Guide for Authors

  • Author Instructions updated September 2010

    Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology is the official journal of the World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. The journal publishes original peer-reviewed manuscripts on significant advances in clinical diagnostic, interventional and therapeutic applications, new and improved clinical techniques, the physics, engineering and technology of ultrasound in medicine and biology, and the interactions between ultrasound and biological materials, including bioeffects. Extended reviews of subjects of contemporary interest in the field are also published, in addition to occasional editorial articles, clinical and technical notes, letters to the editor and a calendar of forthcoming meetings. It is the aim of the journal to meet the information and publication requirements of the clinicians, scientists, engineers and other professionals who constitute the biomedical ultrasonic community.

    __ Original Contributions: Peer-reviewed, high-quality research investigationsdealing with ultrasound and its applications in biomedicine.

    __ Review Articles: Reviews of major areas or sub-areas in ultrasound inmedicine and biology. These articles may be of any length and arepeer-reviewed.

    __ Technical and Clinical Notes: Brief studies [approximately 4 printed pages (12 double spaced submitted pages) or less]. However, submissions based soley on the description of a single case, i.e. case reports, will not be considered for publication.

    __ Editorials: On an occasional basis.

    __ Book Reviews: Reviews and abstracts of the current literature in the appropriate fields will be published. Book Reviews should be submitted electronically through the Elsevier Editorial website ( ). Authors and publishers should forward newly published works to the Associate Editor for Book Reviews: Dr. Robert J. Eckersley, King's College London, Imaging Sciences Div. of the Rayne Institute, 4th Floor, Lambeth Wing, St. Thomas' Hospital, London, UK SE1 7EH.

    __ Letters to the Editor: Comments on articles published in the Journal andon other matters of interest to biomedical ultrasound researchers. They should be short (normally not more than 400 words), double-spaced, and include references where appropriate. Where a published article is involved, the original author(s) will be invited to submit a response.

    __ Calendar: Provides notices of forthcoming meetings, courses, and otherevents relevant to biomedical ultrasound researchers. All such items will normally be listed (at no charge) in each issue. Please submit the date, conference/course title, and contact name to the Editorial office at least 6 months in advance.

    __ Official Communications of the WFUMB: For example, approvedchanges in the Constitution.

    __ WFUMB Newsletter (ECHOES): News concerning societies affiliated with theWFUMB (e.g., the names and addresses of newly elected officers as wellas narrative reports of scientific meetings) should be sent directly to theNewsletter Editor, David Evans, PhD, DSc at This material should not be sent to the Editor-in-Chiefof UMB.


    Please contact the Editorial Office through any of the following means:

    Managing Editor: Rose M. Randolph, University of Cincinnati, Cardiovascular Research Center, Rm. 3988, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, Ohio,USA 45267-0586. Email:; Phone: +1 513-558-2508; Fax: +1 513-558-6102.

    Editor-in-Chief: Christy K. Holland, Ph.D., Ultrasound in Medicine and BiologyEditorial Office, University of Cincinnati, Cardiovascular Center, Room 3988,231 Albert Sabin Way,Cincinnati, Ohio 45267-0586, E-mail:, Phone: +1 513 558 2508, Fax: +1 513 558 6102,


    Manuscripts are accepted for consideration with the understanding thatthey have not been published elsewhere except in abstract form and are notconcurrently under review elsewhere.

    If a contribution has more than one author, its submission is taken toimply that the first author has the permission of the other authors for theirnames to appear. In cases of multiple authorship, the Editor may ask for astatement of the contribution made by each author to the work and usuallywill do so when there are more than five authors. "Guest" authorship is notpermitted.

    Manuscripts will be reviewed by appropriate members of the EditorialBoard and other referees with expertise in the area of presentation. Acceptancewill depend on originality, relevance, and scientific content of thematerial.

