Guide for Authors

Aims and Scope

Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology is the official journal of the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. The journal publishes original contributions on significant novel advances in clinical diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic applications, new and improved clinical techniques, the physics, engineering and technology of ultrasound in medicine and biology, and the interactions between ultrasound and biological systems, including bioeffects. Extended critical reviews of subjects of contemporary interest in the field are also published, in addition to occasional editorial articles, clinical and technical notes, book reviews, letters to the editor and a calendar of forthcoming meetings. It is the aim of the journal to meet the information and publication requirements of the clinicians, scientists, engineers and other professionals who constitute the biomedical ultrasound community.

Types of Paper

__ Original Contributions: Peer-reviewed, high-quality research investigations dealing with ultrasound and its applications in biomedicine.

__ Review Articles: Reviews of major areas or sub-areas in ultrasound in medicine and biology. These articles may be of any length and are peer-reviewed.

__ Technical and Clinical Notes: Brief studies [approximately 4 printed pages (12 double spaced submitted pages) or less]. However, submissions based solely on the description of a single case, i.e. case reports, will not be considered for publication.

__ Editorials: On an occasional basis.

__ Book Reviews: Reviews and abstracts of the current literature in the appropriate fields will be published. Book Reviews should be submitted electronically through the Elsevier Editorial website ( Authors and publishers should forward newly published works to the Associate Editor for Book Reviews: Dr. Robert J. Eckersley, King's College London, Imaging Sciences Div. of the Rayne Institute, 4th Floor, Lambeth Wing, St. Thomas' Hospital, London, UK SE1 7EH.

__ Letters to the Editor: Comments on articles published in the Journal and on other matters of interest to biomedical ultrasound researchers. They should be short (normally not more than 400 words), double-spaced, and include references where appropriate. Where a published article is involved, the original author(s) will be invited to submit a response.

__ Calendar: Provides notices of forthcoming meetings, courses, and other events relevant to biomedical ultrasound researchers. All such items will normally be listed (at no charge) in each issue. Please submit the date, conference/course title, and contact name to the Editorial office at least 6 months in advance.

__ Official Communications of the WFUMB: For example, approved changes in the Constitution.

__ WFUMB Newsletter (ECHOES): News concerning societies affiliated with the WFUMB (e.g., the names and addresses of newly elected officers as well as narrative reports of scientific meetings) should be sent directly to the Newsletter Editor, David Evans, PhD, DSc at This material should not be sent to the Editor-in-Chief of UMB.

Contact Information

Please contact the Editorial Office through any of the following means:

Managing Editor: Rose M. Randolph, University of Cincinnati, Cardiovascular Research Center, Rm. 3988, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA 45267-0586. Email:; Phone: +1 513-558-2508; Fax: +1 513-558-6102.

Editor-in-Chief: Christy K. Holland, Ph.D., Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology Editorial Office, University of Cincinnati, Cardiovascular Center, Room 3988, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0586, E-mail:, Phone: +1 513 558 2508, Fax: +1 513 558 6102.

Manuscript Submission

Manuscripts are accepted for consideration with the understanding that they have not been published elsewhere except in abstract form and are not concurrently under review elsewhere.

If a contribution has more than one author, permission of the other authors must be obtained for their names to appear as coauthors. In cases of multiple authorship, the Editor may ask for a statement of the contribution made by each author to the work and usually will do so when there are more than five authors. "Guest" authorship is not permitted.

Manuscripts will be reviewed by appropriate members of the Editorial Board and other referees with expertise in the area of presentation. Acceptance will depend on originality, relevance, and scientific content of the material.

When the manuscript deals with methodology describing the effects of ultrasound upon physical or biological systems, an exact description of the components used, their characteristics and their set-up must be provided so that other researchers will be able to duplicate the observations and measurements made.

