Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    INTRODUCTION
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Changes to authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    PREPARATION
    • Use of word processing software
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Graphical abstract
    • Highlights
    • Keywords
    • Acknowledgements
    • Math formulae
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES



    Authors thinking of submitting an article or a research note to Research Policy should first consider carefully whether the paper falls within the 'Aims and Scope' of RP as described on the journal homepage http://www.elsevier.com/locate/respol, i.e. that it falls broadly within the field of innovation studies or science policy. In particular, the paper should focus on innovation (in its various forms), technology, research and development (R&D) or science (see 'Editorial Strategy' below). The RP homepage also includes a list of 'Main subjects covered' which may provide further guidance as to whether the paper is likely to be of interest to RP.

    In addition, authors need to bear in mind that RP readers include not only academics but also a range of consultants, industrialists, government officials, scientific administrators and others interested in these issues. Moreover, its academic readers come not only from the field of innovation studies, but also from a number of neighbouring disciplines. Therefore, authors need to approach the topic in a manner that is likely to be of interest to a large proportion of RP readers (i.e. the paper should be neither too narrow nor too technical). Amongst other things, this includes engaging substantially with the body of literature familiar to the journal's readership as well as focusing on research that yields potential policy or management implications (see 'Editorial Strategy' below).

    First-time authors and authors who are new to Elsevier may be interested in additional information about the process for submitting a manuscript or the process for publishing in scholarly journals, in general, please visit http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/authorsview.authors/authorpacks

    Editorial Strategy
    Research Policy (RP) publishes original research contributions in the field of 'innovation studies'. RP Editors look for papers that deal with core RP issues such as innovation, technological change, R&D, science, and the management of research and knowledge, issues that are likely to be of interest to the broad RP readership that includes 'practitioners' (e.g. managers, consultants, policy-makers) as well as academic scholars. (See the list of 'Main subjects covered' for a more comprehensive list of the main issues http://www.elsevier.com/locate/respol).

    Innovation studies spans a number of subfields including the economics of innovation (with particular attention to evolutionary and neo-Schumpeterian analysis); technology and innovation management; and innovation policy and science (or S&T) policy. In addition to innovation studies, RP also draws upon mainstream disciplines such as economics, management, organizational studies, sociology, economic geography, political science and certain specialized branches of history (history of technology, economic/business history) (see list of 'Main subjects covered'). The term 'innovation studies' has evolved from (and incorporates) the earlier fields of 'science policy,' 'research policy' (hence the name of the journal), 'science and technology (S&T) policy' and 'science, technology and innovation (STI) policy.'

    Authors considering whether to submit a paper to RP need to ensure not only that the main focus of the paper relates to one or more of the core subjects listed in 'Main subjects covered' but also that they approach the topic in a manner that is likely to be of interest to a large proportion of RP's wide-ranging readership (i.e. the paper should be neither too narrow nor too technical). Amongst other things, this includes engaging substantially with the body of literature familiar to the journal's readership as well as focusing on research with potentially significant policy or management implications.

    Submitted papers that have little direct relationship to the core RP issues, even if such papers are good, are likely to be rejected as 'out of scope'. In addition, some submitted papers, while they address an RP issue, may do so in a manner that is more appropriate to publication in a mainstream economics, management or other disciplinary journal, and they too are likely to be desk-rejected.

    Types of Paper
    RP publishes:
    • Research Articles - full-length papers of up to 8-10,000 words
    • Special Issues and Special Sections (see below)
    • Research Notes - typically of 3-5,000 words, this category is a vehicle for specific types of material that merit publication, but do not require all the 'normal' components of a full research article. This might cover, for example, specific aspects of methodology that have broad relevance for RP readers, or short reports about specific sets or types of data (and their access and use) that merit publication without the full set of requirements for a normal article. It might also be relevant, for example, for updating an earlier RP paper, where it is not necessary to repeat the literature review, methodology etc.
    • Discussion Papers - occasionally published on important topical issues where views differ; where such a paper has been accepted in principle, an RP Editor will commission perhaps two responses from those holding different views to appear alongside the discussion paper.
    • Book Reviews - commissioned by RP Book Review Editor. (However, RP does not attempt to cover all new books in the field, only a selected few that are felt likely to be of wide-ranging importance for the field of innovation studies.)