    When the manuscript deals with methodology describing the effects ofultrasound upon physical or biological systems, an exact description of thecomponents used, their characteristics and their set-up must be provided sothat other researchers will be able to duplicate the observations andmeasurements made.

    When the manuscript deals with a novel method, technique or system, the principles upon which it is based must be described in detail for its principles of operation to be understood clearly by experts in the field. If the system incorporates engineering or signal processing procedures that are not conventional or commercially available, these procedures must be described in detail. Block diagrams usually describe the sequence of conventional procedures used in the system. The improved performance of such novel systems over existing systems must be described and illustrated as well as limitations and errors to which the system described is subject. Responsibility for protection of proprietary information will rest with the authors. When the manuscript deals with clinical studies in which commercial diagnostic ultrasound systems are used, these should be identified with brand name and the manufacturer's address. The console and transducers should be specified, as well as relevant control settings.


    Manuscripts describing animal or human experiments must make it clear that these experiments were conducted in a generally acceptable ethical and humane fashion. Manuscripts reporting the results of animal experimentation must state their compliance research protocols approved by their local Institutional Care and Animal Use Committee (IACUC). Manuscripts reporting the results of human experimentation must include a statement that the experimental protocol was approved by a local institutional review board (IRB) and that informed consent for the study was obtained from all human subjects per the WORLD Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: Ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, 2008 ( ). Authors must also disclose all forms of financial support, both monetary and equipment received by any author in performing and describing the work which is the subject of the submitted manuscript.


    All manuscripts (text and artwork) must be submitted electronically through the Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology online submission and review website (

    New manuscript submission items should include the following and be uploaded in the order shown below:

    (1) A cover letter (stating that the manuscript, or specified parts of it, have not been and will not be submitted elsewhere for publication and listing three or more potential reviewers for their manuscript, with their email addresses).
    (2) The manuscript (Title page, Abstract with keywords, Main text (with all tables listed at end), Acknowledgements, References List, and Figure Legends). Each page should be double-spaced with indented paragraphs and numbered separately, with the exception of the title page.
    (3) Figures (uploaded as a separate file and numbered). Complete instructions for electronic artwork submission can be found at

    All files should be labeled with appropriate and descriptive file names (e.g., SmithText.doc, Fig1.eps).

    Revised manuscript submissions: should also be accompanied by a unique file (separate from the cover letter) that provides a detailed response to all reviewers' comments. This "Detailed Response to Reviewers" letter should list each reviewer comment followed by the authors' response. Each response should include the modified text excerpt with the page/line numbers where it can be found in the revised manuscript.

    The preferred order of files for revisions is: Cover Letter, Detailed Response to Reviewers, Revised Manuscript file and Figure(s). Revised submission files should all be source files, not .pdfs. A complete checklist can be found at


    A checklist of common manuscript formatting errors can be found here.

    Original Contributions, Reviews, and Technical and Clinical Notes should be organized in the following format (without section numbers): Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgements, References, Appendices (if needed) and Tables. In some cases, the Results, Discussion, and Conclusions sections may more appropriately be combined than separated (at the author's discretion). Every effort should be made to avoid jargon, to write out in full all acronyms the first time they are mentioned, and to present the contents of the study as clearly and as concisely as possible.

    Title Page (Page 1): This first page should include the manuscript title, the authors' names and institutional affiliations, and the corresponding author's name and contact information (postal address, telephone number, fax number, e-mail address).

    Abstract and Keywords (Page 2): The abstract should be written as one paragraph (without section headings) and should have no more than 150 words. The abstract should state the purpose of the study, basic procedures, most important findings, and principal conclusions with an emphasis on the new aspects of the study. Following the abstract, list up to 10 keywords or phrases for indexing. For LaTeX submissions, the abstract page may be combined with the title page.