When the manuscript deals with a novel method, technique or system, the principles upon which it is based must be described in detail for its principles of operation to be understood clearly by experts in the field. If the system incorporates engineering or signal processing procedures that are not conventional or commercially available, these procedures must be described in detail. Block diagrams usually describe the sequence of conventional procedures used in the system. The improved performance of such novel systems over existing systems must be described and illustrated as well as limitations and errors to which the system described is subject. Responsibility for protection of proprietary information will rest with the authors. When the manuscript deals with clinical studies in which commercial diagnostic ultrasound systems are used, these should be identified with brand name and the manufacturer's address. The console and transducers should be specified, as well as relevant control settings.

Before you Begin

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Human and animal rights

Manuscripts describing animal or human experiments must include a statement that experiments were conducted in a generally acceptable ethical and humane fashion. Manuscripts reporting the results of animal experimentation must include a statement that the research protocol was approved by a local Institutional Care and Animal Use Committee (IACUC). Manuscripts reporting the results of human experimentation must include a statement that the experimental protocol was approved by a local institutional review board (IRB) and that informed consent for the study was obtained from all human subjects in accordance with the WORLD Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, 2008 (
The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Conflict of interest

All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding.

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.


All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. Equal contribution statements are not supported as all authors are acknowledged in the author group. Each author is required to declare the source of their individual contribution in the cover letter. In addition, a statement that all authors have approved the submitted version of the manuscript should be true and included in the cover letter.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager, Lorraine Bernazzani (email:, from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) the Journal Manager will inform the Editor-in-Chief of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been clarified.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue must be clarified by submitting an Erratum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

Retained author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights; for details you are referred to:

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Open Access

Permitted reuse is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders. The publication fee for this journal is $1,500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop or visit our customer support site for more information.


Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

Submit your article


All manuscripts (text and artwork) must be submitted electronically through the Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology online submission and review website (

Items should include the following and be uploaded in the order shown below:

1) COVER LETTER (stating that the manuscript, or specified parts of it, have not been and will not be submitted elsewhere for publication and listing three or more potential reviewers for their manuscript, with their email addresses).

• Title page, Abstract/Keywords Page, Main text (with all tables listed at end), Acknowledgments, References List, and Figure Captions List).
•Each page should be double-spaced with indented paragraphs and numbered separately, with the exception of the title page.

3) FIGURES (uploaded as a separate file(s) and numbered).

Items should include the following and be uploaded in the order shown below:

1) COVER LETTER (same as described above)
2) DETAILED RESPONSE TO REVIEWERS (This document should list each reviewer's comment followed by the authors' response. Each response should include the page/line numbers where the text changes can be found in the revised manuscript.)
3) MANUSCRIPT FILE (with text changes underlined or highlighted)
Note: Revised manuscript files should all be the source files, not pdfs.
4) FIGURES (same as described above)


It would be appreciated, but not required, if you would please submit, with the manuscript, the names, addresses and e-mail addresses of three potential referees. Of course, no suggested referees can be from the same institution as the authors. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.


Use of wordprocessing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the wordprocessor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier:

To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your wordprocessor.


Template files and instructions for submitting manuscripts using LaTeX (optional) can be found here:

Article Structure
Title page

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name.

Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.

Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


Abstract. A concise and factual abstract (no more than 150 words) is required. The abstract (formatted as a single paragraph without section headings) should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Keywords. Immediately after the abstract, list up to 10 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Divide your article into clearly defined (unnumbered) sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Original Contributions, Reviews, and Technical and Clinical Notes should be organized using the following section headings:

Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusion/Discussion and Summary, Acknowledgements, References, Figure Captions List, Tables and Appendices (if needed.)

Every effort should be made to avoid jargon, to write out in full all nonstandard abbreviations the first time they are mentioned, and to present the contents of the study as clearly and as concisely as possible.

State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

Materials and Methods
Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

Results should be clear and concise.

The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section.

This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here the funding source and those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.


