Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Types of paper
• Reporting Standards
• Ethics in publishing
• Animal welfare
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Open access
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Submission
• Use of Word Processing Software
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Graphical abstract
• Highlights
• Acknowledgements
• (Nomenclature and ) Units
• Artwork
• Tables
• References
• Supplementary material
• Submission checklist
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Proofs
• Offprints
• Appendix

The Veterinary Journal (established 1875) is an international journal of veterinary research that publishes original papers and reviews on all aspects of veterinary science. Contributions reporting investigative work in the scientific disciplines involving veterinary species are particularly welcome where they make a significant contribution to the field. The Editors will be pleased to consider suggestions for Special Issues on subjects of topical importance. The journal also publishes Guest Editorials and occasionally Personal Views, but does not have a Letters section. Book Reviews are published on-line.

Types of paper

Manuscripts may describe original work in a Full Paper (Original Article) or a Short Communication, or may form a Review of the existing state of knowledge on a particular aspect of veterinary science. Reviews should, in general, be written in support of original investigations. Case Reports are not published.

Reporting Standards

The Editors and reviewers use several published guidelines for reporting standards (see Appendix below). Conforming to these reporting standards allows the Editors and reviewers to assess the quality and originality of submissions and offers readers sufficient information to judge the relevance of the work in an appropriate context. Omission of requirements specified in the relevant guidelines for reporting standards may lead to rejection of a manuscript. For further information, please see The Veterinary Journal (2010) 184, 249-250 (view article).

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Animal welfare

Where animals have been used in a study, the institutional ethical or animal welfare Authority under which the work was conducted must be stated, along with the specific authorisation reference number and the date of approval. Such studies must meet Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines (view article). The Veterinary Journal will reject any paper where there is reason to believe that animals have been subjected to unnecessary or avoidable pain or distress.

Conflict of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.

Please note that there are a number of commercial organisations that will assist non-English speaking Authors in preparing their manuscripts for publication in international peer-reviewed journals. Further advice is available from Elsevier at . Some such services only offer help to improve the use of English and it remains the Authors responsibility to ensure that TVJ's layout and formatting requirements are also met.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Options will be given for Authors to select a set of classifications for their papers, as well as a category designation (Original Article, Review, Short Communication etc.), from a given list.

Authors must submit articles in WORD format and not as PDF files. PDF proofs will be automatically generated from uploaded files and these are used for subsequent reviewing. Queries concerning the submission process or journal procedures should be sent by e-mail to:

The Corresponding Author, who is normally the Author submitting the paper, will be asked to confirm that the article is original and is not being considered for peer-reviewed publication elsewhere. Submission also implies that all of the Authors have approved the paper for release and are in agreement with its content. Upon acceptance of the article by The Veterinary Journal, the Author(s) will be asked to transfer the copyright of the article to the Publisher. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information.

The Corresponding Author will also be required to confirm that all Authors have made substantial contributions to (1) the conception and design of the study or acquisition of data or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and (3) final approval of the version to be submitted. Contributors who do not meet these criteria for authorship should be listed in an Acknowledgements section. Examples of those who might be acknowledged include a person who provided purely technical help, writing assistance, or a Departmental Chair who gave general support.

Submit your article
Please submit your article via

Use of Word Processing Software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Authors submitting papers that are suitable for consideration but do not comply fully with this Guide will be asked to amend the text and re-submit. Model article formats in WORD are available (click to follow link below as appropriate):

Original Articles should be no longer than 3,000 words in length, excluding the Title page, Abstract, Acknowledgements, Tables, Figures and References. Reviews should be about 4,000 words in length and Short Communications up to 1,000 words.


Original Articles should be arranged as follows: (1) Title page; (2) an Abstract of up to 250 words (with no sub-headings), which should emphasise objectives, the experimental procedure, results and conclusions; up to five Keywords in alphabetical order and in Title case should be supplied below the Abstract; (3) the main text must be sub-divided into Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusions; (4) Conflict of interest statement; (5) Acknowledgements; (6) Appendix: Supplementary material (where this is provided; see below); (7) References; (8) Tables; (9) Figure legends; (10) Figures (uploaded as separate files). The sections should not be numbered. Please see the model article provided (view here)

Please note:

  • Insert a page break only after the Title page, after the Abstract with Keywords, after the References section, between each Table, and before the Legends to figures.
  • The Results and Discussion sections must be distinct and not combined.
  • Avoid sub-headings in the Discussion section.
  • References must not be included within the Conclusions section.
  • The first person (I, we, our) must be avoided in the Abstract, but may be used elsewhere in the paper.

