Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    INTRODUCTION
    • Types of Paper
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Changes to authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Submit your article
    • Referees
    • Taxonomic treatment
    PREPARATION
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Highlights
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Data at PANGAEA
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES



    Official Journal of the South African Association of Botanists (http://www.sabotany.com)

    The South African Journal of Botany publishes original papers that deal with the classification, biodiversity, morphology, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, biotechnology, ethnobotany and other botanically related aspects of plants

    Types of Paper

    Reviews, Mini-reviews, Research papers, Short Communications and Research Notes will be considered.

    Reviews: Review articles will be by Editor-in-Chief invitation only, but suggestions for Review topics may be forwarded to the Editor-in-Chief for consideration.

    Mini-Reviews: are short reviews updating the scientific community on important advances in the plant sciences. They are not longer than 6 printed pages with no more than 40 references.

    Original Research Papers: should report the results of original research. The material should not have been previously published elsewhere, except in a preliminary form.

    Short Communications: similar to original papers but with limited data. See also, under the heading "Additional information for "New species descriptions"

    Research Notes: these will not exceed two printed pages and include only one table or one figure.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The publication fee for this journal is $2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Submit your article

    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/sajb/

    Referees

    A highly qualified Editorial Board, in collaboration with dedicated referees, ensures peer-reviewing of all manuscripts and the maintenance of international scientific standards. All submitted papers are refereed by a member of the Editorial Board and at least two independent referees. The Editor-in-Chief may, however, decide not to submit a manuscript for review if it is judged to be of poor quality, failing to meet the standards of SAJB with respect to science, language expression, presentation and/or required style

    Taxonomic treatment

    Descriptions of new species should form part of a revision of a genus or infrageneric taxon. If the author(s) can give a reasonable motivation why this is not possible, then new species descriptions will be considered for publication only as Short Communications, with a maximum of one title page and two additional pages per species (including illustrations and maps, both of which should preferably be designed for printing in single column width). The author(s) are encouraged to submit multiple new species from the same genus in one article. Only new species from the Flora of southern Africa region will be considered for publication.

    Authors of botanical names are abbreviated according to Authors of Plant Names (Brummitt and Powell 1992, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew). Authors should be given the first time a name is mentioned, or alternately in a table where all relevant names are listed (e.g., table of voucher specimens).

    References cited in the protologue are abbreviated according to TL-2 and are not included in the literature cited.

    The basionym and other homotypic combinations are arranged chronologically in the same paragraph. Heterotypic names are in separate paragraphs.

    Herbarium acronyms follow Index Herbariorum.

    Original type locality information in a foreign language or using archaic/outdated place names should be indicated using inverted comas, with any relevant corrections for modern usage, including conversions to metric units, added in square brackets.

    When the collection date is known this data should be included in the type citation and preferably in the additional specimens examined. Months of the year are to be given as: Jan, Feb, Mar, Apr, May, Jun, Jul, Aug, Sep, Oct, Nov, Dec.

    GPS co-ordinates are to be excluded from all specimens cited.

    Examples: Type: South Africa. Western Cape, Beaufort West (3222): 'Renosterkopf' [Renosterkop] (-BB), 1850, Zeyher 854 (TCD, lecto.- image!, here designated; SAM!, P - image! [2 sheets], isolecto.).

    Type: South Africa. Western Cape, Caledon (3419): Ratelrivier flats (-DC), 12 Feb 1958, Willems 19 (NBG, holo.!; NBG!, K!, iso.).

    Type: South Africa. Precise locality unknown: 'Cap. Bonae Spae' [Cape of Good Hope], Thunberg s.n.THUNB-UPS 20137 (UPS, holo. - microfiche!).

    Type: South Africa. KwaZulu Natal, Stanger (2931): Natal, near 'Port Natal' [Durban] (-CC), Krauss 418 (MO, sheet with collection label in bottom left corner, lecto.!, here designated; BM!, K! [2 sheets], MO!, NBG!, S!, isolecto.).

    Specimens examined are cited under each species treatment and arranged into paragraphs by country and within these paragraphs by Province. Within each Province the specimens are ordered according to the quarter-degree grid regerence system (Leistner and Morris 1976) [see paragraph below]
    The following order of countries in the southern African region should be used: Namibia, Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Lesotho. Any other countries are to be listed at the end of this sequence.
    Within South Africa the provinces are arranged as follows: Limpopo, North-West, Gauteng, Mpumalanga, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Northern Cape, Western Cape and Eastern Cape.

    Distributional data for each of the species should be recorded using Quarter Degree Grid Cells (outlined in Leistner and Morris 1976). In this system, the basic unit is the one-degree square of latitude and longitude, which is designated by a degree reference number (viz., degrees of latitude and longitude of the north-west corner) and the district name of that square.

    EXAMPLES:

    Additional specimens examined.

