Guide for Authors


  • Guide for Authors

    General Information
    Duplicate/Prior/Overlapping Publication
    Authorship Criteria
    Addition, Deletion, or Rearrangement of Author
    Acknowledgments Section
    Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID)
    Ethical Approval of Studies
    Clinical Trials Registration
    Negative Studies
    Conflict of Interest/Disclosure Policy
    Online Resources for Authors
    Preparation of Manuscripts
    General Manuscript Information
    Letter of Submission
    Potential Reviewers
    Title Page
    Abbreviations and Acronyms
    Drugs, Devices, and Other Products
    Laboratory Values
    References
    Examples of references
    EndNote
    Tables
    Figure Legends
    Illustrations
    Multi-Media Files
    Permissions
    Article Types
    Original Articles
    Clinical and Laboratory Observations
    Insights and Images
    Rediscovering the Physical Exam
    Letters to the Editor
    Medical Progress
    Commentaries
    Grand Rounds
    Workshop/Symposium Summary
    AMSPDC Section
    Announcements and Upcoming Events
    Supplements
    Other Article Types
    Guidelines for Reviewers
    Books for Review
    Decisions
    Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) Sanctions
    Inquiries Regarding Decisions
    Release to Media/Embargo Policy
    Copyright and Authors' Rights
    Open Access Policy
    Retraction Guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)
    Journals and Institutions on Research Integrity Cases from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)
    Checklist for Manuscripts


    EDITOR

    William F. Balistreri, MD
    The Journal of Pediatrics
    Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
    3333 Burnet Ave, MLC 3021
    Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039

    EDITORIAL OFFICE

    Monica L. Helton, Managing Editor
    Becky W. Lindeman, Senior Editorial Assistant
    Rebecca Hammer, Editorial Assistant
    Phone: 513-636-7140; Fax: 513-636-7141
    journal.pediatrics@cchmc.org
    http://ees.elsevier.com/jpeds/

    PUBLISHER

    Elsevier Inc.
    1600 JFK Boulevard, Suite 1800
    Philadelphia, PA 19103
    Deborah Stone, Journal Manager
    Phone: (215) 239 3406; Fax: (215) 239 3388
    d.stone@elsevier.com

    Editorial Policies

    General Information
    The Journal of Pediatrics publishes Original Research Articles, Clinical and Laboratory Observations (case reports), reviews of Medical Progress in pediatrics and related fields, Grand Rounds (clinicopathologic conferences [CPC] or didactic discussions), Invited Commentaries, Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs, Inc. (AMSPDC) commentaries, Insights and Images, Letters to the Editor, and Supplements. The Journal does not publish animal studies or basic science articles without direct clinical relevance.

    Duplicate/Prior/Overlapping Publication or Submission
    Manuscripts are accepted for review with the stipulation that they are submitted solely to The Journal of Pediatrics. The Journal will not consider for review manuscripts that have been published elsewhere, even if in another language, manuscripts that are being considered by another publication, are in press, or will be published or submitted elsewhere. Although poster presentations and abstracts are not considered duplicate publication, they should be stated in the initial letter of submission.

    If any part of a manuscript by the same author(s) contains any information that was previously published, is in press, or is under consideration by another publication, a reprint of the previous article or a copy of the other manuscript must be submitted to the Editor at the point of submission, with a justification or explanation by the authors of any potential overlap or duplication. It is not necessary to disclose submissions that were rejected by another journal.

    The Editors are disinclined to publish more than one paper arising from the study of the same patient population. Please combine papers from the same study whenever possible. If you are unable to combine the papers, a reprint of the other article(s) or a copy of the other manuscript(s) must be submitted to the Editor at the point of submission, with a justification or explanation by the authors as to why the papers could not be combined.

    If the Editor is made aware of such overlapping or duplicate manuscripts that have not been disclosed by the authors, a written explanation will be requested. If, in the judgment of the Editor, the explanation is inadequate, the submission will be rejected. If there is no disclosure, an appropriate official of the primary author's academic institution will be notified.

    Authorship Criteria
    Each author's contributions must be detailed in the letter of submission. If there are questions or concerns about whether each person in the author list fulfills the criteria for authorship according to the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors' (ICMJE) "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals," we will request further information from the corresponding author and, if necessary, request additional details for each person's work. All individuals who fulfill ICMJE's conditions for authorship should be included in the author list. Individuals who have contributed to the study, but do not meet the requirements for authorship, should be included in the Acknowledgments section (e.g., Department Chair, "honorary author," anyone who provided technical or writing assistance). All authors of a submitted manuscript must sign a form declaring that they meet ICMJE's Recommendations for authorship. This form will be sent to the corresponding author when the Editors reach a decision that the manuscript has the potential for acceptance.

    If the byline includes the name of a study group, a list of all members of the study group and their affiliations must be provided and would be published as an online Appendix.