Tables should be included within the article and placed sequentially after the References, but before the Figure legend(s), with one Table per page.

Figure legends should be included in the main manuscript file after any Tables. Each figure should be uploaded as a separate file (Fig. 1, Fig. 2 etc.).

Short Communications should follow the requirements for full manuscripts, but the text must not exceed 1,000 words and the paper should not be divided into conventional sections. Headings for the Abstract, Keywords, Acknowledgements, Conflict of interest statement and References should be included, but there should be no other headings or subheadings in the main text. There should be no more than 10 references in a Short Communication. An Abstract of not more than 125 words is required and up to five Keywords should be supplied below it. Please see the model article provided (view here).

Review Articles may be commissioned or proposed. Authors wishing to submit a review article are advised to contact the Editor at Reviews are about 4000 words in length and may cover any relevant aspect of veterinary science or comparative medicine. Reviews should follow the layout for Original Articles, but with the main text subdivided as appropriate to the subject matter, starting with an Abstract and Introduction and incorporating Conclusions and a Conflict of interest statement. Sections should not be numbered. Please see the model article provided (view here).

Guest Editorials are commissioned by the editors; unsolicited Guest Editorials must not be submitted. Commissioned Guest Editorials are usually 500-1000 words in length and must follow the layout of the model article provided (view here). They usually include references, but should not be divided into sections and no Acknowledgements or Conflict of interest statement are required. Where a Guest Editorial is commissioned to accompany another article, it must refer to that article in the text and the reference should be provided in TVJformat at the end of the Editorial.

Personal Views are commissioned by the Editors; unsolicited Personal Views must not be submitted without the agreement of the Editors. Authors must follow the format of the model article provided (view here). It is at the Editors' discretion whether a Personal View should be sent to reviewers or whether or not it will be published in TVJ. The length of the Personal View must be agreed with the Editors in advance of submission.

Book reviews

Publishers or Authors wishing to have a book considered for review in The Veterinary Journal should first contact the Books Editor at Book reviews are published in electronic format only.

Subdivision - unnumbered sections
Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Graphical abstract

Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See for examples.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

Prior presentation of data

Prior presentation of results, in the form of abstracts, posters or oral presentations at conferences, must be mentioned clearly in the Acknowledgements, with wording along the lines of: "Preliminary results were presented as an Abstract at the 9th International Congress of Veterinary Virology, Madrid, 4th-7th September 2012."

(Nomenclature and ) Units

Units. Metric units must be used. If other units need to be given, they must be placed in brackets after the metric equivalent. Units, symbols and abbreviations of units should conform to the International System of Units as defined in Baron, D.N., McKenzie-Clarke, H., 2008, Units, Symbols and Abbreviations: A Guide for Authors and Editors in Medicine and Related Sciences, 6th Ed., The Royal Society of Medicine, London (available here). All other abbreviations should be unambiguous and should be clearly explained where they are first mentioned in the Abstract and text. Do not list abbreviations separately.

Note that litre is abbreviated to 'L', millilitre 'mL', (also mmol/L etc.); probability is given as P (upper case italics), as in P<0.05; also note 'Student's t test' and Mann-Whitney U test; correlation coefficient r as in r = 0.92, coefficient of determination, r2 as in r2 = 0.72; standard deviation and standard error should be abbreviated to SD and SE, respectively; hour, minute and second are abbreviated to h, min and s; day, week and year are given in full. For drug dose frequency use e.g. 'three times daily' or '8-hourly' rather than Latin terms such as t.i.d. or q 8 h. Where centrifugation has been performed, use g values not rpm. Other common abbreviations include 'IV' for intravenous or intravenously, 'IM' for intramuscular or intramuscularly, 'SC' for subcutaneous and subcutaneously, 'PO' for per os or orally; use 'vs.' for 'versus'. Use the abbreviation G for gauge of needle. The symbol for degrees Celsius should be written in the format '°C', with the value separated from the unit by a space, e.g. '37 °C'. Use the WORD symbols for ±, Greek letters etc. Percentages should be referred to as, for example, '15%' or 'Fifteen per cent' when starting a sentence. Note also 'post-mortem' and 'ante-mortem'.