    Botswana. 2615 (Luderitz): Diamond Area No. 1, Sperrgebiet, south of Rotkuppe gate (-CD), 2 Aug 2001, Mannheimer 1391 (WIND); Road to Grillental from Kaukausib, Blue ridge (-DC), 5 Sep 2002, Mannheimer 2200 (WIND). 2715 (Bogenfels): Diamond Area No. 1, en route from Tsabiams to Grillenthal (-BA), 5 Sep 2002, Bartsch, Loots and Mannheimer 1028 (WIND); Approach to Kaukausib Plain to south (-BA), 5 Sep 2002, Mannheimer 2195 (WIND); Sandy-gravel plain east of Kaukausib Fountain (-BA), 12 Sep 2005, Mannheimer 2769(WIND, JRAU); Karas district, Sperrgebiet, Kaukausib Drainage (-BA), 3 Mar 2007, Burke 7001 (PRE).

    South Africa. WESTERN CAPE: 3218 (Clanwilliam): Near Eendekuil, western foot of Piekenierskloof Pass (-DB), 28 Aug 2009, Magee, Boatwright, Manning and Goldblatt 161 (NBG, PRE, K, BOL). 3319 (Worcester): Tulbagh (-AC), Sep 1919, Bolus 16734 (BOL); roadside near Gouda (-AC), 9 Sep 1951, Esterhuysen 18840 (BOL [3 sheets], K, PRE).

    2) Biodiversity issues - Each country has its own rights on its biodiversity. Consequently for studying plants one needs to follow the international, national and institutional rules concerning the biodiversity rights.
    All Editors and Authors are requested to ensure that suitable taxonomic works are cited in support of the identification of ANY organism named in their publications.

    Biodiversity issues
    Each country has its own rights on its biodiversity. Consequently for studying plants one needs to follow the international, national and institutional rules concerning the biodiversity rights.
    All Editors and Authors are requested to ensure that suitable taxonomic works are cited in support of the identification of ANY organism named in their publications.

    New species descriptions - Descriptions of new species should form part of a revision of a genus or infrageneric taxon. If the author(s) can give a reasonable motivation why this is not possible, then new species descriptions will be considered for publication only as Short Communications, with a maximum of one title page and two additional pages per species (including illustrations and maps, both of which should preferably be designed for printing in single column width). The author(s) are encouraged to submit multiple new species from the same genus in one article. Only new species from the Flora of southern Africa region will be considered for publication.

    Animal and clinical studies - Investigations using experimental animals or products derived from animals must state in the Methods section that the research was conducted in accordance with the internationally accepted principles for laboratory animal use and care as found in for example the European Community guidelines (EEC Directive of 1986; 86/609/EEC) or the US guidelines (NIH publication #85-23, revised in 1985). Investigations with human subjects will not be published by the South African Journal of Botany. The Editors will reject papers if there is any doubt about the suitability of the animal procedures used.

    Use of wordprocessing software
    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. The text should be in single-column format, double line spacing, 12 pitch font size and contain page and line numbering. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the wordprocessor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your wordprocessor.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - numbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Material and methods
    Any species or infraspecific taxon studied is to be referenced against appropriate literature used to identify the material concerned. Give full scientific name(s) of plant(s) used, as well as cultivar (cv.) or variety (var.) where applicable. All growth conditions should be properly described. Sufficient detail of the techniques used should be provided to allow easy repetition.

    Results
    Results should be clear and concise. Do not include material appropriate to the Discussion.

    Discussion
    This should highlight the significance of the results and place them in the context of other work. Do not be over-speculative or reiterate the results. If desired the Results and Discussion sections may be amalgamated.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. It must not exceed 5% of the manuscript.

    Highlights

    Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference style
    Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
    1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
    2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
    3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by "et al." and the year of publication.
    Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
    Examples: "as demonstrated (Allan, 1996a, 1996b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1995). Kramer et al. (2000) have recently shown ...."
    List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.
    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication (journal names in full, not abbreviated):
    Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2000. The art of writing a scientific article. Journal of Science Communication 163, 51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, third ed. Macmillan, New York.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 1999. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Data at PANGAEA

    Electronic archiving of supplementary data enables readers to replicate, verify and build upon the conclusions published in your paper. We recommend that data should be deposited in the data library PANGAEA (http://www.pangaea.de). Data are quality controlled and archived by an editor in standard machine-readable formats and are available via Open Access. After processing, the author receives an identifier (DOI) linking to the supplements for checking. As your data sets will be citable you might want to refer to them in your article. In any case, data supplements and the article will be automatically linked as in the following example: doi:10.1016/0016-7037(95)00105-9. Please use PANGAEA's web interface to submit your data (http://www.pangaea.de/submit/).

    Submission checklist
    It is hoped that this list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal's Editor for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One Author designated as corresponding Author:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone and fax numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been "spellchecked" and "grammar-checked"
    • Manuscript should have numbered pages, and line numbering throughout the text and preferably continuous not starting at 1 on each page.
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
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    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

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    Offprints

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