Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Ethics in publishing
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Changes to authorship
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Open access
• Green open access
• Language and language services
• Submission
• Templates
• General requirements
• Essential title page information
• Abstracts
• Graphical abstract
• Keywords
• Acknowledgements
• Nomenclature
• X-ray crystallographic data
• DNA sequences and GenBank Accession numbers
• Footnotes
• Tables
• References and notes
• Abbreviations
• AudioSlides
• Software
• Mol files
• Interactive plots
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Proofs
• Offprints
• NIH voluntary posting policy

Tetrahedron Letters offers rapid publication of important new developments in organic chemistry. Articles should be in the form of short communications announcing either experimental or theoretical results of special interest.

The contents of papers are the sole responsibility of the authors, and publication shall not imply the concurrence of the Editors or Publisher.

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Conflict of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 1950, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 24 months.

Language and language services

Please write your article in clear, concise, grammatically correct English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit or our customer support site at for more information.

Language Editing
International Science Editing and Asia Science Editing can provide English language and copyediting services to authors who want to publish in scientific, technical, and medical journals and need assistance before they submit their article or before it is accepted for publication. Authors can contact these services directly: International Science Editing ( and Asia Science Editing ( or, for more information about language editing services, authors may contact who will be happy to deal with any questions. Please note Elsevier neither endorses nor takes responsibility for any products, goods, or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising. For more information please refer to our terms and conditions (

Journal policy
Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright holder. Authors accept full responsibility for the factual accuracy of the data presented and should obtain any authorization necessary for publication. As such the contents of the papers are the sole responsibility of the authors and publication shall not imply the concurrence of the editors or copyright holder.
All papers are submitted to referees who advise the editor on the matter of acceptance in accordance with the high standards required, on the understanding that the subject matter has not been previously published and is not under consideration elsewhere. Referees will be asked to distinguish contributions meeting the above requirements and having an element of novelty, timeliness, and urgency that merits publication in the journal. We ask referees to help in the selection of articles that have this breadth and suggest that papers covering narrower aspects of the field be sent to journals specializing in those areas. Referee names are not disclosed, but their views are forwarded by the editor to the authors for consideration. Authors are encouraged to suggest names of several experts in the field when papers are first submitted or at any time in the evaluation process.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.


Authors should submit their manuscripts to the appropriate regional editor (see below) via the online submission page of this journal at Authors will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. The system automatically converts source files to a single Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the article, which is used in the peer review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail and via the author's home page. A printed copy of the manuscript is not required at any stage of the process.

The following items should be submitted to the appropriate regional editor via the online submission page:

  • Manuscript. It is not necessary to embed graphics in the text, but if you do so please note that separate graphic files will always be required for proof production when a manuscript is accepted for publication. Graphics should be submitted as separate, highresolution artwork files. These will be automatically incorporated into the single PDF that the system creates for review.
  • Graphical abstract for the contents list (submitted as a separate document).
  • Cover letter: highlighting the novelty, significance, and urgency of the submitted work, which merits rapid publication and providing details of other relevant information, e.g., submitted or in press manuscripts.
  • List of potential referees (Separate document).
  • Mol files (optional): see below.

Manuscripts should be addressed to the appropriate regional editor:

Articles from Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Portugal, Spain and Switzerland:
Professor S. Z. Zard, Laboratoire de Synthèse Organique, École Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau Cedex, France.

Professor Lin Guo-Qiang, Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 354 Fenglin Road, Shanghai 200032, China (manuscripts from Taiwan may be sent to Professor Lin, or to the usual Editor in Japan, at the choice of the authors).

Japan and South Korea:
Professor K. Maruoka, Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan.

Professor V.K. Singh, IISER Bhopal, Indore By-pass Road, Bhauri, Bhopal 462 066, India.

The Americas:
Asymmetric and Combinatorial Synthesis, Heterocycles, Organometallic Chemistry, Physical Organic Chemistry, Radicals, Small Rings, Strained Systems, Theory and Total Synthesis
Professor J. Wood, A. I. Meyers Professor of Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1872, USA.

All regions other than those specified above:
Professor E. J. Thomas, Department of Chemistry, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK.

