Guide for Authors
The Ocular Surface: Instructions for Authors
A peer-reviewed quarterly journal, The Ocular Surface (TOS) features concise, state-of-the-art, referenced review articles to elucidate the vast body of findings in this rapidly evolving field. Its purview ranges from molecular biology to surgery, encompassing lacrimal, lid, and ocular surface physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and medical/surgical therapeutic interventions. TOS also publishes select original research reports and articles describing innovative techniques and technology. Descriptions of desired content and requirements for articles are described below under the section headings: Review Articles; Original Research Articles; Innovative Techniques and Technology. All manuscripts undergo peer review by two or more reviewers. Authors are asked to revise their manuscripts, addressing all the reviewers' suggestions or explaining their reasons for declining to do so.
Manuscripts should be submitted through Elsevier Editorial System (EES): http://ees.elsevier.com/theocularsurface/
Follow guidelines of style, terminology, measurement, and quantitation as set forth in the American Medical Association Manual of Style (10th ed., New York, Oxford University Press, 2007).
Title PageInclude footnotes providing:
The title page should include complete name(s), academic degree(s), and affiliation(s) of all authors. It should also provide the complete address, telephone number, fax number, and E-mail address of the corresponding author, indicating the name and complete address of the person to whom page proofs and reprint requests are to be sent. A shorter version of the title (no more than 40 characters) should be provided for the running head.
- Sources of support for work related to the manuscript; and
- Disclosures of proprietary or commercial interests related to the manuscript. If no such interests exist, include the following statement: "The authors have no proprietary or commercial interests in any concept or product discussed in this article."
For review articles, a 150-200 word abstract should be written in narrative style, stating the purpose of the review, the major points covered in the review, and relevant conclusions and recommendations. The abstract should be different from the introduction and conclusion section of the manuscript.For original research reports, a structured abstract should be provided.
Key WordsText Style
5-10 key words should be provided.
Pages should be numbered consecutively in the following order: title page, abstract/key words, outline, text, references, legends, and tables. The last name of the first author should appear at the top right of the page. Figures and tables must be cited in text in numerical order. All references listed must be cited in numerical order in text. Statements must be appropriately referenced, with full credit to the source. Written permission to reproduce material previously published must be obtained by the author, and a copy of the letter granting permission should accompany the manuscript. Written permission to cite unpublished or personal communications must also be provided.
Tables should be logically and clearly organized, and appropriately referenced. A brief title should appear at the top of each table. Abbreviations should be defined in footnotes. Numerical data should be complete, e.g., if percents are given, the numbers they are based on should also be given.
Color art will be published at the discretion of the editor without cost to the author.Electronic figures should be submitted as individual files. They must not be embedded in the manuscript.Figures should be high-resolution images in commonly used formats such as TIFF, JPEG, Power Point, etc.
Legends should be listed in order and typed double-spaced. Previously published figures must include the statement: "Reprinted from (Authors), (Title), (Journal-Year-Vol #-page #s) with the permission of the authors and the publisher." Magnification and stain should be stated for photomicrographs.
References should be numbered consecutively and typed double-spaced. Journal titles should be abbreviated, without periods, according to the Index Medicus style. Citation of abstracts may be acceptable if 1) the cited report is not available in full-length form, and 2) the abstract is published in an indexed journal (e.g., ARVO abstract published Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci). In the text, statements referenced by abstracts should be acknowledged as such, e.g., "Preliminary findings suggest " Complete information should be given for each reference, as shown below. Publications with 1-4 authors should give all names; publications with more than four authors should name the first three followed by "et al." Author last names are followed by initials without commas or periods.
1. Jones JP. Pitfalls in the design of clinical trials for anti-dry eye agents. Ocul Surf 2015;13:2-16
2. Smith PS, Williams LC. Effects of artificial tear solutions on osmolarity of dry eyes (abstract). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;59, ARVO E-Abstract 4015
BookChapter in book
3. Charles PO, van Housen Q Jr, Duchen PX, et al (eds): Cornea, conjunctiva, lid: new concepts. New York, NY, Random House, 2015
4. Aay OK: Effect of estrogen medications on the cornea, in Charles PO, van Housen Q Jr, Duchen PX, et al (eds): Cornea, conjunctiva, lid: new concepts. New York, NY, Random House, 2015, pp 234-25
GUIDELINES FOR WRITING ARTICLESReview Articles
Most reviews are written at the invitation of the editors, but independent proposals of articles are welcomed. To propose a review, please email a brief description of the intended review to Editor-in-Chief Gary Foulks, MD firstname.lastname@example.org Managing Editor Susan Erickson (email@example.com). If the editors consider the topic to be appropriate, you will be asked to submit a detailed outline and tentative bibliography for peer review.Reviews should follow a topic-based outline, labeled with headings and subheadings [I,A,1,a, (1), (a)]. A TOS review should not be a general overview of a topic, but rather an in-depth, literature-based, critical review that emphasizes areas of new information, controversies, etc.The authors' own findings may be cited in the context of findings published in the literature, but original work should not be the focus of the review. The readers will have various levels of understanding about specific topic areas, so it is important for authors to provide the background, definitions, and explanations necessary to enhance understanding. Illustrative figures and diagrams are very helpful.
