Guide for Authors
Research Articles. Research articles describe experimental or observational investigations that used formal methods fordata collection and reporting of results. There are no restrictions on manuscript length or number of citations forResearch Articles.
Research Briefs. Research articles that can provide their results in a shorter format: they have a maximum of 2,000 words, exclusive of abstract, acknowledgements, figures, tables, and references. The abstract should not exceed 200 words. Manuscripts are permitted to have a maximum of four figures and/or tables and 30 references.
Commentaries. Commentaries are editorials on philosophical issues, medication use policies, methodological arguments,or other pertinent subjects.
Proposed Models. Proposed models are comprehensive, well-executed papers that seek to propose and advance forscholarly discourse a model to guide future research or practice in pharmacy or medication use policy. There are norestrictions on manuscript length or number of citations for Proposed Models.Reviews. Reviews are comprehensive, well-referenced descriptive papers on research topics directly related to clinicalpractice and/or medication use policy, or other phenomena that have implications for patients' well-being. There are norestrictions on manuscript length or number of citations for Reviews; however, review papers in RSAP are expected to be systematic in nature and adhere as well as possible to guidelines for systematic reviews by PRISMAâs Transparent Reporting of Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses found at http://www.prisma-statement.org/.
Letters to the Editor. Letters to the Editor serve as a forum for the expression of ideas or for commenting on matters ofinterest. It is also an avenue for critiquing or expanding on the information presented in a previously publishedmanuscript. Authors are required to identify themselves. The Editor reserves the right to reject, shorten, excerpt, or editletters for publication.Book and Software Reviews. Book and Software Reviews are brief documents (700-1000 words) that provide a clear understanding of content in a book or software program, as well as the product structure, scope, and limitations. The reviewer should state the utility of the product for use by researchers or in the teaching pedagogy of research.
Stylistic ConsiderationsThe style specifications for RSAP must be followed. Below are general guidelines for manuscript format and style. If indoubt about style, authors should refer to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style, 9th ed, or consult arecent issue of RSAP.
Text. The text should be scholarly, readable, clear, and concise. Standard nomenclature should be used. RSAP prefers avoiding the use of first-person language to the extent possible, eg, "We studied...", "Our results showed that...", etc. Unfamiliar termsand acronyms should be defined at first mention. Manuscripts that were prepared for oral presentation must be rewrittenfor print. Authors of research papers are discouraged from writing excessively long introduction or discussion sections.Word style. Consult a current edition of Webster's dictionary for guidance on spelling, compounding, and word separation.Foreign words, not in general use, should be italicized. For proper use of chemical and biochemical terms, mathematicalequations, mathematical expressions, special symbols, subscripts, superscripts, or Greek letters, please refer to the AMAManual of Style.
Numbers. Numbers must be written as Arabic numerals unless they occur at the beginning of a sentence, in which case thenumber should be spelled out. The exception to this rule is when the number "one" is used in isolation within the text andsubstituting an Arabic number would seem awkward (eg, "there was only one logical solution to the problem"). Anumber containing a decimal must be styled as an Arabic number. All fractions must be written as decimal equivalents.Measurements. The metric system will be used for all measurements; however, conventional units should be used insteadof SI units. Do not use periods when abbreviating units of measure.
Reference numbers. These numbers should be superscript Arabic numerals placed at the end of the sentence, outside thefinal period or other punctuation. Subsequent citations to the same reference must be indicated by the same numberoriginally assigned to that reference. Do not place parentheses around the reference numbers.Personal Communications. If the source of material referred to in an article is from a personal communication, it shouldbe referenced as such in parentheses immediately following reference to the material, followed by the date (eg, writtencommunication, October 2, 2002).