Tetrahedron Digests: Digests should be submitted to the online submission page of this journal at When submitting, please select the article type "Digest". Your article will then be sent to the Editor for your region:

The Americas: Professor B. Stoltz, Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, USA

Europe and Middle East: Professor M. Christmann, Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany

China, Hong Kong, Macau, South Korea, New Zealand: Dr J. Hu, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Shanghai, China

Japan, Thailand, Taiwan, Singapore, Australia, India: Professor M. Kitamura, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan


Templates are provided in order to allow authors to view their paper in a style close to the final printed form. Their use is optional. The templates can be found at
All manuscripts will be fully typeset from the author's electronic files. It should be noted that due to defined typesetting standards and the complex requirements of electronic publishing, the Publisher will not always be able to exactly match the layout the author has submitted. In particular, in the finished journal article, figures and tables are usually placed at the top or bottom of pages. The template is only intended to be used in assisting with the preparation and submission of manuscripts.
It should be noted that the use of the journal template is not a requirement and its adoption will neither speed nor delay publication. Elsevier can handle most major word processing packages and in general most formatting applied by authors for style and layout is replaced when the article is being typeset.
These templates contain a large number of macros. To ensure successful PDF conversion by the online submission system, it is important that the author saves a new document based on the template, rather than saving the template itself. To use the template, the author should save the final document as a Word file with a ".doc" extension (rather than the ".dot" extension). Please use TrueType fonts in order to avoid problems with the creation of the PDF.
Please ensure that the graphical abstract is included as page 1 of your manuscript when submitting online. For detailed instructions on the preparation of electronic artwork, see

General requirements

The corresponding author's full mailing address, including mail codes, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address should be included. The manuscript should be compiled in the following order: Graphical Abstract, Title, Authors, Affiliations, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Experimental, Acknowledgments, References and Notes, Tables, Legends, Figures, and Schemes.

Text should be subdivided in the simplest possible way consistent with clarity. Headings should reflect the relative importance of the sections. Ensure that all tables, figures, and schemes are cited in the text in numerical order. The preferred position for chemical structures should be indicated. Trade names should have an initial capital letter. All measurements and data should be given in SI units where possible, or in other internationally accepted units. Abbreviations should be used consistently throughout the text, and all non-standard abbreviations should be defined on first usage. Authors are requested to draw attention to hazardous materials or procedures by adding the word CAUTION followed by a brief descriptive phrase and literature references if appropriate.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


Authors must include a short abstract of approximately four to six lines that states briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results, and major conclusion(s). References and compound numbers should not be mentioned in the abstract unless full details are given.

Graphical abstract

A Graphical abstract is mandatory for this journal. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


Authors are asked to provide four keywords, which will be used for indexing purposes.


An acknowledgement section may be included. It should be placed after the manuscript text and before the references.


It is the responsibility of the authors to provide correct nomenclature. Chemical names for drugs are preferred. If these are not practical, generic names, names approved by the U.S. Adopted Names Council, or those approved by the World Health Organization may be used. If a generic name is used, its chemical name or structure should be provided at the point of first citation. Authors will find the following as useful reference books for recommended nomenclature.

IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry; Rigaudy, J.; Klesney, S. P., Eds; Pergamon: Oxford, 1979.
Enzyme Nomenclature; Webb, E. C., Ed.; Academic Press; Orlando, 1992.
Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents; The Biochemistry Society; London, 1978.
The ACS Style Guide; Dodd, J. S., Ed.; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1997.

X-ray crystallographic data

Prior to submission of the manuscript, the author should deposit crystallographic data for organic and metalorganic structures with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre. The data, without structure factors, should be sent by e-mail to, as an ASCII file, preferably in CIF format. Hard copy data should be sent to CCDC, 12 Union Road, Cambridge CB2 1EZ. A checklist of data items for deposition can be obtained from the CCDC Home Page on the World Wide Web ( or by e-mail to:, with the one-line message, send me checklist. The data will be acknowledged, within three working days, with one CCDC deposition number per structure deposited. These numbers should be included with the following standard text in the manuscript: Crystallographic data (excluding structure factors) for the structures in this paper have been deposited with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre as supplementary publication nos. CCDC. Copies of the data can be obtained, free of charge, on application to CCDC, 12 Union Road, Cambridge CB2 1EZ, UK, (fax: +44-(0)1223-336033 or e-mail: Deposited data may be accessed by the journal and checked as part of the refereeing process. If data are revised prior to publication, a replacement file should be sent to CCDC.

Characterization of new compounds
All new compounds should be fully characterized with relevant spectroscopic data. Microanalyses should be included whenever possible. Under appropriate circumstances, high-resolution mass spectra may serve in lieu of microanalysis, if accompanied by suitable NMR criteria for sample homogeneity.