Appropriate length is usually about 10-14 printed pages (equivalent to about 24-34 double-spaced manuscript pages, including references, figures and tables).
A review article should not cite all publications relevant to the topic of the article; rather, the references should be selected according to their importance and usefulness in clarifying, documenting, and providing historical background. Multiple similar references to document a statement are usually not needed.
The appropriate number of references varies according to the length of the article and the complexity of the topic. The number of references in a 12-14 page review article (20-30 double-spaced typed pages of text ) should seldom exceed 150, although there may be exceptions to this guideline. Authors are encouraged to request advice from the editors if it seems that more references are appropriate.The review manuscript should state the method of literature selection, specifying search words and data bases used, as well as the date of search; number of articles retrieved; criteria for selecting articles for inclusion in review; criteria for excluding articles.
Innovative Techniques and TechnologyEvolving technologies and techniques in both the basic and clinical arenas often do not have sufficient published peer-reviewed data to permit a comprehensive review for inclusion in the basic science, clinical research, or clinical practice sections of The Ocular Surface. Nonetheless, there is a value to both researcher and clinician in being aware of the potential applications and pitfalls of such new technology. In order to inform our readership of evolving technologies and techniques, publication of articles describing such options with adequate peer review is appropriate.
Appropriate length for ITT articles is usually about 6-8 printed pages, including figures and references (equivalent of about 9-14 double-spaced typed pages).Guidelines
- Technologies or techniques should provide a significant insight or advance in the basic or clinical investigation or treatment of the ocular surface.
- Manuscripts should critically describe outcome data, not just a proposed method or technique.
- Figures or diagrams to illustrate the application or interpretation of the technique should be included.
- Appropriate references to support conclusions and claims should be provided, even if the number of such references is limited.
- Commercial bias must be avoided, and the value of the technology/technique must be factually supported, not speculative.
- The author must fully disclose all proprietary and financial interests or support.
- An attempt will be made to include such articles in issues that have a corresponding related topic in any review of the three major sections of the journal.
- Brief introduction describing purpose of the procedure, other procedures used for the same purpose, and advantages of (need for) the new procedure.
- Description of the technique, including theoretical basis and steps in performing (including figures and diagrams).
- Outcome data
The goal of including original research articles in TOS is to provide rapid, peer-reviewed publication of high-quality, high-impact information that holds promise of significantly advancing the understanding of the ocular surface. The work should present new conceptual frameworks or novel research findings that challenge or enhance our current approach to clinical practice or research. To this end, the research must:
- Be original research of the author that is conducted with sound scientific method
- Provide new information that answers a specific question regarding ocular surface health or disease
- Provide new, mechanistically based information
- Be presented according to the author guidelines and format listed below
- Be performed according to tenets of good laboratory and clinical practice
a. If involving laboratory animals, the work should conform to the ARVO guidelines for humane use of such animals
b. If involving human subjects, the work should conform to the Declaration of Helsinki and provide for informed consent in an IRB approved protocol
c. If involving a clinical trial, should be registered with a clinical trial registry
- Be presented in a clear, logical manner with sufficient detail to be reproducible by other researchers
- Present rationale and statistical analysis of data to support conclusions
- Title Page: (As above under "Manuscript Preparation")
- Structured abstract: A structured abstract of fewer than 250 words is required for original research articles and should be arranged under the following headings: Purpose, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. Abbreviations should be defined at first mention, Do not include references. The abstract must be included as part of the main manuscript file.
- Text: The Ocular Surface recommends a 3,500 or fewer word count, excluding title page, legends, and references. The text should be double-spaced.
In a brief Introduction, provide the research rationale and objectives without extensively reviewing the literature.
In the Methods section, describe the experimental design, subjects used, and procedures followed. Previously published procedures should be identified by reference only. Provide sufficient detail to enable others to duplicate the research. Use standard chemical or nonproprietary pharmaceutical nomenclature. In parentheses, identify specific sources by brand name, company, city, and state or country. A description of the statistical analysis techniques should be included.
If human subjects were involved in the investigation, the Methods section must confirm that: (1) the research followed the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki; (2) informed consent was obtained from the subjects after explanation of the nature and possible consequences of the study; and (3) where applicable, the research was approved by the institutional human experimentation committee or institutional review board (IRB).
If experimental animals were used in the investigation, the Methods section must confirm adherence to the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research and, where applicable, approval by the appropriate animal research review board.
Present the Results with a minimum of discussion. Cite all tables and figures in numerical order.Limit the Discussion to statistically significant data and their limitations. Do not reiterate results.
- Acknowledgments: Acknowledgments should be written in the third person and be limited to colleagues and research assistants. Acknowledgments are not meant to recognize appreciation for personal or manuscript production support. Including dedications to individuals or groups is not allowed.
- References (as described above under "Manuscript Preparation")