Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Your Paper Your Way
• General Information
• Authorship Requirements
• Special Features
• Submission of Material
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and Animal Rights
• Submission declaration
• Reporting clinical trials
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Open access
• Green open access
• Language services
• Informed consent and patient details
• Submission
• Editor contact information
• References
• Formatting requirements
• Article structure
• Essential title page information
• Graphical abstract
• Highlights
• Acknowledgments
• Footnotes
• Artwork
• Illustration services
• Figure Legends
• Tables
• References
• Video data
• Supplementary material
• Submission checklist
• Permissions
• Embargo Policy
• Cover Images
• Proprietary Information
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Proofs
• Offprints

Your Paper Your Way

We now differentiate between the requirements for new and revised submissions. You may choose to submit your manuscript as a single Word or PDF file to be used in the refereeing process. Only when your paper is at the revision stage, will you be requested to put your paper in to a 'correct format' for acceptance and provide the items required for the publication of your article.
To find out more, please visit the Preparation section below.

General Information

The Journal of Pain publishes original articles related to all aspects of pain and pain management and welcomes submissions from clinical and basic researchers, medical specialists, psychologists, nurses, physical therapists, social workers, and workers in related fields. The Journal of Pain is interdisciplinary in focus and committed to advancing knowledge about pain mechanisms and pain management. The Journal will publish reports of original clinical research, reports of original basic research, Focus Articles, Critical Reviews, and Letters to the Editor. Manuscripts considered to provide particularly innovative or groundbreaking findings may be designated for fast-track handling by the editorial board, and such articles may be published on an expedited basis. Fast-track determination will be made by the Editor-in-Chief in consultation with the editorial board. Authors may request consideration of fast-track designation but must provide rationale for this in their cover letter. The editor may also select some manuscripts for triage handling. Authors will receive prompt notification in such cases.

In some cases, accepted manuscripts will be selected for electronic publication only and will not appear in the print version of The Journal. Such manuscripts will still appear in the Table of Contents in the print version of the Journal, and a summary of the article, along with a link to the URL where readers can view the paper, will also appear in the print version. The paper will also be indexed with all the appointed indexing services.

The Journal does not publish case reports, studies that include open-label medication trials, uncontrolled studies, reports on the translation of established measures, or articles that are primarily descriptive in nature. However, studies that contribute to the development and testing of pain theories and that test specific hypotheses based on a theoretical rationale are particularly encouraged.

Authorship Requirements

  • The Journal will not consider manuscripts that are prepared by professional research or writing companies on behalf of—and funded by—pharmaceutical companies. Preparation of drafts of manuscripts by an employee of the study sponsor or by anyone else who is not listed as an author is expressly prohibited.
  • All listed authors must make substantial contributions to conception, design, acquisition, and analysis of data; drafting and revising of the article; and approval of the article as written and responsibility for the content and completeness. No author may be added after review of the original submission.
  • Approval of all authors must be granted to the final draft for publication.
  • The corresponding author is responsible for communicating with The Journal of Pain and for determining the list of authors. This individual takes assumes responsibility for listing co-investigators who do not qualify for authorship (in the Acknowledgments section), if necessary. Guest or titular authorship based on assignment—such as department chair—is prohibited.
  • All authors must sign and submit the Mandatory Submission Form, to be uploaded at the end of new or revised submissions. Authors of accepted manuscripts will also be required to submit a signed Copyright Agreement to Elsevier after accepted manuscripts are received by the publisher.

Special Features

Focus Articles/Critical Reviews
A Focus Article may present a hypothesis or state a position on a basic scientific or clinical topic related to pain. The position may be provocative, but must be based on scientific evidence, and referenced accordingly. A Critical Review Article offers a summary of a topic and includes pertinent literature to present a position. These are not intended for the presentation of unpublished data. Focus Articles will undergo the same rigorous review as unsolicited manuscripts of original research.

Commentaries on Focus Articles/Critical Reviews
The editor may solicit commentaries on Focus Articles or Critical Reviews. Commentaries should be limited to less than 2000 words and are subject to editorial review.

Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor commenting on published items are encouraged. Letters should be limited to 500 words or less, though lengthier pieces may be approved by the Editor. The published item to which the letter refers must be cited in the References section; authors should refer to The Journal's instructions for proper citation formatting. The letter will be shared with the author(s) of the original article, who will have the chance to respond. All letters are subject to editorial review. Upon submission, letters must include author affiliations and must include a Disclosures section that notes any conflicts of interest; if no conflicts are present, this should be explicitly stated.

Meeting Announcements/Press Releases
Meeting announcements and press releases are not published in The Journal of Pain.

Submission of Material

Authors must submit manuscripts electronically, uploading documents to the submission website, The system will convert documents to PDF files. Authors are encouraged to submit manuscripts in Microsoft Word. TIFF and EPS are the preferred formats for artwork. (See Preparation guidelines below for details regarding the correct order to upload files.)

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Human and Animal Rights

Human Subjects
Articles involving research conducted in human subjects must include statements in Materials and Methods indicating that 1) approval by the Institutional Review Board was granted; and 2) informed consent was obtained from each subject. Subjects should be identified only by number, not name or initials.

Animal Subjects
Articles involving research conducted in nonhuman subjects must include 1) a statement in Materials and Methods indicating approval by the Institutional Review Board and that the care and use of animals conformed to applicable national/international guidelines; and 2) information about the source (vendor and location) of animals. If anesthesia was used, the anesthetic, dose, and duration of surgery must be provided, as well as information about any intra- and/or postoperative drugs (ie, drug, dose, and interdosing interval, if given more than once).

Conflict of interest
All authors must state explicitly whether or not any conflicts exist. Authors must indicate any actual or potential conflicts of interest including any financial, personal, or other relationships with other people or organizations within 3 years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. This information should be presented in the Disclosures section. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at

This required section must appear on the title page. Research funding sources must be acknowledged, including corporate, grant, institutional, or departmental funds. If this does not apply, authors must state that no funding sources were provided. In this section, all authors must also disclose any potential conflicts of interest and must include a declaration statement if no conflicts exist. Conflicts include honoraria, travel to conferences, consultancies, stock ownership (excluding publicly owned mutual funds), equity interests, and patent-licensing arrangements (particularly if a commercial product is noted in the article).

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Checklists are required for some submissions
As of January 1, 2015, many submission types must include a checklist to be included during the upload process, submitted as the last file. Manuscripts lacking checklists will be returned to authors for completion. An ARRIVE checklist is required for animal studies and animal experiments. A CONSORT checklist is required for randomized controlled trials. A PRISMA checklist is required for systematic review articles and for meta-analyses. A STARD checklist is required for diagnostic validation studies. A STROBE checklist is required for observational studies including cohort, case control, cross-sectional studies and epidemiological studies. Checklists are not required for the following: Measure or Procedure Validation Study; Focus Article; Letter to the Editor; or Editorial.

Mandatory Submission Form
A Mandatory Submission Form must accompany all submissions. Authors are strongly encouraged to include the signed mandatory form as the final file when uploading new submissions. The form must be signed by all authors. Forms can also be emailed to the Editorial Office at or faxed to (312) 275-7776.

Reporting clinical trials

Randomized controlled trials should be presented according to the CONSORT guidelines. At manuscript submission, authors must provide the CONSORT checklist accompanied by a flow diagram that illustrates the progress of patients through the trial, including recruitment, enrollment, randomization, withdrawal and completion, and a detailed description of the randomization procedure. The CONSORT checklist and template flow diagram can be found on


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Note to NIH Grant Recipients: Articles accepted for publication from authors who have indicated that the underlying research reported in their articles was supported by an NIH grant will be sent by Elsevier to PubMed Central (PMC) for public access posting 12 months after final publication. The version of the article provided by Elsevier will be the final peer-reviewed manuscript that was accepted for publication and sent to Elsevier's production department, and which reflects author-agreed changes made in response to peer-review comments. Elsevier will authorize the author manuscript's public access posting 12 months after final publication. Following the deposit by Elsevier, authors will receive further communication from the NIH with respect to the submission.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit
After acceptance, open access papers will be published under a noncommercial license. For authors requiring a commercial CC BY license, you can apply after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language services

Text should be presented in English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who submit to international journals but are not are not native speakers of English sometimes receive negative feedback regarding language usage. We strongly encourage such authors to have submissions pre-reviewed by colleagues with English fluency, or to be considered by a professional editing service such as,, or similar services.