    Addition, Deletion, or Rearrangement of Author Names
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: In accordance with the policies of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), requests to add, remove, or rearrange author names must be e-mailed to the Editorial Office (journal.pediatrics@cchmc.org) from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged. Confirmation e-mails from each author that they agree with the addition, removal, or rearrangement is also required; in the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Editorial Office to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that the Journal Manager will inform the Editorial Office of any such requests, and online publication of the accepted manuscript will be suspended until authorship has been finalized.

    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and may result in an erratum.

    Acknowledgments Section
    The names, degrees, and affiliations, along with any conflicts of interest, funding sources, and industry-relation, of persons who have contributed substantially to a study but do not fulfill the criteria for authorship as outlined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) are to be listed in the Acknowledgments section, which will be published in the print and/or online version of The Journal of Pediatrics. This section should include individuals who provided any writing, editorial, and/or statistical assistance, as well as Department Chairs, "honorary authors," etc. Authors should inform all individuals in the Acknowledgments section that they are being listed on the submission.

    Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID)
    "ORCID is an open, non-profit, community-driven effort to create and maintain a registry of unique researcher identifiers and a transparent method of linking research activities and outputs to these identifiers." Authors are encouraged to create an ORCID account, which provides a unique identification number that can be linked to manuscripts and publications for which they serve as authors. This can be helpful in distinguishing authors with common names. ORCIDs can be linked to EES user accounts, and also may be helpful when compiling a list of authored publications. Additional information about ORCID is available at http://orcid.org/content/initiative.

    Ethical Approval of Studies, Informed Consent, and Identifying Details
    Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee and/or independent review board (IRB) approval, which should be documented in the Methods section of the paper. If this study was not approved by the appropriate ethics committee or IRB, include a statement as to why it was exempt.

    Manuscripts describing research involving human subjects should indicate that written informed consent was obtained from the parents or guardians of the children who served as subjects of the investigation and, when appropriate, assent from the subjects themselves. In the event that either the Editors or the reviewers question the propriety of the human investigation with respect to the risk to the subjects or to the means by which informed consent was obtained, The Journal of Pediatrics may request more detailed information about the safeguards employed and the procedures used to obtain informed consent. Copies of the minutes of the committees that reviewed and approved the research also may be requested. Authors should verify compliance with the Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act of 1996(HIPAA) prior to submission.

    Patients have a right to privacy. Therefore identifying information, including patients' images, names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be included in videos, recordings, written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and you have obtained written informed consent for publication in print and electronic form from the patient (or parent, guardian, or next of kin where applicable). If such consent is made subject to any conditions, Elsevier must be made aware of all such conditions. Written consents must be provided to Elsevier on request.

    Even where consent has been given, identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note. If such consent has not been obtained, personal details of patients included in any part of the paper and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

    Clinical Trials Registration
    Beginning on January 1, 2013, all new manuscripts for clinical trials must be registered *prior* to the enrollment of the first participant. This policy applies to any clinical trial starting enrollment after July 2005.

    According to the World Health Organization:

    "For the purposes of registration, a clinical trial is any research study that prospectively assigns human participants or groups of humans to one or more health-related interventions to evaluate the effects on health outcomes. Interventions include but are not restricted to drugs, cells and other biological products, surgical procedures, radiological procedures, devices, behavioral treatments, process-of-care changes, preventive care, etc."

    By submitting a clinical trial to The Journal of Pediatrics, you are confirming that the study is being presented according to CONSORT guidelines. Although the CONSORT checklist is not required upon submission, it must be made available upon the Editors' request. However, the CONSORT flow diagram must be uploaded as a Figure with the initial submission. You must include the site of the registry and the registration number on the title page.

    A list of International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-approved clinical trial registries and additional guidelines for registering RCTs are available at: http://www.icmje.org/faq_clinical.html. If a trial was not registered prior to the enrollment of the first participant and/or it was registered in an unapproved registry, you must provide an explanation in the initial letter of submission, which will be assessed by the Editors on a case-by-case basis.

    Negative Studies
    The Journal of Pediatrics agrees with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) statement regarding the obligation to publish negative studies: "Editors should consider seriously for publication any carefully done study of an important question, relevant to their readers, whether the results for the primary or any additional outcome are statistically significant. Failure to submit or publish findings because of lack of statistical significance is an important cause of publication bias" (http://www.icmje.org/ ). The Journal seeks original work which then undergoes peer-reviewed scrutiny with editorial oversight. Over the years The Journal has accepted articles that clearly documented a lack of efficacy of therapeutic agents or procedures. The Journal believes that evidence-based medicine must be based on the best evidence, which may include negative studies.

    Conflict of Interest/Disclosure Policy
    According to the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME):

    "Conflict of interest (COI) exists when there is a divergence between an individual's private interests (competing interests) and his or her responsibilities to scientific and publishing activities such that a reasonable observer might wonder if the individual's behavior or judgment was motivated by considerations of his or her competing interests. COI in medical publishing affects everyone with a stake in research integrity including journals, research/academic institutions, funding agencies, the popular media, and the public. Journals are interested in COI as it relates to a specific manuscript.