Hypertext Links. Authors may identify uniform resource locators (URLs) for Internet web sites that provide the readerwith additional information on the topic addressed in the manuscript. Although URLs are an important feature ofelectronic publishing, authors are encouraged to be selective in their choice of sites to include. Do not include URLs forweb pages with newspaper or journal articles that will be removed or archived to another web page. Links topharmaceutical manufacturers or other sources of product information are acceptable; however, providing a URL to thereader should not be substituted for adequate discussion within the manuscript itself. Do not include links to sites that arenot accessible without a password.Manuscript Organization
Within the document, each page of the manuscript should be arranged and numbered consecutively in the followingorder: title page, abstract, footnotes, text, references, tables, figure legends, and illustrations. To assist our reviewers inmaking comments/suggestions, please line number your manuscript in MS Word (File/Page Setup/Layout tab/LineNumbering/Add line numbering/continuous).Title Page
The title page should have the following information: a concise title, name of each author, terminal degree, academic/professional title and affiliation, and city and state where located. If an author has relocated to another institution, pleaseinclude his/her affiliation during the time the author worked on the manuscript. At the lower left of the page, indicate thename of the corresponding author and provide his/her mailing address, telephone number, facsimile number, and e-mailaddress. At the bottom of the title page, indicate 3 to 5 keywords.Abstract
Research articles, Proposed Models, and Reviews must include an abstract of 200 to 300 words. The abstract shouldinclude a brief (1 to 3 sentences) statement for each of the following sections: Background, Objectives, Methods, Results,and Conclusions.Main Body of Text
The use of subheadings to divide the text is encouraged. Primary headings should be in bold capital letters and shouldcontain no more than 35 characters or spaces. Secondary headings should be in bold title case and appear above theparagraph. Tertiary headings should be in bold with only the initial letter capitalized. Tertiary headings should end with aperiod and should appear before the beginning of the first sentence in that section.Acknowledgments
Any special funding received for research that is the subject of the manuscript should be included under a section entitled"Acknowledgments" at the end of the text. If the authors wish to thank colleagues or others who provided assistancewith their research or manuscript preparation, those acknowledgments also should be included under this section. Anystatements concerning liability for the content of the manuscript may be included here as well (eg, "the ideas expressed inthis manuscript are those of the author and in no way are intended to represent the position of...").Reference Section
References to a published source should be provided for all information in the manuscript that contains dates, facts, oropinions other than those of the author. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of all citations.References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which the information contained in the referenced publicationappears or is referred to in the manuscript. Do not create a second abbreviated reference or use "ibid" to refer toinformation cited in a previous reference. Instead, if information from the same source is referred to a second time in themanuscript, cite the same reference number originally assigned to that source.Each journal citation must include the surnames and complete initials of all authors. For manuscripts with 7 or moreauthors, the first 3 authors should be listed, followed by "et al." The names of all periodicals cited must be abbreviatedin accordance with abbreviations adopted by the National Library of Medicine and used in Index Medicus. An exampleand special instructions for specific types of references are provided below. For additional guidance, please refer to theAmerican Medical Association Manual of Style, 9th ed, or to a recent issue of RSAP.
Journal articles. For references to journal articles, first list the names of the authors beginning with the last name of thefirst author, followed by his/her initials. The authors' names are followed by the title of the article. The first letter of thetitle is capitalized, but the remainder of the title should be in lower case letters, except for the first letter of proper names.A period should be placed after the title. Next, give the properly abbreviated title of the journal being referenced. The titleof the journal should be in italics followed by a period. One space should be left between the journal and the year ofpublication. A semicolon should be placed after the year of publication, followed by the volume number in which thearticle appeared. After the volume number, place a colon followed by the number of the first page of the article, then adash, then the number of the last page of the article, followed by a period. If the article does not appear on consecutivepages, use a semicolon between each segment of pages (eg, 172-175;179-183;199.)Example:
Gaither CA. Career commitment: mediator of the effects of job stress on pharmacists' work-related attitudes. J AmPharm Assoc. 1999;39:353-361.
Reference to a book. List the last name of the first author of the book, followed by the first and middle initial if given, just as in ajournal reference. The names of all authors of the book must be listed. Place a period after the last author's initials. Next, statethe title of the book using standard rules for capitalization within titles. A period should be placed at the end of the title. If more than one edition of the book has been published, then the edition number must be given. An ordinal number should be used toindicate the edition number (eg, 9th), followed by a space and "ed." Next, provide the city and state where the publisher islocated. Use the abbreviations for states provided in the AMA style manual rather than postal abbreviations. A colon shouldseparate the city and state from the name of the publisher. The full name of the publisher should be given, followed by asemicolon. Next, provide the year of publication, followed by a colon and the page or page numbers referenced.Example:
Dillman DA. Mail and telephone surveys: the total design method. John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, 1978:54.