DNA sequences and GenBank Accession numbers

Many Elsevier journals cite ''gene accession numbers'' in their running text and footnotes. Gene accession numbers refer to genes or DNA sequences about which further information can be found in the databases at the National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine. Elsevier authors wishing to enable other scientists to use the accession numbers cited in their papers via links to these sources, should type this information in the following manner:
For each and every accession number cited in an article, authors should type the accession number in bold, underlined text. Letters in the accession number should always be capitalised. (See Example below). This combination of letters and format will enable Elsevier's typesetters to recognise the relevant texts as accession numbers and add the required link to GenBank's sequences.

Example: ''(GenBank accession nos. AI631510, AI631511, AI632198, and BF223228), a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117)''. Authors are encouraged to check accession numbers used very carefully. An error in a letter or number can result in a dead link. In the final version of the printed article, the accession number text will not appear bold or underlined. In the final version of the electronic copy, the accession number text will be linked to the appropriate source in the NCBI databases enabling readers to go directly to that source from the article.


Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the appropriate page and be indicated by the following symbols: asterisk, dagger, double dagger, section sign, paragraph, parallels.

Figures, schemes, and equations must be cited in the text and numbered in order of appearance with Arabic numerals. Other graphics, such as structures, do not need to be numbered, but please indicate in the text where these are to appear. All graphics (including chemical structures) must be provided at the actual size that they are to appear (single-column width is 8.4 cm, double-column width is 17.7 cm). Please arrange schematics so that they fill the column space (either single or double), so as not to leave a lot of unused white space. Please ensure that all illustrations within a paper are consistent in type, quality, and size. Legends should not be included as part of the graphic; instead all legends should be supplied at the end of the text.
To help authors provide actual size graphics, it is suggested that the following settings be used with CSC ChemDraw and ISIS Draw: font 10 pt Helvetica, chain angle 120°, bond spacing 18% of length, fixed length 10.08 pt (0.354 cm), bold width 1.4 pt (0.049 cm), line width 0.42 pt (0.015 cm), margin width 1.12 pt (0.040 cm), and hash spacing 1.75 pt (0.062 cm). Compound numbers should be in boldface. In order to accurately design schematics to print out at the proper width, the original drawing cannot exceed a column width of 8.4 cm (for single column) and 17.7 cm (for double column). Layout design is facilitated if authors submit their original artwork in the actual size to be published. Please save graphics as an Encapsulated PostScript file (EPS) or a Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), as well as the program the graphic was originally drawn in. For more details on the preparation and submission of artwork, please visit

Colour figures should be supplied in electronic format as JPEG files (minimum 300 dots per inch).

- In print: Colour figures may be printed in the journal at no charge to the author, provided that the editor considers the colour necessary to convey scientific information.
- On the Web: Any figure can appear free of charge in colour in the Web version of your article (e.g., on ScienceDirect), regardless of whether or not this is reproduced in colour in the printed version. Please note that if you do not opt for colour in print, you should submit relevant figures in both colour (for the Web) and black and white (for print).

Legends for figures and schemes should be grouped together separately.


All tables should be cited in the text, and numbered in order of appearance with Arabic numerals. All table columns should have a brief explanatory heading and, where appropriate, units of measurement. Vertical lines should not be used. Footnotes to tables should be typed below the table and should be referred to by superscript letters. Each table should have a descriptive heading, which, together with the individual column headings, should make the table, as nearly as possible, self-explanatory. In setting up tabulations, authors are requested to keep in mind the column widths (8.4 cm and 17.7 cm), and to make the table conform to the limitations of these dimensions.

References and notes

In the text, references should be indicated by superscript Arabic numerals which run consecutively through the paper and appear after any punctuation. Please ensure that all references are cited in the text and vice versa. The reference list should preferably contain only literature references, although other information (e.g., experimental details) can be placed in this section. Preferably, each reference should contain only one literature citation. Authors are expected to check the original source reference for accuracy. Journal titles should be abbreviated according to American Chemical Society guidelines (The ACS Style Guide; Dodd, J. S., Ed.; American Chemical Society: Washington DC, 1997). A list of currently accepted journal abbreviations may be found the journal home page at Formatting for common references are shown below.