Informed consent and patient details

Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

Editor contact information

The Journal of Pain

Mark P. Jensen, PhD, Editor
The Journal of Pain
University of Washington
Rehabilitation Medicine
1959 NE Pacific Street
Box 356490
Seattle, WA 98195-6490

Submit your article
Please submit your article via


Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts your files to a single PDF file, which is used in the peer-review process.
As part of the Your Paper Your Way service, you may choose to submit your manuscript as a single file to be used in the refereeing process. This can be a PDF file or a Word document, in any format or lay-out that can be used by referees to evaluate your manuscript. It should contain high enough quality figures for refereeing. If you prefer to do so, you may still provide all or some of the source files at the initial submission. Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be uploaded separately.


There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct.

Formatting requirements

There are no strict formatting requirements but all manuscripts must contain the essential elements needed to convey your manuscript, for example Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Conclusions, Artwork and Tables with Captions.
If your article includes any Videos and/or other Supplementary material, this should be included in your initial submission for peer review purposes.
Divide the article into clearly defined sections.

Please ensure the text of your paper is double-spaced and includes page numbers - this is an essential peer review requirement.

Figures and tables embedded in text
Please ensure the figures and the tables included in the single file are placed next to the relevant text in the manuscript, rather than at the bottom or the top of the file.


Use of word processing software
Regardless of the file format of the original submission, at revision you must provide us with an editable file of the entire article. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article structure

Pages must be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page. Manuscripts without numbered pages will be returned to authors for correction. Materials should be presented in this order:

  • Cover letter
  • Manuscript (as a single file that contains the following): title page (include all authors' names and affiliations and disclosures), abstract, perspective, key words, text, acknowledgments (optional), references, figure legends
  • Figures
  • Tables
  • Checklist (see more information)

Cover letter
A cover letter must be presented and must include contact information for the corresponding author; this contact information must also be presented on the title page and must match the corresponding author designated in the Elsevier Editorial System upon upload. (When such information differs, manuscripts will be returned to authors for correction.) Any conflicts of interest should be noted, and if no conflicts are present, this should be explicitly stated. Include a statement that all authors are listed and that all have contributed substantially to the manuscript. Authors must state whether manuscripts from the same study were submitted or published. Authors are asked to suggest the names of three potential reviewers; please include contact information.

Title page (page 1)
The title should be a concise and informative description of the study and should indicate animal species if the research was conducted on nonhuman animals subjects. Within the title, use nonproprietary names for drugs, and descriptions for devices. Brand name may be mentioned only once within the text (upon first reference), unless essential to the study. The title page should include the authors' names, department(s), institution where the work was done, and institutional affiliations of authors. The corresponding author must be clearly identified and phone/fax/e-mail information must be provided. The corresponding author noted on the manuscript's title page must be the same person designated as corresponding author within the Elsevier Editorial System. The title page should include a short running title (45 characters, excluding spaces).

This required section must appear on the title page. Research funding sources must be acknowledged, including corporate, grant, institutional, or departmental funds. If this does not apply, authors must state that no funding sources were provided. In this section, all authors must disclose any potential conflicts of interest and must include a declaration statement if no conflicts exist. Conflicts include honoraria, travel to conferences, consultancies, stock ownership (excluding publicly owned mutual funds), equity interests, and patent-licensing arrangements (particularly if a commercial product is noted in the article).