    "Everyone has COIs of some sort. Having a competing interest does not, in itself, imply wrongdoing. However, it constitutes a problem when competing interests could unduly influence (or be reasonably seen to do so) one's responsibilities in the publication process. If COI is not managed effectively, it can cause authors, reviewers, and editors to make decisions that, consciously or unconsciously, tend to serve their competing interests at the expense of their responsibilities in the publication process, thereby distorting the scientific enterprise. This consequence of COI is especially dangerous when it is not immediately apparent to others. In addition, the appearance of COI, even where none actually exists, can also erode trust in a journal by damaging its reputation and credibility."

    Authors are required to disclose on the title page of the initial manuscript any potential, perceived, or real conflict of interest. Authors must describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in 1) study design; 2) the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; 3) the writing of the report; and 4) the decision to submit the manuscript for publication. Authors should include statements even when the sponsor had no involvement in the above matters. Authors should also state who wrote the first draft of the manuscript and whether an honorarium, grant, or other form of payment was given to anyone to produce the manuscript. If the manuscript is accepted for publication, the disclosure statements will be published.

    Editors who make decisions about manuscripts have no COI with the authors or their institutions, study group, research funders, overlapping (similar or competing) research, etc. A list of COI for all Editors and Editorial Board members is available at http://www.jpeds.com/content/ed_board_bios. If Editors or Editorial Board members have a COI for particular manuscripts, they must recuse themselves as the handling Editor, in which case the manuscript will be assigned to a new Editor. Editorial Board members will serve as Guest Editors when appropriate (e.g., the author is an Editor of The Journal of Pediatrics, the authors of a manuscript are at the Editor's institution, the Editor has recused him/herself for whatever reason). Editors and Editorial Board members are blinded to any submissions for which they are authors.

    Reviewers are required to disclose any real or potential conflicts of interest, as outlined in the Guidelines for Reviewers.

    Additional information regarding conflicts of interest can be found at http://www.wame.org/conflict-of-interest-editorial#ref1, "Conflict of Interest in Peer-Reviewed Medical Journals: The World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) Position on a Challenging Problem." (This Editorial may appear in other medical and biomedical journals whose editors are members of WAME.)

    Online Resources for Authors
    A list of online resources, including reporting guidelines and resources for publication ethics, which may be beneficial to English speaking and non-native English speaking authors, is available by clicking here.

    Preparation of Manuscripts

    General Information
    Manuscripts are to be submitted via the Elsevier Editorial System (EES), the electronic submission website at http://ees.elsevier.com/jpeds. Aside from the required Medical Progress, Commentaries, Grand Rounds, and Workshop/Symposium Summary pre-submission proposals, the Editors will not assess proposals of other article types prior to submission. Authors should review carefully the Authors' Tutorial for the system at http://ees.elsevier.com/eeshelp/EES_Author_Tutorial.html.

    Manuscripts must adhere to the American Medical Association's (AMA) Manual of Style, as well as additional layout and length guidelines, outlined below. All text should conform to standard American English style and usage. Authors for whom English is not their native language are strongly encouraged to seek the aid of a professional English language medical editing service. Although The Journal of Pediatrics does not endorse any particular English language editing services, many are available online to edit your manuscript for a fee.

    After submission, the corresponding author can log onto EES to view the status of the manuscript. All accepted manuscripts are subject to editorial revision and shortening. Authors should avoid redundancy between sections of text and between illustrations and text. Due to page limitations, the Editors may decide that figures, appendices, tables, acknowledgments, and other material be published in the online version of The Journal and referenced in the print edition; however, important methods and results should not be separated and should be included in the body of the text.

    Letter of Submission
    A letter of submission must accompany all submissions and provide the following information in accordance with the ICMJE's Recommendations:

    • Disclosure of any prior publications or submissions (excluding rejected submissions) with any overlapping information, including studies and patients; a copy of the work(s) must be uploaded -OR- If there are no prior publications or submissions with any overlapping information, provide the following statement: "There are no prior publications or submissions with any overlapping information, including studies and patients." Additional information is available at http://jpeds.com/authorinfo#dup;
    • A statement that the manuscript has not been and will not be submitted to any other journal while it is under consideration by The Journal of Pediatrics;
    • A statement of any potential conflict of interest, real or perceived; this includes a description of the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in: (1) study design; (2) the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; (3) the writing of the report; and (4) the decision to submit the paper for publication. Include statements even when the sponsor had no involvement in the above matters. This information must also appear on the title page of the manuscript. Additional information is available at http://jpeds.com/authorinfo#conf;
    • The name of the person who wrote the first draft of the manuscript, as well as a statement of whether an honorarium, grant, or other form of payment was given to anyone to produce the manuscript. This information must also appear on the title page of the manuscript;
    • A statement that each author listed on the manuscript has seen and approved the submission of this version of the manuscript and takes full responsibility for the manuscript; if more than 6 authors, an explanation of the contributions of each author must be provided. Additional information is available at http://jpeds.com/authorinfo#auth.