Scientific articles:
1. Barton, D. H. R.; Yadav-Bhatnagar, N.; Finet, J.-P.; Khamsi, J. Tetrahedron Lett. 1987, 28, 3111.

2. Doe, J. S.; Smith, J. In Medicinal Chemistry; Roe, P., Ed.; Pergamon: Oxford, 1990; Vol. 1, pp 301 383.

Patent/Chem. abstract:
3. Lyle, F. R. U.S. Patent 6,973,257, 1995; Chem. Abstr. 1995, 123, 2870.

Meeting abstract:
4. Prasad, A.; Jackson, P. Abstracts of Papers, Part 2, 212th National Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Orlando, FL, Aug 25-29, 1996; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1996; PMSE 189.

Citing and listing of Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given. Any further information, if known (author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit


Standard ACS abbreviations should be used throughout the manuscript and are employed without periods. The preferred forms for some of the more commonly used abbreviations are mp, bp, °C, K, min, h, mL, &mgr;L, g, mg, &mgr;g, cm, mm, nm, mol, mmol, &mgr;mol, M, mM, &mgr;M, ppm, HPLC, TLC, GC, 1H NMR, GC-MS, HRMS, FABHRMS, UV, IR, EPR, ESR, DNase, ED50, ID50, IC50, LD50, im, ip, iv, mRNA, RNase, rRNA, tRNA, cpm, Ci, dpm, Vmax, Km, k, t1/2. All non-standard abbreviations should be defined following the first use of the abbreviation. For a detailed listing of standard abbreviations, see The ACS Style Guide; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1997.


The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.


Software used as part of computer-aided drug/agent design (e.g., molecular modelling, QSAR, conformational analysis, molecular dynamics) should be readily available from accepted sources and the authors may specify where the software can be obtained. Assurance of the quality of the parameters employed for the relevant potential functions should be detailed in the manuscript.

Preparation of supplementary data
Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, movies, animation sequences, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips, and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier web products, including ScienceDirect:
To ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide data in one of our recommended file formats. Supplementary data must be saved in files separate from those for the manuscript and figures, and all file names must be supplied. Supplementary files should either be referred to from within the text of your manuscript in the same way as for figures or tables, or their presence be indicated by adding a paragraph entitled "Supplementary data" at the end of the manuscript, detailing which data are supplied. In addition, authors should also provide a concise and descriptive caption for each file.
When supplying supplementary data, authors must state whether the data files are either (i) for online publication or (ii) to be used as an aid for the refereeing of the paper only. All supplementary data will be subject to peer review. For more detailed instructions, please visit Elsevier's Author Gateway at, and click on "Artwork instructions", then "Multimedia files".

Mol files

Mol files (optional): Elsevier would like to enrich your online article by visualizing and providing details of chemical structures you define as the main chemical compounds described. For this purpose, corresponding mol files can be uploaded via the online submission system. Each compound needs to be submitted as a separate mol file. Please use your preferred drawing tool to export chemical structures as mol files and ensure that they are unique, complete and do not contain any R-groups or other variables so that a correct InChI key can be generated. For more information see

Interactive plots

This journal enables you to show an Interactive Plot with your article by simply submitting a data file. For instructions please go to

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


Proofs will be despatched via e-mail and should be returned with corrections as quickly as possible, normally within 48 hours of receipt. Elsevier now sends PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 available free from Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs. The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received. Any amendments will be incorporated and the final article will then be published online as an Article in Press on ScienceDirect (
Articles in Press take full advantage of the enhanced Science-Direct functionality, including the ability to be cited. This is possible due to the innovative use of the DOI article identifier, which enables the citation of a paper before volume, issue and page numbers are allocated. The Article in Press will be removed once the paper has been assigned to an issue and the issue has been compiled.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (

NIH voluntary posting policy

Special Subject Repositories
Certain repositories such as PubMed Central ("PMC") are authorized under special arrangement with Elsevier to process and post certain articles such as those funded by the National Institutes of Health under its Public Access policy (see for more detail on our policy). Articles accepted for publication in an Elsevier journal from authors who have indicated that the underlying research reported in their articles was supported by an NIH grant will be sent by Elsevier to PMC for public access posting 12 months after final publication. The version of the article provided by Elsevier will include peer-review comments incorporated by the author into the article. Because the NIH "Public Access" policy is voluntary, authors may elect not to deposit such articles in PMC. If you wish to "opt out" and not deposit to PMC, you may indicate this by sending an e-mail to

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via