    Nomenclature and Abbreviations in all manuscripts should conform to the International System of Units and all authors are encouraged to obtain a guide to the SI entitled Units, Symbols and Abbreviations from

    Figures should not be embedded in the text but uploaded as separate files. All figures should be high resolution. TIFF, EPS, and PDF figures must conform to the following mimum resultion specifications: grayscale and color images: 300 dpi; combination grayscale and color images: 500-900 dpi. Line art (bitmap) figures must be 900-1200 dpi.


    Text references: References should be cited in the text stating, within parentheses, the first author's surname and the year of publication, e.g. (Smith 1965). However, if the name is used as part of the sentence, only the year of publication should be given in the parentheses. Example: ". . . the study by Smith (1965) showed significant results." If a reference has two authors, the citation should include the surnames of both authors. Example: (Smith and Jones 1965) or Smith and Jones (1965).

    If a reference has more than two authors, the citation should include only the surname of the first author and the abbreviation et al. Example: (Smith et al. 1965) or Smith et al. (1965). Multiple citations should be separated by semicolons and listed in alphabetical order. Example: (Brown 1965; Gray 1986; Jones 1988; Smith 1978). If the author(s) and the year are identical for more than one reference, a lowercase letter should be inserted after the year. Example: (Smith and Jones 1965a, 1965b) or Smith and Jones (1965a, 1965b)."Personal communications" may not be used as references, although references to written, not oral, communications may be inserted (in parentheses) in the text. Information from manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" (in parentheses). Uniform resource locators (URLs) may not be used for references.

    Reference list: The reference list should begin on a separate page at the end of the manuscript, and should be typed double-spaced like the text, with the second and third lines indented. This list is alphabetized by the first authors' surname, not numbered. All references should be cited in the text, and should be verified by the author(s) against the original documents. For each reference, all authors must be listed. Citations to the same first author(s) should be listed with the oldest date first. To facilitate proper organization of references and citations, UMB style templates for Endnote®, Refworks®, and Reference Manager® are available for download (

    The full title of articles, chapters and books, and the beginning and ending page numbers should be given. Book references should include the location and name of the publisher. Papers that are accepted but not yet published can be included among the references by designating the journal and adding "in press" (in parentheses).

    The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used in the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus, published annually as a separate publication by the US National Library of Medicine and as a list in the January issue of Index Medicus. Examples of correct forms of references are given below:

    Fleming AD, McDicken WN, Sutherland GR, Hoskins PR. Assessment of colour Doppler tissue imaging using test-phantoms. Ultrasound Med Biol 1994;20:937-41.

    Williams AR. Ultrasound: Biological effects and potential hazards. New York: Academic Press, 1983.

    Edited book
    Haney MJ, O'Brien WD. Temperature dependency of ultrasonic propagation properties in biological materials. In: Greenleaf JF, ed. Tissue characterization with ultrasound. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1986. pp. 15-55.

    Footnotes. Footnotes, as distinct from literature references, should be avoided. Where they are essential, the following symbol order should be used: *,†, ‡, §, ∥.

    Tables. Tables should be numbered with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.). Authors are asked to keep each table to a reasonable size; very large tables, packed with data, simply confuse the reader. Each table and every column should be provided with an explanatory heading, with units of measure clearly indicated. The same data should not be reproduced in both table and figure format. Footnotes to a table should be indicated by symbols in the following order: *,†, ‡, §, ∥.

    LaTeX Instructions

    Template files and instructions for submitting manuscripts using LaTeX (optional) can be found here (


    All manuscripts are peer reviewed. All material accepted for publication is subject to copyediting. Authors will receive PDF page proofs of their article before publication, and should answer all queries and carefully check all editorial changes. Any corrections to proofs must be restricted to printer's errors; other than these, any substantial changes at this stage should be discussed with the Editor and, if accepted, will be charged to the author. Authors will receive a free electronic offprint. Additional print copies may be purchased using the offprint order form that is sent with the e-page proofs. There is a voluntary page charge, which however, is not a condition of publication.Updated December 2010


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