When a number is followed by a unit use the digits as in '10 mL' unless starting a sentence in which case write in full 'Ten microlitres'. When the number describes a quantity of items write the number in full up to ten as 'four sheep' or 'ten tubes' then in digital form thereafter as '24 horses' or '200 blood samples'. Avoid the symbol # or abbreviation 'No.' for 'number'.

Single ('...') quotation marks should be used for specific extracts, as in: "A PubMed search utilizing the search terms 'canine castration local anaesthesia' returned three publications." Where a reference is cited or a quote given, use single quotation marks and place the text in italic font as: "However, in the 'Recommended Guideline for the Conduct and Evaluation of Prognostic Studies in Veterinary Oncology' developed recently by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists ..." Double ("...") quotation marks should be avoided.

Anatomical terminology. Terminology should comply with the World Association of Veterinary Anatomists Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (2005) and terms should be given in English where possible

Currencies. A footnote should be inserted at first use if a currency is given in the text, as in 'UK£5001' and conversion rates provided using the following three currencies US$, UK£ and Euros (€). The footnote should read as appropriate, for example: '£1 = approx. US$1.60, €1.24 at 2 December 2012.' Rates can be updated by the Author at proof stage if necessary. An easy to use currency converter is available here:

Manufacturers. Manufacturers and suppliers should be indicated within the text after the name of the product. For example: 'diazepam (Valium, Roche)' or 'using an infusion pump (Medfusion 2010, Medex)'. Addresses/locations of manufacturers should not be given and the use of ® or ™ should be avoided. Note: proprietary names must not appear in the title or Abstract.

Applying capital letters to directions. Compass directions such as North, South, East and West, as well as their derivatives, such as North-East, North-West, South-East and South-West, should be capitalised when they are used to designate defined or recognised geographical regions, or when they are an integral part of a proper name. Examples include "Eastern Europe", "Southern France", "North-East England", "in the North", "down South", "the West Coast" and "the Eastern Seaboard", "the Western Region of Kazakhstan", "Southern California". Compass directions should not be written with capital letters when they indicate general locations or directions without a specific location. Examples include "bluetongue virus initially spread in a north-westerly direction on air currents", "the northern boundary of the quarantine zone", "cases were clustered in the east of the region", "westerly winds". The first letter of each word of a Compass direction should be capitalised when used to refer to people in a region, particularly in social, cultural or political contexts. Examples include "wildebeest are hunted by the Southern tribes", "horses have been an integral part of Western civilisation since the Middle Ages". Words such as northern, southern, eastern, and western that precede a place name usually are not capitalised, since they indicate a general location within a region. When these words are an integral part of the place name, they should be capitalised. For example, write "northern Connecticut", but "Northern Ireland" and "Western Australia".

Nucleotide sequences

Submission of a manuscript implies that primary nucleotide sequence data will be deposited with an internationally available repository. Sequence reference numbers should be provided, where appropriate, in the main text, Tables, Figures or as an e-only supplementary file.


Figures. The quality of all Figures submitted must be high. The Editors will reject Figures of an unacceptable standard or ask the Authors to replace them. Figures should be referred to sequentially in the text as Fig. 1, Fig. 2, Figs. 3a,b and 4, etc. A Legend must be provided for each Figure and placed after any Tables in the main manuscript file. Do not write legends on the figures themselves. Scale bars must be provided on all photomicrographs and electron micrographs.

In preparing figures, Authors should note the following:

  • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
  • Save text in figures as ''graphics'' or enclose the font.
  • Only use the following fonts in your figures: Times New Roman, Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Symbol.
  • Number the figures according to their sequence in the text.
  • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
  • Provide all figures as separate files.
  • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
  • Ensure that all units and wording in the figures conform to TVJ style (see Units above).