    Potential Reviewers
    To assist with a prompt, fair review process, authors must enter the names, departments, institutions, and e-mail addresses of 5-7 potential reviewers in Elsevier Editorial System (EES). Potential reviewers must have the appropriate expertise to evaluate the manuscript, be outside of the authors' institution(s), and have no known potential conflicts of interest. Authors also may provide the names of persons who should not be asked to review the manuscript in the letter of submission. Ultimately, the Editors reserve the right to choose reviewers.

    Suggestions for identifying potential reviewers include: (1) consulting co-authors and colleagues; (2) using the reference list of your manuscript; (3) searching online databases (e.g., Scopus, PubMed); (4) browsing the list of reviewers published in The Journal of Pediatrics each July (freely available at http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0022-3476/PIIS0022347613003727.pdf); (5) entering your abstract into eTBLAST (http://etest.vbi.vt.edu/etblast3/) and using the Find Expert tool.

    Title Page
    The title page should include authors' full names and highest academic degrees; departmental and institutional affiliations of each author; and sources of financial assistance or potential conflicts of interest, if any (see Conflicts of Interest/Disclosure Policy). Listed authors should include only those individuals who have made a significant, creative contribution to the manuscript as defined by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (www.icmje.org); a list of more than 6 authors must be justified to the Editors in the letter of submission. One author must be designated as the correspondent, with complete address, business telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address. The corresponding author is responsible for communicating with the Editorial Office and all other co-authors; the Editorial Office will not provide status updates or decision information to anyone other than the corresponding author. Proofs and order forms for reprints will be sent to the corresponding author if the manuscript is published. Include a list of key words not in the title, as well as a short title (8-word maximum). Trade names of drugs and other products must not appear in the article title.

    Abbreviations and Acronyms
    A list of abbreviations and acronyms that appear >3 times should be included in the manuscript, along with the expansion of each. All abbreviations and acronyms should be expanded, followed by the abbreviation or acronym in parentheses, upon first use in the abstract, as well as in the first use in the body of the manuscript. All subsequent uses, including tables and figures, should use the abbreviation or acronym. Because abbreviations and acronyms are designed to assist readers, they should be limited to those defined in the AMA Manual of Style, those that are commonly used by general pediatricians, and those that shorten the names of study groups.

    Drugs, Devices, and Other Products
    Use nonproprietary names of drugs, devices, and other products, unless the specific trade name is essential to the discussion. The trade name may appear once in the Abstract and once in the Introduction or Methods section, followed by the nonproprietary name, manufacturer, and manufacturer location in parentheses; all other mention of the product must use the generic name. Trade names of drugs and other products must not appear in the article title.

    Laboratory Values
    Laboratory values should be described in metric mass units. The International System of Units (SI units) should be provided in parentheses immediately after metric units. Conversion tables are available (see JAMA 1986; 255:2329-39 or Ann Intern Med 1987; 106:114-29).

    References
    References must be numbered according to order of appearance in the text and use superscript or parenthesized numbers in the text. For reference style, follow the Vancouver format set forth in "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" (http://www.icmje.org/), with journal abbreviations according to Cumulated Index Medicus. If the reference is to an abstract, letter, or editorial, place the appropriate term in brackets after the title. Citations should refer to primary analyses (ie, original content), instead of literature reviews and secondary analyses.

    Examples of references (if 6 or fewer authors or editors, list all; if 7 or more, list first 6 and add et al):

    For journal articles

    Kramarz P, DeStefano F, Gargiullo PM, Chen RT, Lieu TA, Davis RL, et al. Does influenza vaccination prevent asthma exacerbations in children? J Pediatr 2001; 138:306-10.

    Cozzi F, Morini F. Possible mechanisms of pacifier protection against SIDS [letter]. J Pediatr 2001;138:783.

    For Articles in Press (online)
    Hellems MA, Gurka KK, Hayden GF. A review of The Journal of Pediatrics: The first 75 years. J Pediatr (2008). doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.08.049.

    For books
    Rosenstein BJ, Fosarelli PD. Pediatric pearls: the handbook of practical pediatrics. 3rd ed. St Louis: Mosby; 1997.

    Virginia Law Foundation. The medical and legal implications of AIDS. Charlottesville (VA): The Foundation; 1987.

    For chapters in books
    Neufeld EF, Muenzer J. The mucopolysaccharidoses. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, et al, eds. The metabolic and molecular bases of inherited diseases. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001. p. 3421-52.

    For websites
    American Medical Association [homepage on the Internet]. Chicago: The Association; c1995-2002 [updated 2001 Aug 23; cited 2002 Aug 12]. AMA Office of Group Practice Liaison; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/1736.html

    EndNote
    If using EndNote, The Journal of Pediatrics' output style can be found by typing "Journal of Pediatrics" into the Publication Name field. Please be sure to double-space the Reference section.