    Special Issues and Special Sections
    Approximately twice a year, RP may publish a Special Issue (or a somewhat shorter Special Section) on a particular theme, where an integrated collection of articles has been put together and edited by two or three Guest Editors. Special Issues/Sections can fulfil a number of important functions:

    • bringing together and integrating work on a specific theme (for instance, bringing together theoretical and empirical work, or work based on different methodological approaches);

    • opening up a previously under-researched area (or one that has perhaps struggled with a rather conservative peer review process in its efforts to achieve recognition);

    • constructing a bridge between formerly rather separate research communities, who have been focusing on similar or related topics.

    Those thinking of proposing a Special Issue/Section should first consult or download the 'Notes for Proposers and Guest Editors'which can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/inca/publications/misc/researchsi.pdf. These notes provide guidance on the nature and content of the 2-4 page proposal required. Proposals should be submitted to respol@sussex.ac.uk at or before the start of March or September each year. These proposals are then reviewed by the RP Editors on the basis of certain criteria that include: the novelty, importance and topicality of the theme; whether the papers will form an integrated whole; the standing of the authors; the experience of the Guest Editors in handling a task of this magnitude; and the overall 'added value' of a Special Issue or Section (as compared with publishing these papers separately in 'normal' issues). Those thinking of submitting a proposal, however, should bear in mind that, out of the half a dozen or so proposals considered every six months, only one on average will be allocated a Special Issue 'slot', so the competition is intense. A group of loosely connected papers from a conference on a fairly standard subject is unlikely to be accepted.

    Review Process
    All RP papers are reviewed using a 'double-blind' process in which reviewers are not informed who are the authors of the paper, as well as the authors not knowing who are the reviewers. To make this possible, authors need to submit two versions of their papers, a 'full' one which will be seen only by the handling Editor, and a 'blinded' version in which the names and addresses of authors have been removed and any identifying references have been suitably anonymised (the version sent to referees).

    Submitted papers are first considered by the RP Editor to whom they were submitted. Papers that do not fall within the scope of RP are 'desk-rejected'. (Those that are borderline may be sent to an RP Advisory Editor who is a specialist on that topic for advice.) Papers that, while they address an RP issue, do so in a manner that is more appropriate to publication in a mainstream economics, management or other disciplinary journal, may also be desk-rejected (again perhaps following specialist advice from an RP Advisory Editor). In addition, papers that fail to meet a minimum threshold for quality and originality will be rejected without being sent out to reviewers.

    Papers passing through this initial editorial scrutiny are then typically sent out to three referees. If one or more of these turns down the invitation to provide a review, other referees will subsequently be appointed. Normally, at least two authoritative reviews are needed before the handling Editor can make a decision as to whether to accept, reject, or ask for a 'revise and resubmit' of the submitted paper.

    Currently, approximately one third of the papers submitted to RP are desk-rejected, about one third are rejected after peer review, and one third are eventually accepted (most after being revised once if not twice).

    Contact details for submission
    Submission to Research Policy now proceeds totally online via the EES system http://ees.elsevier.com/respol/ (see below). EES provides detailed guidance to authors submitting papers as well as to referees invited to submit a review.
    Authors in need of assistance should contact: The Editorial Assistant, Research Policy Editorial Office at SPRU, SPRU-Science Policy Research Unit, Freeman Centre, School of Business, Management & Economics, Jubilee Building, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9SL. Tel: +44 (0) 1273 678173. E-mail: respol@sussex.ac.uk

    Ethics in Publishing
    Research Policy and Elsevier adhere to the highest standards with regard to research integrity and in particular the avoidance of plagiarism, including self-plagiarism. It is therefore essential that authors, before they submit a paper, carefully read the Ethics Ethical guidelines for journal publication - see http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/intro.cws_home/ethical_guidelines#Duties of Authors. Particular attention should be paid to the sections under 'Duties of Authors' on 'Originality and Plagiarism' and 'Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publication'.
    When submitting a paper on EES, authors will be prompted as to whether they have read and agree to these guidelines before proceeding further with their submission. They will be asked specifically for an assurance that the paper contains no element of data fabrication, data falsification or plagiarism (including unacknowledged self-plagiarism). Authors are reminded that, where they draw upon material from another source, they must EITHER put that material in the form of a quote, OR write it entirely in their own words (i.e. there is no 'middle way'). In both cases, they must explicitly cite the source, including the specific page number in the case of a quote or a particular point.

