Guide for Authors

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    INTRODUCTION
    • Aims and scope
    • Types of paper
    • Contact details for submission
    • Page charges
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Human and animal rights
    • Clinical trials
    • Retrospective clinical study
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Authorship
    • Changes to authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Informed consent and patient details
    • Submission
    • Referees
    PREPARATION
    • Use of word processing software
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Nomenclature and units
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission checklist
    • Revision of manuscript
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Proofs
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    Aims and scope

    Respiratory Investigation is the official journal in English of the Japanese Respiratory Society. It reports significant original manuscripts on clinical investigations of respiratory diseases and medicines, along with articles concerning basic lung cellular and molecular biology and respiratory mechanics. The journal presents current accomplishments of the East Asian region's many talented professionals in this field as Original articles, Case reports, Reviews and Guidelines, Editorials, and Letters to the Editor. Contributions from nonmembers of the Society are always welcome. Please prepare manuscripts in conformance with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (http://www.icmje.org/urm_main.html.)

    Types of paper

    The Journal publishes Reviews, Original articles, Case reports, Guidelines and Statements, Letters, and Short Communications.

    Review
    The length is less than 6,000 words including tables and figures. Abstract should be less than 250 words.

    Original article
    The length of the text is less than 3,000 words excluding tables and figures; tables and figures are within 8 combined; references are within 50. The manuscript should be structured into sections as shown in "Article structure" below. Abstract should be less than 250 words.

    Case report
    Case reports will be welcome; however, a report with not a single but several cases will be recommended. Case reports should describe new observations of diseases, clinical findings or novel/unique treatment outcomes relevant to practicing respiratory diseases, should be presented by up to ten authors, and should not exceed 1500 words including tables and figures; tables and figures are within 3 combined; references are within 20. Abstract should be less than 100 words.

    Guideline and Statement
    The maximum length of a Guideline is 20 pages. In addition, supplement materials can be published online. Guidelines and Statements are peer-reviewed in the same way as other types of paper and examined by the Board of Directors of the Japanese Respiratory Society.

    Letter
    The length is less than 600 words including tables and figures. Comments to recently published articles in the Journal or author's response to such comment. Abstract nor keywowrds are not required.

    Short communication
    The length is less than 1,200 words, including tables and figures; references total not more than 10; and neither an abstract nor keywords are required. Novel findings of particular importance and/or current interest will be accepted if they are considered worth publishing.

    Contact details for submission

    Send inquiries on submission to:
    Respiratory Investigation Editorial Office
    E-mail: jp.resinv@elsevier.com
    Tel: +81-3-3589-5037
    Fax: +81-3-3589-6364

    Page charges

    This journal has no page charges.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Human and animal rights

    If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

    Clinical trials

    Respiratory Investigation requires that each clinical trial submitted for its consideration be registered in a publicly accessible database, such as UMIN-CTR for trials in Japan. An author should include a name of the trial registry and the clinical trial registration number at the end of the abstract. If it is an unregistered trial, please explain briefly why the trial has not been registered.

    Retrospective clinical study

    Respiratory Investigation requires that each clinical study submitted for its consideration should be approved by the Institutional Review Board.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are required to disclose any financial relationship (within 2 calendar years preceding the current year) with any biotechnology manufacturer, pharmaceutical company, or other commercial entity that has an interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript. The matters requiring disclosure are outlined in the JRS Bylaws Concerning Conflict of Interest Policy in Clinical Research. A manuscript must be accompanied by a form of "Conflict of interest statement" for authors. The form can be obtained from http://www.elsevier.com/inca/publications/misc/RESINV_Form_of_COI.doc. Upon a manuscript is submitted, the form needs to be uploaded online by the corresponding author. The disclosures will be held in confidence while the manuscript is under review, and will not influence the editorial decision. Once a manuscript is accepted for publication, all of the disclosures will appear in the article as a "Conflict of interest" as follows:

    A (author name) serves as a consultant to Z (entity name); B's spouse is chairman of Y; C received a research grant from X; D received lecture fees from V; E holds a patent on U; F has been reimbursed by T for attending several conferences; G received honoraria for writing promotional material for S; H has no conflict of interest.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Authorship

    All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

    After submission of your manuscript, the Editorial Office will send e-mails to all coauthors to confirm authorship. The manuscript proceeds to the next step only after all authors have provided this confirmation by return e-mail. Please provide the e-mail address of every author on the title page. Once your manuscript has been accepted, an author's statement form will be sent to the corresponding author. It must be signed by all authors and returned to the Editorial Office by e-mail or fax.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). Acceptance of the agreement will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights; for details you are referred to: http://www.elsevier.com/authorsrights.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Informed consent and patient details

    Studies on patients or volunteers require ethics committee approval and informed consent, which should be documented in the paper. Appropriate consents, permissions and releases must be obtained where an author wishes to include case details or other personal information or images of patients and any other individuals in an Elsevier publication. Written consents must be retained by the author and copies of the consents or evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Elsevier on request. For more information, please review the Elsevier Policy on the Use of Images or Personal Information of Patients or other Individuals, http://www.elsevier.com/patient-consent-policy. Unless you have written permission from the patient (or, where applicable, the next of kin), the personal details of any patient included in any part of the article and in any supplementary materials (including all illustrations and videos) must be removed before submission.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/resinv/.