Please note that each figure must be uploaded to the journal website separately and not included in the main manuscript.

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see
Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.


Each Table should be typed on a separate page, numbered (1, 2 etc.) and a brief title given directly above each table. Tables should be in portrait format. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by a, b etc. and typed at the bottom of the relevant table. Information in tables should not be duplicated in figures and vice versa. The tables should be placed at the end of the main text after the References but before the Figure Legends.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Where a website is appropriate in the text, a footnote should be inserted using sequential numeric superscripts. At the foot of the page, provide the link as follows: '1See:' It is the Authors' responsibility to check that all URLs are active and live at proof stage and if not then the text must be amended accordingly.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Reference style
Authors are strongly advised to use reference management software such as EndNote (see here). However, references should be checked carefully for accuracy and corrected manually to ensure the format matches exactly the TVJ style described below.

Only essential references should be included. Text citations can be in either of two ways: (a) with date in parentheses, e.g. as demonstrated by Mills (2011); or (b) with names and dates in parentheses, e.g. according to recent findings (Mills, 2011). If a citation has more than two Authors the first Author should be given followed by et al. in standard text format (not italicised), e.g. Jones et al. (2007) or (Jones et al., 2007). Where lists of references are cited in the text, they should be placed first chronologically and then alphabetically, e.g. (Philbey et al., 2003; Cassidy and Mills, 2005; Litster, 2010). If two or more references by the same Author(s) published in the same year are cited, they should be distinguished from each other by placing a, b, etc. after the year, e.g., (Laven, 2011a, b; Laven and Smith, 2010a, b). Personal communications should be designated as '(E.A. Blomme, personal communication)'.

Papers that are in press may be cited using the year of acceptance where the digital object identifier (doi number) has been allocated. This can be updated to the year of print publication at the proof stage if the cited paper has been published. In the Reference list, quote the doi number where details of the journal volume and page numbers are yet not known.

Submitted papers should not be cited, but instead should be referred to in the text as, e.g. 'J.P. Cassidy et al., unpublished data'. This can be updated at proof stage where appropriate. Where a paper in press is cited in the manuscript, the Authors may be asked to make a copy of the proofs available to the editors and reviewers.

The Reference list at the end of the paper should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. References should be single spaced and a line break should be inserted between each reference. All Authors should be included up to 10, after which you should write 'et al.'; Please note that in all cases Journal titles must be given in full. Volume numbers and full page numbers should be provided, but issue numbers should be omitted. Where a Supplement is cited, give the Supplement number e.g. 'Equine Veterinary Journal Suppl. 37' or 'Journal of Reproduction and Fertility 54 (Suppl. 1), 115-126'. Where selected pages only have been consulted, such as in a book, this is given by 'pp. 237-240' or 'p. 456' (see below).

References should be set out as follows:

Journal reference - Yang, Y., Dahly-Vernon, A.J., Blomme, E.A.G., Lai-Zhang, J., Kempf, D.J., Marsh, K.C., Harrington, Y.A., Nye, S.H., Evans, D.L., Roman, R.J. et al., 2010. Liver transcriptomic changes associated with ritonavir-induced hyperlipidemia in sensitive and resistant strains of rats. The Veterinary Journal 185, 75-82.

Book reference - Cunningham, J.C., Klein, B.G., 2007. Endocrinology. In: Textbook of Veterinary Physiology, Fourth Ed. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, MO, USA, pp. 439-448.

Proceedings - Elbers, A.R., Mintiens, K., Staubach, C., Gerbier, G., Meiswinkel, R., Hendrinckx, G., Backx, A., Conraths, F.J., Meroc, E., Ducheyne, E., et al., 2007. Bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in North-western Europe in 2006: Preliminary findings. In: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Dipoli, Finland, pp. 231-245.

Theses - Duz, M. 2009. Assessment of a methodology for determination of H2O2 concentration and pH in exhaled breath condensate in horses with and without lower airway inflammation. Thesis, Master of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow.

Web addresses - FAOSTAT, 2008. Food and Agricultural Organization Statistical Database: Live Animals. (accessed 15 July 2010).

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For further information see The Veterinary Journal (2010) 184, 249-250 (view article).