    Conflict of interest
    When submitting a paper to RP, authors need to select a specific Editor. They should choose the Editor who is best suited in the light of the content of the paper, please see list of relevant keywords for each editor here However, authors should not submit to an Editor working in same institution (or one who has worked in the same institution over the previous five years). Nor should they submit to an Editor with whom they have co-authored, collaborated or had some professional or personal relationship over the last five years. If in any doubt, authors should explicitly mention the nature of their relationship and any possible conflict of interest in a covering letter to the Editor when they submit the paper so that the Editor can take a view and, if necessary, allocate the paper to be handled by another RP Editor.

    Submission declaration
    Please also note that that the paper should not be submitted for publication elsewhere until a decision has been made by Research Policy.

    If in the slightest doubt, for example, about what constitutes 'previous publication' (e.g. an electronic working paper or a conference paper), authors should explicitly raise this with the RP Editor when submitting, so that he/she can make a ruling.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Please note that such information should appear in the 'Acknowledgements' section.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $1800, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Please note that Elsevier neither endorses nor takes responsibility for any products, goods or services offered by outside vendors through our services or in any advertising. For more information please refer to our Terms & Conditions: http://www.elsevier.com/termsandconditions.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    You will be asked to submit both a full version of your paper and also a 'blinded' version in which all the authors' names and affiliations have been removed and any identifying references have been suitably anonymised. You may also want to submit a covering letter to the Editor, bringing to his/her attention any pertinent facts with regard to the changes made in the 'blinded' version.

    The EES system automatically converts these source files to PDF files, which are then used in the peer-review and editing process. Please note that, even though manuscript source files are converted into PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail through the EES on-line system, removing the need for a separate paper trail. Authors are therefore requested to refrain from sending emails to the Editor outside the EES system unless this is absolutely essential.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    The Editors request that text should be left-aligned and double-spaced (or at least 1.5 spacing), with margins of 1 inch or 2.5 cm all round.

    In addition, make sure that you have first 'accepted' all changes previously listed in earlier versions under 'track changes', and that all embedded comments or highlighting of the text has likewise been removed.

    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the "spell-check" and "grammar-check" functions of your word-processor. Authors for whom English is not their first language should also seek help from colleagues or professional editors if this is necessary to bring the standard of the written English up to an acceptable standard.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - numbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Please note that the 'acknowledgements' section at the end should not be included in the section number either.

    A typical article might include the following main sections.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    The introduction should also justify why the topic of the paper is important and that the content is original . The summary of results should have been dealt with in the abstract.

    Literature review, conceptual framework, hypotheses etc.
    This section should extend (but not repeat) the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for the work being reported. It should identify the most relevant previous literature on the topic (but not in excessive detail) in order to position the paper and demonstrate how it will make a significant contribution. It (or a separate section) should set out (and justify) the theoretical or conceptual framework adopted in the paper. It may identify a number of hypotheses to be tested or research questions to be explored. In short, this section (or sections) should explain what is the motivation for the paper and why its contribution is original and significant.

    Material and methods
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    The reader needs to know that the empirical data and/or other material are relevant, reliable and capable of supporting robust conclusions, and that the methodology is appropriate, systematic and rigorous.

    Results
    Results should be clear and concise.

    Discussion
    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

    Conclusions
    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    This section should also may make clear what is the original contribution of the paper, discuss the policy or management implications of the findings, provide a critical assessment of the limitations of study, and outline possible fruitful lines for further research.