Text references: References should be cited in the text stating, within parentheses, the author's surname and the year of publication, e.g. (Smith 1965). However, if the name is used as part of the sentence, only the year of publication should be given in the parentheses. Example: "… the study by Smith (1965) showed significant results." If a reference has two authors, the citation should include the surnames of both authors. Example: (Smith and Jones 1965) or Smith and Jones (1965).

If a reference has more than two authors, the citation should include only the surname of the senior author and the abbreviation et al. Example: (Smith et al. 1965) or Smith et al. (1965). Multiple citations should be separated by semicolons and listed in alphabetical order. Example: (Brown 1965; Gray 1986; Jones 1988; Smith 1978). If the author(s) and the year are identical for more than one reference, a lowercase letter should be inserted after the year. Example: (Smith and Jones 1965a, 1965b) or Smith and Jones (1965a, 1965b).

"Personal communications" may not be used as references, although references to written, not oral, communications may be inserted (in parentheses) in the text. Information from manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" (in parentheses).

Reference list: The reference list should begin on a separate page at the end of the paper, and should be typed double spaced like the text, with the second and third lines indented. This list is alphabetized by authors' surnames, not numbered. All references should be cited in the text, and should be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. For each reference, all authors should be listed. Citations to the same author(s) should be listed with the oldest date first.

The full title of articles, chapters and books, and the beginning and ending page numbers should be given. Book references should include the location and name of the publisher. Papers that are accepted but not yet published can be included among the references by designating the journal and adding "in press" (in parentheses).

The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus, published annually as a separate publication by the US National Library of Medicine and as a list in the January issue of Index Medicus. Examples of correct forms of references are given below:

Fleming AD, McDicken WN, Sutherland GR, Hoskins PR. Assessment of colour Doppler tissue imaging using test-phantoms. Ultrasound Med Biol 1994;20:937-41.

Williams AR. Ultrasound: Biological effects and potential hazards. New York: Academic Press, 1983.

Edited book:
Haney MJ, O'Brien WD. Temperature dependency of ultrasonic propagation properties in biological materials. In: Greenleaf JF, ed. Tissue characterization with ultrasound. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1986. pp. 15-55.

Style template files are provided for your use at If you are using a style file provided by a 3rd party database, please double check it against these author instructions to ensure that your references and in-text citations are correctly formatted.

Figure Captions List
Ensure that each illustration has a caption. List captions on the text page after References List. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

Number tables consecutively (using Arabic numerals) in accordance with their appearance in the text. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI) found at

Math formulae
Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

Footnotes should be avoided altogether.


Electronic artwork

General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.

A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.

Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.

Please do not:
Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
Supply files that are too low in resolution;

Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF)or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) in addition to color reproduction in print. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see

Illustration services
Elsevier's WebShop ( offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Text graphics
Text graphics may be embedded in the text at the appropriate position. If you are working with LaTeX and have such features embedded in the text, these can be left. See further under Electronic artwork.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not allowed. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Web references
Web references are not allowed. As an alternative, please reference the original peer-reviewed source.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of title word abbreviations:

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Submission checklist

The preferred order of files for revisions is: Cover Letter, Detailed Response to Reviewers, Revised Manuscript file and Figure(s). Revised submission files should all be source files, not .pdfs. A complete checklist can be found at

Additional checklists that may be helpful can be found here:

After Acceptance

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our ProofCentral system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (

Review & Production Process

All manuscripts are peer reviewed. All material accepted for publication is subject to copyediting. Authors will receive PDF page proofs of their article before publication, and should answer all queries and carefully check all editorial changes. Any corrections to proofs must be restricted to printer's errors; other than these, any substantial changes at this stage should be discussed with the Editor and, if accepted, will be charged to the author. Authors will receive a free electronic offprint. Additional print copies may be purchased using the offprint order form that is sent with the e-page proofs. There is a voluntary page charge, which however, is not a condition of publication.

Author inquiries

For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission) please visit this journal's homepage. For detailed instructions on the preparation of electronic artwork, please visit Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher. You can track accepted articles at You can also check our Author FAQs at and/or contact Customer Support via