    Tables
    Tables are to be uploaded into EES as separate documents, formatted in .doc or .xls. A concise title should be supplied for each. Tables should be self-explanatory and should supplement, not duplicate the text. If a table or any data therein have been previously published, a footnote must give full credit to the original source. (See Permissions).

    Figure Legends
    Each illustration must be provided with a legend. Legends should be double-spaced on a separate page within the main document file following the references page. If an illustration has been previously published, the legend must give full credit to the original source. (See Permissions).

    Illustrations
    A reasonable number of black and white illustrations will be reproduced at no cost to the authors, but the Editors retain the right to edit or delete illustrations and tables for the sake of brevity (See Article Type). Figure legends must be separate from the figures. (See Figure Legends) Each figure must be uploaded into EES as a separate file.

    All illustrations must be clear and legible. Patterns or shadings must be distinguishable from each other and dark enough for reproduction. Lines, symbols, and letters must be smooth and complete. Illustrations may be original drawings in black ink with typographic lettering; typewritten or freehand lettering is unacceptable. The integrity of scientific images (eg, gels, micrographs, etc.) must be maintained in figures submitted to The Journal (see JAMA's policy on Image Integrity: http://jama.ama-assn.org/misc/ifora.dtl#ImageIntegrity).

    Color illustrations are acceptable. Note that the colors must be dark enough and of sufficient contrast for reproduction. Fluorescent colors do not reproduce well. Avoid using color descriptors in the figure legends. Authors are expected to pay the extra cost associated with reproduction of color illustrations in the print version of The Journal of Pediatrics (currently $450 for the first color figure and $100 each for additional figures in the same manuscript). After final acceptance the publisher will contact authors with pricing and instructions for payment. If the Editors determine that color illustrations will be clear in black and white, the illustrations can be published in black and white in the print version and in color in the online version at no cost to the authors.

    All images should be at least 5 inches wide. Images may be provided in a variety of formats: TIFF, BMP, JPEG, GIF, PNG, EPS, PPT, and DOC. The best formats are TIFF and JPEG. Line art (black lines on a white background) must be created at 1000 dpi. Combination line art (e.g. line art with gray fill patterns) must be created at 1200 dpi. Black and white or color photographs must be created at 300 dpi. For complete instructions, please go to http://ees.elsevier.com/jpeds/ and click on Artwork Guidelines If you are unable to upload illustrations into EES, please go to http://ees.elsevier.com/jpeds/ and click on Help to contact EES Technical Support.

    Multi-Media Files
    In addition, short movie, animation, or audio files can be published in the online version of The Journal; a reference to the electronic material would appear in the print version. Each file should be uploaded into EES as a "multi-media" file. For specifications for these types of files, please go to http://ees.elsevier.com/jpeds/ and click on Artwork Guidelines.

    Permissions
    As a general rule, permission should be sought from the rights holder to reproduce any "substantial parts" of any copyright work. This includes literary works (eg, text and tables), as well as all photographs, slides, line illustrations, or other artwork. Tables and illustrations, even if modified, that have appeared in copyrighted material must be accompanied by written permission for their use from the copyright owner, along with complete information as to source. In most cases this will mean contacting the publisher of the original work. Although the publisher may not own copyright in all cases, the publisher usually has the exclusive right to grant the permission. For further information on how to obtain permission, please go to http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/obtaining-permission-to-re-use-elsevier-material.

    Written permission from the patient, or parent or guardian of a minor child, is required for publication of photographs or other images that include recognizable portions of the face; black bars over the eyes are not sufficient. Patient initials should not be used anywhere in the text, tables, or figures.

    Because articles appear in both the print and online versions of The Journal of Pediatrics, the wording of the letter should specify permission in all forms and media.

    Article Types

    Original Articles
    Full-length manuscripts for the Original Articles section of The Journal of Pediatrics must include a structured abstract of less than 250 words, to appear after the title page, with the following headings: Objective(s), Study design, Results, and Conclusion(s). The Objective(s) should put the study in context with the current literature (i.e., what is new, not textbook background information) and reflect the purpose of the study, that is, the hypothesis that is being tested or the question being asked (e.g., "To assess…," "To evaluate…"). The Study design should include the study methodology, the setting for the study, the subjects (number and type), the treatment or intervention, principal outcomes measured, and the type of statistical analysis. The Results section should include the outcome of the study and statistical significance, if appropriate. The Conclusion(s) states the significance of the results and limitations of the study.