Abstract (page 2)
An abstract of 200 words or less should describe concisely the purpose of the study, the main findings, and conclusions, all in one paragraph without subheadings. References may not be included in the abstract.

Trial registration
Clinical trials that involve devices or drugs provided by a manufacturer or pharmaceutical company should be registered at the time of submission to The Journal of Pain. The online registry information should appear at the end of the abstract.

This item, limited to 50 words, should appear at the end of the abstract. The perspective presents a synopsis of the work to facilitate understanding of its significance. Authors of basic science reports should highlight the potential clinical relevance of their results for the benefit of clinical readers. Authors of clinical science reports should highlight the underlying mechanisms for the results, for the benefit of clinical scientists and basic scientists. Example: "Perspective: This article presents the psychometric properties of a new measure of spouse responses to patient chronic pain and well behavior. This measure could potentially help clinicians who seek to assess how spouse responses may contribute to patient pain and disability." References should not be included in the Perspective.

Key words
Five key words should be provided following the Perspective.

Text headings should be as follows:

Introduction: State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.
Methods: Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference; only relevant modifcations should be described.
Results: Results should be clear and concise.
Discussion: This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

Subheadings in the Methods, Results, and Discussion sections should be used as necessary to aid organization and presentation, but subheadings and sections should not be numbered. All sections should be written concisely. Limit the Introduction to 600 words and the Discussion to 1500 words. Note that section labels may not apply to some article types, including Focus Articles and Critical Review Articles.

Footnotes are not permitted in the text. Information must be cited parenthetically, or within the References section.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

Graphical abstract

Although a graphical abstract is optional, its use is encouraged as it draws more attention to the online article. The graphical abstract should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See for examples.


Collate acknowledgments in a separate section at the end of the article before the references; do not include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title, or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (eg, providing language help, writing assistance, or proofreading the article). The Acknowledgments section is optional.


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article.


All figures must be cited in the text; figures must be cited in consecutive order (this also applies to individual panels within figures). Computer-generated figures should use solid fills or cross-hatching, not tonal shading. Color figures may be accepted but any cost related to print production is the responsibility of the author. However, authors who are members of the American Pain Society may qualify for complimentary production of essential color figures. Also, color figures may be published in the electronic version of The Journal at no cost to the authors. Within figures, patients' eyes must be masked unless authors receive patient permission. For a consent form, contact the Editorial Office at

TIFF and EPS are the preferred formats for artwork. All type fonts used in studio-created artwork must be either "embedded" in the file or supplied separately. All graphic files supplied as bitmap format (not vector format) in TIFF, JPEG, or GIF must be submitted in sufficiently high resolution (240-300 dpi for grayscale or color images and 600-1000 dpi for line art) to allow for printing. See Elseviers website for guidelines for preparing electronic artwork:

Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Preferred fonts: Arial (or Helvetica), Times New Roman (or Times), Symbol, Courier.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Indicate per figure if it is a single, 1.5 or 2-column fitting image.
• For Word submissions only, you may still provide figures and their captions, and tables within a single file at the revision stage.
• Please note that individual figure files larger than 10 MB must be provided in separate source files.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as 'graphics'.
TIFF (or JPG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low.
• Supply files that are too low in resolution.
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see
Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

Illustration services

Elsevier's WebShop ( offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

Figure Legends

A legend must be provided for each figure. Figure legends should be brief and not repetitive of description in the text. Legends should be placed in numerical order after the list of references.


All tables must be cited in the text in consecutive order. Tables should be comprehensive without reference to the text and should not be repetitive of descriptions in the text. Every table should consist of two or more columns; tables with only one column will be treated as lists and incorporated into the text. Each column must have a column heading. Explanatory matter and source notations for borrowed or adapted tables should be placed in a table footnote, not in the title or table body.