    Referees

    Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - numbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Materials and methods or Patients and methods
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    An article reporting animal experiments should include a statement in this section indicating that approval was obtained from the proper authorities and that animal care complied with all necessary guidelines.

    Results
    Results should be clear and concise.

    Discussion
    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

    Conclusions
    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Word count. Please state word count of the manuscript.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the methods, the principal results and major conclusions. A structured abstract is required for Original article and the format should consist of four sections, labeled "Background", "Methods", "Results" and "Conclusions". An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. The length should be less than 250 words for Review and Original article, less than 100 words for Case report. Abstract is not required for Letter.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 5, but at least 4, keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, "and", "of"). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Nomenclature and units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUB: Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents: http://www.chem.qmw.ac.uk/iubmb/ for further information.

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork

    General points

    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
    • Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times, Symbol.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.
    • Submit each figure as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website: http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

    Formats
    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):

    EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
    TIFF: Color or grayscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".

    Please do not:

    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications that can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication and a copy of the title page of the relevant article must be submitted.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Reference style
    Text: Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.
    List: Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to Journals Database in PubMed: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?db=journals;

    List of serial title word abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php;

    CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service): http://www.cas.org/sent.html.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.

    Ensure that the following items are present:


    One Author designated as corresponding Author:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone and fax numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been "spellchecked" and "grammar-checked"
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black and white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes

    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Revision of manuscript

    Revisions must be submitted electronically through EES within one month in case of minor revision and six months in case of major revision. (If a revision is not submitted within these time frames, the manuscript should be submitted as a new submission.) A revision must include the following:
    • A response to the comments document:
    The document requires point-by-point responses to comments made by reviewers and the editor. Each comment must be reproduced verbatim and in its entirety, followed by the detailed response, and be preceded by the word " COMMENT" in boldface type. Each response should be preceded by the word "RESPONSE" in non-boldface type. Indicate in each response where relevant changes were made in the manuscript, or explain why no changes would be appropriate. An example of this document may be found on this web site:
    http://www.elsevier.com/framework_products/promis_misc/Example_Response_to_the_review_comments.pdf
    • A marked revised manuscript:
    A complete version of a revised manuscript in which all corrections and changes that differ from the original manuscript are indicated, must be included for the sake of reviewers and editors. The preferred method of indicating changes is the Microsoft Word Track Changes tool. If this tool is unavailable, an alternate method would be that all text added to the original should be underlined, and all text removed from the original should be indicated by strikeover deletions.
    • Tables and Figures:
    Any table or figure that was part of the original submission but that has been changed and marked should be provided as an individual file separate from other tables and files (for example, Table 2 – Marked / Figure 1 – Marked). Any changes made to any of the originals should be indicated in a response to the comments document, described above.
    • An Unmarked Revised Manuscript:
    The document intended for publication, once accepted, should be the unmarked revised manuscript just as the author intends it for publication. All unmarked tables and figures intended as part of the revised manuscript should be provided as separate unmarked files (for example, Table 2 – Unmarked / Figure 1 – Unmarked).

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Proofs

    One set of page proofs (as PDF files) will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author (if we do not have an e-mail address then paper proofs will be sent by post) or, a link will be provided in the e-mail so that authors can download the files themselves. Elsevier now provides authors with PDF proofs which can be annotated; for this you will need to download Adobe Reader version 7 (or higher) available free from http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html. Instructions on how to annotate PDF files will accompany the proofs (also given online). The exact system requirements are given at the Adobe site: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/systemreqs.

    If you do not wish to use the PDF annotations function, you may list the corrections (including replies to the Query Form) and return them to Elsevier in an e-mail. Please list your corrections quoting line number. If, for any reason, this is not possible, then mark the corrections and any other comments (including replies to the Query Form) on a printout of your proof and return by fax, or scan the pages and e-mail, or by post. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Therefore, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication: please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a PDF file of the article via e-mail or, alternatively, 25 free paper offprints. If the corresponding author opts for paper offprints, this preference must be indicated via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Additional paper offprints can also be ordered via this form for an extra charge. The PDF file is a watermarked version of the published article and includes a cover sheet with the journal cover image and a disclaimer outlining the terms and conditions of use.



    For inquiries relating to the submission of articles (including electronic submission where available) please visit this journal's homepage. You can track accepted articles at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle and set up e-mail alerts to inform you of when an article's status has changed. Also accessible from here is information on copyright, frequently asked questions and more. Contact details for questions arising after acceptance of an article, especially those relating to proofs, will be provided by the publisher.

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