    Original research articles should be approximately 18 double-spaced, numbered pages, including the title page, references, figures, and tables. Failure to comply with length restrictions may result in a delay in the processing of your paper. The following length targets are recommended for Original Articles:

    Structured Abstract: less than 250 words
    Introduction: 1 page
    Methods: 2-3 pages
    Results: 2-3 pages
    Discussion: 3-5 pages
    Combined total of 4 Tables and Figures

    Clinical and Laboratory Observations
    Clinical and Laboratory Observations (CLOs) are either: (1) "case reports" that provide novel insight into pathophysiology, diagnosis, or treatment of an entity that does not represent a coincidental association; (2) small series of diagnostic or therapeutic interventions; or (3) brief, focused studies related to a topic of interest to pediatricians. Please note that CLOs are not designed to present information that is generally available in textbooks, even if the reported entity is novel. CLOs are designed to provide readers with new information and stimulate new approaches to diagnosis, clinical management, or research. CLOs should be approximately 9 double-spaced, numbered manuscript pages, including the title page, references, figures, and tables; the text should be less than 1000 words with a brief, unstructured abstract of less than 50 words. A combined total of 2 Tables and Figures is recommended.

    Insights and Images
    Submissions to the Insights and Images section of The Journal of Pediatrics should succinctly illustrate clinical problems or solutions of interest to readers and must fit on one published page. At least one publishable figure is required; however, captioned photographs, brief anecdotes or analyses, cartoons, short movie, animation, audio files, and supplemental figures (see Illustrations) are welcome. All material must be original, and a fresh, useful insight must be offered. Text must be less than 300 words and is subject to shortening if the text and figure(s) do not fit on one published page. All references will be published in the online version of The Journal. Additional figure(s) may be placed in the online version of The Journal if the piece exceeds one published page. Original, signed, written permission from the patient, or parent or guardian of a minor child, is required for publication of recognizable images in all forms and media. (See Permissions) Authors will be required to sign a standard copyright transfer agreement; therefore, all submissions must have a title. Submissions will undergo review by the Editors, and their decision to accept or reject will be final.

    Do not submit a quiz with your Insights and Images manuscript. The Editor selects which accepted Insights and Images articles should be highlighted on jpeds.com with a Quiz.

    Rediscovering the Physical Exam
    Submissions to the Rediscovering the Physical Exam section of The Journal of Pediatrics should succinctly illustrate "typical" physical examinations features-both normal findings as well as classic features of disease. This section will utilize descriptive text and well-illustrated examples and must fit on 1 published page. At least one publishable figure is required; however, captioned photographs, brief anecdotes or analyses, cartoons, short movie, animation, audio files, and supplemental figures (see Illustrations) are strongly encouraged. Text is subject to shortening if the text and figure(s) do not fit on 1 published page. All references will be published in the online version of The Journal. Additional figure(s) may be placed in the online version of The Journal if the piece exceeds 1 published page; a reference to the electronic material will appear in the print version. Original, signed, written permission from the patient, or parent or guardian of a minor child, is required for publication of recognizable images in all forms and media. (See Permissions) Authors will be required to sign a standard copyright transfer agreement; therefore, all submissions must have a title. Submissions will undergo review by the Editors, and their decision to accept or reject will be final.

    Letters to the Editor
    Letters to the Editor should pertain to papers published in The Journal of Pediatrics within the past year or to related topics and should not exceed 300 words. Provide a unique title for the Letter on the title page with complete contact information for the author(s). Double-space the text of the Letter. References, including reference to the pertinent article(s) in The Journal, should conform to style for manuscripts (see References).

    Medical Progress
    Authors who wish to propose a review article for the Medical Progress section must e-mail a proposal letter and formal academic outline of the manuscript (i.e., introduction, thesis statement, supporting ideas, and conclusion), identifying the article type for the Editors to assess, and outline to journal.pediatrics@cchmc.org for approval before submitting the full manuscript. (Editors will not assess full manuscripts prior to submission.) Medical Progress articles should focus on the latest advancements in rapidly changing fields. Practical guidelines, diagnostic algorithms, commentary of case management issues, and articles involving outcomes research may be appropriate for this section. Authors are encouraged to interpret cited works, which should lead to logical conclusions and recommendations. It is understood that some of these conclusions and recommendations will necessarily be tentative, but, if labeled clearly as such, are an essential part of the process. Medical Progress manuscripts should be approximately 15 double-spaced, numbered pages, including the title page, references, figures, and tables.

    Commentaries
    Authors who wish to propose a Commentary must e-mail a proposal letter and formal academic outline of the manuscript (i.e., introduction, thesis statement, supporting ideas, and conclusion), identifying the article type for the Editors to assess, to journal.pediatrics@cchmc.org for approval before submitting the full manuscript. (Editors will not assess full manuscripts prior to submission.) Commentaries should serve as a forum for governmental health policies, economic issues, medical/scientific ethics, psychosocial issues, and international health, particularly in the developed world. Commentaries should be approximately 18 double-spaced, numbered pages, including the title page, references, figures, and tables.