Citation in text
Ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text as "Unpublished results" or "Personal communication." Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication. "In press" references are allowed in the reference list.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Reference formatting
There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

The reference list should appear at the end of the manuscript. The list must be in alphabetical order, according to the surname of the first author. In cases of multiple citations by the same first author, references should be listed by chronological date of the publication. In cases of multiple citations by the same first author and different second, third, etc. authors, references should be cited in alphabetical order according to the surname of the second, third, etc. authors. Within the text, papers should be cited using superscript numbers that correspond to the alphabetized reference list as follows: "Similar changes were demonstrated in the cingulate cortex.15" All authors must be listed in the references; the use of et al is not permitted. Journal abbreviations should conform to the style used in Index Medicus, National Library of Medicine. Unpublished data, personal communications, and abstracts that cannot be retrieved by readers (eg, some meeting abstracts), and other inaccessible materials should not be listed as references. Unpublished materials may be cited parenthetically within the text, noting the authors and the year in which the research was conducted. For manuscripts containing citations that are in press, authors must have electronic copies immediately available in case reviewers/ editors request these materials. If all or part of this research was presented in Abstract form at an American Pain Society annual meeting, please note this at the end of the Introduction and include the citation in the list of References, citing abstracts published in The Journal of Pain's annual meeting supplemental issue. For information on formatting a specific Abstract reference, contact the Editorial Office at

Citation examples:

Journal articles
Jensen MP, Hakimian S, Sherlin LH, Fregni F: New insights into neuromodulatory approaches for the treatment of pain. J Pain 9:193-199, 2008

Koltzenberg M, McMahon S (eds): Wall and Melzack's Textbook of Pain, 5th ed. Philadelphia, Elsevier, 2006

Chapter/article in book
Begg C: Publication bias. In: Cooper H, Hedges L (eds): Handbook of Research Synthesis. New York, Russell Sage Foundation, 1994, pp 399-409

SAS Institute. SAS/STAT software: Changes and enhancements through release 6.12. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, 1996

Dworkin RH, Gnann JW, Oaklander AL, Raja SN, Schmader KE, Whitley RJ: Diagnosis and Assessment of Pain Associated with Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia. J Pain 9(Suppl 1):37-55, 2008

Epub Ahead of Print
Nielsen CS, Staud R, Price DD: Individual differences in pain sensitivity: Measurement, causation, and consequences. J Pain 2009 Feb 8; [Epub ahead of print]

The American Academy of Pain Medicine: The use of opioids for the treatment of chronic Pain: A Consensus Statement. Available at: Accessed March 9, 2006

For other examples not listed here, please contact The Journal of Pain editorial office at or at (319)430-4118.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations:

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
• For reproduction in black-and-white, please supply black-and-white versions of the figures for printing purposes.
For any further information please visit our customer support site at


To use information borrowed or adapted from another source, authors must obtain permission from the copyright holder (usually the publisher). This is necessary even if you are the author of the borrowed material. It is essential to begin the process of obtaining permissions early; a delay may require removing the copyrighted material from the article. Give the source of a borrowed table in a footnote to the table; give the source of a borrowed figure in the legend of the figure. The source must also appear in the list of references. Use exact wording required by the copyright holder. Send copies of the letter granting permission, identified by table or figure number, to the Editorial Office at (a scanned and uploaded copy is fine; please include the manuscript number in the subject line).

To secure permission for materials published in The Journal of Pain, please visit For more information about permission issues, contact or visit

Embargo Policy

Accepted manuscripts are embargoed until The Journal's monthly mail date. Unauthorized release of materials before that date is expressly prohibited. For mail date information, contact the Editorial Office at

Cover Images

The Journal of Pain will publish appropriate images on the journal's cover. Selected figures may accompany a submitted manuscript (authors should make a note in the covering letter), or images may be submitted individually. Authors are encouraged to submit art for consideration; materials may be uploaded to

Proprietary Information

Use nonproprietary names for drugs, and descriptions for devices. Brand name may be mentioned only once within the text (upon first reference), unless essential to the study. For presentation of brand or trade names, include manufacturer's name, city, state and country within parentheses. Upon subsequent reference, use generic drug names or device descriptions only.

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 9 (or higher) available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site:
If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail (the PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use). For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via