intervals or standard errors.
      b. One significant figure beyond the level measured is sufficient for means, standard deviations, and standard errors.
      c. One decimal place for percentages > 1% is sufficient; no decimal places if the sample size is less than 100.
      d. Two significant figures for test statistics and p values are sufficient.
    8. When a statistical hypothesis test is not rejected, the actual p value (eg, 0.07) should be reported (if known) rather than omitted or reported as p >0.05.
    9. Pay close attention to wording.
      a. The word 'correlation' is generally reserved for computing correlation coefficients, not for reporting associations of variables with clinical or experimental outcomes - the word 'association' is preferred.
      b. Statistical tests can be nonparametric; data cannot.
      c. Studies with negative findings (ie, no difference) may be the result of low statistical power (eg, small sample size), rather than absence of a difference, and this limitation should be made clear.
    10. Use caution when interpreting p-values.
      a. Ensure proper adjustment (eg, Bonferroni) for multiple pairwise comparisons is performed, when necessary.
      b. A p value is the probability of observing data as extreme as those reported if the null hypothesis of no difference is true. A p value is not the probability of no real effect.
      c. A statistically significant outcome does not necessarily imply a result that is clinically important.

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Artwork
    Color figures are welcomed, and will appear in color on the web at no extra charge; however, there is a charge for the reproduction of color illustrations in print ($650 for the first color figure and $100 for each additional color figure). Alternatively, the illustrations can be reproduced in print in black and white at no extra charge. All illustrations must supplement, not duplicate the tables/text. Figures must clearly convey their message and be of high quality and of sufficient size and clarity (especially lettering, arrows, and data points) to be interpretable when reduced for publication. Shading does not always reproduce well. Consider using widely spaced cross-hatching patterns, for example, that will remain distinct on reduction. Use black or white arrows, depending on the background color. Please use an Arial font in a 12-point size for all text contained within the figures. All illustrations must be numbered and cited in order as they first appear in text. Concise legends (typed on a separate page in Arial font) must accompany each illustration. If you elect to have your illustrations published in black and white, please be sure that each figure legend DOES NOT mention colors. Do not embed artwork with text; illustrations should be supplied as separate files. Guidelines for submitting your illustrations in an electronic format can be found at http://www.ees.elsevier.com/url/

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
    • For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
    • Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
    TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution.
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    Tables should supplement, not duplicate the text/figures. The tables must be numbered and cited in order as they first appear in text, and each must have a precise heading. Please use an Arial font for the tables in a 12-point size.

    Permission
    Authors must submit written permission upon manuscript acceptance from the publisher/copyright owner of the original source when material is reproduced from other sources. This permission must include reproduction in both print and electronic formats for worldwide distribution.

    References

    Reference formatting
    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    Reference formatting
    References must be limited to those cited in the text, be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned, with their positions indicated in the text by a superscript Arabic number.

    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    Reference style
    Text: Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. The numerals are to be used outside periods and commas, inside colons and semicolons. For further detail and examples you are referred to the AMA Manual of Style, A Guide for Authors and Editors, Tenth Edition, ISBN 0-978-0-19-517633-9 (see http://www.amanualofstyle.com).
    List: Number the references in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.
    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication:
    1. Van der Geer J, Hanraads JAJ, Lupton RA. The art of writing a scientific article. J Sci Commun. 2010;163:51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    2. Strunk W Jr, White EB. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York, NY: Longman; 2000.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    3. Mettam GR, Adams LB. How to prepare an electronic version of your article. In: Jones BS, Smith RZ, eds. Introduction to the Electronic Age. New York, NY: E-Publishing Inc; 2009:281–304.

    Misc:
    References to Articles in Press must state the journal name, the year of publication, and the date on which the article was accessed. Personal Communications will not be included in the reference list and should be accompanied with written verification and be noted within the text.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Submission Checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.

    Ensure that the following items are present:

    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers

    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:

    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)

    Further considerations:

    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes

    For randomized trials, the following must be clearly specified:

    a. Method of randomization
    b. CONSORT flow diagram
    c. A sentence in the Methods section that states what the primary and secondary endpoints are
    d. A power calculation justifying the sample size for the primary endpoint

    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from http://get.adobe.com/reader. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/tech-specs.html.
    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately – please let us have all your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    To avoid publication delay, authors must return proofs within 48 hours. ALL authors must review and approve the proofs before returning them to Elsevier. Changes will not be allowed after proofs are approved by the authors. Accepted manuscripts can be tracked at: http://authors.elsevier.com/trackpaper.html using the Elsevier manuscript number provided in the proofs email.

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