    Appendices
    If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

    Article length
    RP has a strong preference for articles to be no more than 8-10,000 words. In exceptional circumstances, however, the RP Editor handling the paper may be willing to agree some latitude here with the author.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Example title
    Often, it may be helpful to split this into a short main title, followed (after a colon or a 'dash') by a subtitle: for example, 'Profiting from technological innovation: Implications for integration, collaboration, licensing and public policy'.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    Graphical abstract

    A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
    Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

    Highlights

    Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    This section must identify the source(s) of funding for the research. It should acknowledge any research assistants or others who provided help during the research (e.g., carrying out the literature review; producing, computerizing and analyzing the data; or providing language help, writing assistance or proof-reading the article, etc.) but who are not included among the authors. It should state where and when any earlier versions of the paper were presented (e.g. at a seminar or conference). Lastly, it should acknowledge the help of all individuals who have made a significant contribution to improving the paper (e.g. by offering comments or suggestions).

    Math formulae

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Reference management software
    This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote (http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp) and Reference Manager (http://refman.com/support/rmstyles.asp). Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.

    Reference formatting
    There are no strict requirements on reference formatting at submission. References can be in any style or format as long as the style is consistent. Where applicable, author(s) name(s), journal title/book title, chapter title/article title, year of publication, volume number/book chapter and the pagination must be present. Use of DOI is highly encouraged. The reference style used by the journal will be applied to the accepted article by Elsevier at the proof stage. Note that missing data will be highlighted at proof stage for the author to correct. If you do wish to format the references yourself they should be arranged according to the following examples:

    Reference style
    RP now follows the Harvard referencing style (or a slight variation of it in which journal names are spelt out in full - see below). In this author/date referencing style, you should indicate a reference in the text by giving the author name (family name only, although include initials if the paper refers to work by two different authors with the same family name) followed by date of publication (in parentheses). If you cite two or more publications at the same time, separate these with a semicolon and list them alphabetically. If a publication has two authors, give both of these, but if the publication has three or more authors, give only the name of first author followed by "et al.". For quotations or where the reader needs to be guided to a specific point in the cited reference, always give the relevant page number.
    Example of referencing within text to illustrate the above rules:
    "... as argued by Nelson and Winter (1982, p.52). Other authors (e.g. Dosi et al., 1988; Freeman, 1987; Lundvall, 1992a & 1992b) have suggested ..."

    Reference examples
    In the reference list at the end of the article, the references should be listed in alphabetical order by author (and chronologically for works by the same author, with the letters "a", "b" etc. being used if that author has published more than one article in a given year).

    Reference to a journal article
    Pavitt, K., 1984. Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory. Research Policy 13, 343-73.
    (Note that RP uses a slightly stylized form of the Harvard system in which the names of journals are spelt out in full rather than being abbreviated. In addition, issue numbers only need to be given if each issue of that journal begins its numbering from page 1.)

    Reference to a book
    Nelson, R.R., Winter, S.G., 1982. An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
    Rogers, E.M., 2003. Diffusion of Innovations (5th ed.). Free Press, New York.
    Reference to an edited book
    Dosi, G., Freeman, C., Nelson, R., Silverberg, G., Soete, L. (Eds), 1988. Technical Change and Economic Theory. Pinter Publishers, London.

    Reference to a chapter in an edited book
    Kline, S.J., Rosenberg, N. (1986). Overview of innovation, in: Landau, R., Rosenberg, N. (Eds), The Positive Sum Strategy: Harnessing Technology for Economic Growth. National Academy Press, Washington D.C., pp. 275-305.

    Reference to a report
    Levin, R.C., Klevorick, A.K., Nelson, R.R., Winter, S.G., 1987. Appropriating the returns from industrial research and development. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Brookings Institution, Washington D.C.

    Reference to a working paper, report etc. available on the web
    Pachauri, R.K., Reisinger, A. (Eds), 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (downloaded on 12 November 2009 from http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm).

    Reference to a conference paper, lecture etc. that has not been published:
    Martin, B.R. 2010. Science Policy Research - Can Research Influence Policy? How? And Does It Make for Better Policy? Distinguished Lecture, Centre for Science and Policy, University of Cambridge, 3 March 2010.
    Reference to unpublished report, dissertation etc.:
    Sherwin, C.W., Isenson, R.S., 1966. First Interim Report on Project Hindsight (Summary). Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, Washington D.C

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Online proof correction

    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
    If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
    We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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