    Grand Rounds
    Authors who wish to propose a manuscript for the Grand Rounds section must e-mail a proposal letter and formal academic outline of the manuscript (i.e., introduction, thesis statement, supporting ideas, and conclusion), identifying the article type for the Editors to assess, to journal.pediatrics@cchmc.org for approval before submitting the full manuscript. (Editors will not assess full manuscripts prior to submission.) Grand Rounds manuscripts should be informative and timely for the physician, containing up-to-date, but not necessarily new, unpublished data. Often these manuscripts will be reviews of topics of current interest, similar to Grand Rounds at a major academic center. Aspects such as innovative clinical management, new diagnostic techniques, and pathologic mechanisms should be stressed. Manuscripts for the Grand Rounds section may be prepared in traditional clinicopathologic conference (CPC) style or as a didactic discussion. Grand Rounds manuscripts should be approximately 16 double-spaced, numbered pages, including the title page, references, figures, and tables.

    Workshop/Symposium Summary
    Authors who wish to propose a manuscript for the Workshop/Symposium Summary section must e-mail a proposal letter and formal academic outline of the manuscript (i.e., introduction, thesis statement, supporting ideas, and conclusion), identifying the article type for the Editors to assess, to journal.pediatrics@cchmc.org for approval before submitting the full manuscript. (Editors will not assess full manuscripts prior to submission.) Workshop/Symposium Summary manuscripts should succinctly summarize scientific, single topic, consensus workshops/symposia that took place less than one year prior to submission and would be of interest to the readership of The Journal. A summary submitted for this section must be the only publication for the workshop; The Journal will not consider summaries that have been or will be published in whole or in part, excluding the workshop/symposium description/abstract in the meeting program.

    Workshop/Symposium Summary manuscripts should be approximately 18 double-spaced, numbered pages, including title page, references, tables, and figures. If the manuscript significantly exceeds the suggested length target, it should be proposed as a sponsored Supplement to The Journal (see Supplement). An abstract should not be provided, and online only appendices, tables, and figures are not encouraged. However, authors are welcome to include videos, cartoons, audio clips, etc. as multi-media files (see Multi-Media).

    AMSPDC Section
    Pages of The Journal of Pediatrics are reserved for the Association of Medical School Pediatric Department Chairs, Inc. (AMSPDC), which is solely responsible for their content. Authors interested in submitting to this section should contact AMSPDC directly. All other manuscripts must be submitted as detailed above by each article type.

    Robert W. Wilmott, MD
    Chairperson
    Department of Pediatrics
    Cardinal Glennon Children Hospital
    1465 South Grand Boulevard, Room 1204
    St. Louis, MO 63104225
    Tel: (314) 577-5606
    wilmottr@slu.edu

    Announcements and Upcoming Events
    Announcements of scheduled meetings, symposia, or postgraduate courses of interest to the pediatric readership may be sent to the Editorial Office via e-mail for consideration at least 2 months in advance of the meeting date or deadline. News items of general interest to pediatricians and related specialists will also be considered. Approved Announcements will be published in the online version of The Journal of Pediatrics. The Journal requests a reciprocal posting back to www.jpeds.com; however, the organization's decision to link to The Journal's website will not be a barrier to The Journal's willingness to post this Announcement or Event.

    Submissions for the Announcements and Upcoming Events section must include the following information (* = required):

    Event Title *
    Dates *
    Host/Organizer/Sponsor *
    Location *
    Webpage *

    Supplements
    The Journal of Pediatrics publishes funded supplements after approval and review by the Editorial Office. Initial inquiries and proposals for supplements should be directed to

    Brian Jenkins, Senior Supplements Editor
    Elsevier Supplements Department
    360 Park Avenue South
    New York, NY 10010
    Tel: (212)462 1924
    Fax: (212)462 1935
    E-mail: b.jenkins@elsevier.com

    Other Article Types
    Article types that are not detailed above (Editorials, 50 Years Ago in The Journal of Pediatrics, The Editors' Perspectives, Current Best Evidence, European Paediatric Association Pages) cannot be submitted without a direct request from the Editors of The Journal of Pediatrics.

    Guidelines for Reviewers
    By becoming familiar with the Guidelines for Reviewers, authors can write their manuscripts based on the criteria by which the reports will be judged. In an effort to provide authors with detailed requirements and expectations that may increase the potential for acceptance, The Journal of Pediatrics' Guidelines for Reviewers can be accessed by clicking here. Additionally, the responsibilities of reviewers can be accessed by clicking here.

    Books for Review
    The Journal of Pediatrics does not publish book reviews. Books sent to the Editor will not be returned.

    Decisions
    Authors will receive e-mail notification from the Editorial Office of The Journal of Pediatrics after a decision has been made. All accepted manuscripts are subject to editorial revision and shortening. Authors should avoid redundancy between sections of text and between illustrations and text. Due to page limitations, the Editors may decide that figures, appendices, tables, acknowledgments, and other material will be published in the online version of The Journal and referenced in the print edition. Elsevier will automatically deposit any manuscripts that received funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) directly to PubMed Central as a service to authors, provided that NIH fundering is declared on the title page of the manuscript and Elsevier's copyright form. Following the deposit by Elsevier, authors will receive further communications from the NIH with respect to the submission. Additional information is available at http://www.elsevier.com/about/publishing-guidelines/policies/open-access-policies/funding-body-agreements/elsevier-nih-policy-statement.

    Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) Sanctions
    As a result of OFAC sanctions, all US owned journals are unable to handle scientific manuscripts that are authored by Iranian scientists employed by the Government of Iran. The term ''Government of Iran'' does not include any academic and research institutions and their personnel. Therefore, The Journal of Pediatrics cannot consider for acceptance any manuscripts authored by scientists employed by the Government of Iran.

    Inquiries Regarding Decisions
    All inquiries concerning manuscript decisions should be in writing from the designated corresponding author (journal.pediatrics@cchmc.org). The complete manuscript file will be forwarded to the appropriate Editor for response to the inquiry. The Editors are not available for telephone calls regarding decisions.

    Release to Media/Embargo Policy
    It is a violation of the copyright agreement to disclose the findings of an accepted manuscript to the media or the public before publication in The Journal of Pediatrics. Information in the manuscript may be announced when it is published on The Journal's website. Please notify the Editorial Office if your institution anticipates writing and distributing a press release regarding an accepted article.

    Copyright and Authors' Rights
    Elsevier's copyright and authors' rights policies can be found at http:www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.

    Open Access Policy
    The Journal of Pediatrics offers authors the option to pay to publish accepted manuscripts as Open Access (OA), meaning that articles will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download with permitted reuse. An OA publication fee ($3,000) is payable by authors or their research funder.

    To ensure that authors can comply with funding body OA requirements, including specific user licenses, Elsevier has established agreements with a number of funding bodies, including the National Institutes of Health and the Wellcome Trust. If the Creative Common user licenses do not meet the mandatory requirements of your funding body, please contact the Editorial Office (journal.pediatrics@cchmc.org). Some authors may be reimbursed for associated publication fees. For further details please see http://www.elsevier.com/about/publishing-guidelines/policies/funding-body-agreements.

    The following article types are freely available on The Journal's website (http://www.jpeds.com): (1) Letters to Editor; (2) Editorials; (3) Commentaries; (4) Insights and Images; and (5) Rediscovering the Physical Exam. However, they are not freely available on the ScienceDirect or other article databases, and are not assigned a Creative Commons license unless OA has been paid.

    For additional information about OA developments, please visit http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/sponsored-articles or http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-access/oa-and-elsevier/oa-license-policy.

    Retraction Guidelines from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)
    The retraction guidelines published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) can be found at http://publicationethics.org/files/u661/Retractions_COPE_gline_final_3_Sept_09__2_.pdf

    Journals and Institutions on Research Integrity Cases from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)
    Guidance from the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) regarding cooperation between research institutions and journals on research integrity cases can be found at http://publicationethics.org/files/Research_institutions_guidelines_final.pdf.

    Checklist for Manuscripts

    Review Guide for Authors and instructions for submitting manuscripts through Elsevier Editorial System (EES), the electronic submission website at http://ees.elsevier.com/jpeds.

    Letter of submission

    o Disclosure of any prior publications or submissions (excluding rejected submissions) with any overlapping information, including studies and patients; a copy of the work(s) must be uploaded -OR- If there are no prior publications or submissions with any overlapping information, provide the following statement: "There are no prior publications or submissions with any overlapping information, including studies and patients."
    o A statement that the manuscript has not been and will not be submitted to any other journal while it is under consideration by The Journal of Pediatrics;
    o A statement of any potential conflict of interest, real or perceived; this includes a description of the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in: (1) study design; (2) the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; (3) the writing of the report; and (4) the decision to submit the paper for publication. Include statements even when the sponsor had no involvement in the above matters. This information must also appear on the title page of the manuscript.
    o The name of the person who wrote the first draft of the manuscript, as well as a statement of whether an honorarium, grant, or other form of payment was given to anyone to produce the manuscript. This information must also appear on the title page of the manuscript;
    o A statement that each author listed on the manuscript has seen and approved the submission of this version of the manuscript and takes full responsibility for the manuscript; if more than 6 authors, an explanation of the contributions of each author must be provided (See Authorship Criteria).
    Title page
    o Title of article;
    o Full name(s), academic degrees, and affiliations of authors;
    o Name, address, e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of corresponding author;
    o Name of reprint request author or notation of no reprints;
    o List of key words not in the title;
    o Source of funding and conflict of interest statement, if applicable;

    • Abstract (double-spaced), structured (less than 250 words) for Original Article or unstructured (50 words) for Clinical and Laboratory Observations
    • Article proper (double-spaced), including
    o List of abbreviations (double-spaced)
    o References (double-spaced), on a separate page
    o Figure legends (double-spaced), on a separate page
    Tables including title (double-spaced), each on a separate page, saved as a separate file
    IIllustrations, each saved as a separate file; saved and uploaded as a separate file
    • Letter(s) of permission to reproduce previously published material in all forms and media-must be mailed or scanned and e-mailed
    • Letters of permission to publish patient photographs in all forms and media-must be mailed or scanned and e-mailed
    • Copies of prior and/or in press publications

    Updated July 2014

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