Reference to a chapter in a book. To reference a single chapter in a book, first list the authors and state the title as you would ifciting a journal article. The chapter title should be followed by the word "In" followed by a colon. Next, list the name(s) andinitials of the editors of the book, followed by a comma and the abbreviation "ed" or "eds" if more than one editor, followedby a period. Next include the title of the book, location of the publisher, publisher's name, year of publication and pagenumbers in the same format as for a reference to an entire book (see previous example).Example:
Scott DM. Ambulatory care. In: McCarthy RL, Schafermeyer KW, eds. Introduction to Health Care Delivery: A Primerfor Pharmacists. Jones & Bartlett, Sudbury, MA: 257-287.
Thesis or Dissertation. For references to theses or dissertations, place the title of the thesis or dissertation in italics.Include the location of the institution, its name, and the year the thesis or dissertation was completed.Example:
Thorn MD. A Comparative Review of the Statistical and Research Quality of the Medical and Pharmacy Literature[masters thesis]. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1982.
Reference to a Web Site. For references to journals, e-magazines, or other publications on the Internet, state the names of theauthors, title of the article, publication title, and volume and publication date in the same format as you would for a journalreference. For references to other information, give the title of the webpage, followed by the name of the organization or websitethat published the information. For all references to online material, the author should include "Available at:" followed by theuniform resource locator (URL) for the page of the web site referenced (eg, www.hcfa.gov/stats.htm), followed by a period.Finally, write "Accessed" followed by the month, day, and year on which the information was obtained from the site, followedby a period.Example:
Healthy People 2010, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Available at: http://www.healthypeople.gov/. Accessed January 10, 2005.
Unpublished Works. References to unpublished material such as articles or abstracts presented at professional meetingsbut not published, provide the name of the meeting where the article was presented.Articles in Press. For references to information in books or articles that are currently in press, provide all of the availableinformation for the reference. In place of page numbers, designate that the publication is "in press."
Example:Tables and Figures
Adamcik B, Hurley S, Erramouspe J. Assessment of pharmacy students' critical thinking and problem-solving abilities.Am J Pharm Educ. 1996;60:in press.
Tables. Table should be created in Microsoft Word® table format. Data must be placed in separate cells of the table toprevent text and numbers from shifting when the table is converted for publication on the Internet. You can insert emptycells to create spacing. Footnotes should be placed at the bottom of the table inside a single row or cell and should beindented. Symbols for footnoting should use alphabetic symbols in proper order (e.g., "a", then "b", then "c", and so on).Tables should not duplicate information provided in the text. Instead, tables should be used to provide additionalinformation that illustrates or expands on a specific point the author wishes to make. Each table should be self-explanatoryand begin on a separate page in the document. Tables should be numbered using Arabic numbers according to the order inwhich they are referred to in the text. The table number and a concise title should be placed above the body of the table.
Figures. Figures should be numbered using Arabic numbers, based on the order in which they are presented in the text.Figure legends should be concise and self-explanatory. All illustrative materials for the figures should be submitted ashigh-resolution gif or jpg files. The key to any symbols in a graph or chart should be included as part of the illustrationitself, rather than in the legend. If figures contain illustrations that have been published elsewhere, a letter of permissionto reprint from the original publisher must accompany the manuscript.*If using EPS, save with "fonts included" and use TIFF preview.
Type of Figure Acceptable Quality Preferred Quality Color Mode File Formats Graph or diagram w/ text 300 dpi 1200 dpi or higher CMYK (color);Grayscale (halftonesand black and white) .bmp, .eps*, .jpg, or .tiff Photographs 300 dpi 1200 dpi or higher CMYK (color);Grayscale (halftones and black and white) .bmp, .eps, .jpg, .png, .tff, or .wmf Web Page (screen capture) 72 dpi 300 dpi or higher RGB .bmp, .gif, or .jpg
A graphic image embedded into a MS Word file has a resolution of only 72 dpi (computer screen resolution). As a result,when printed, the graphics will look fuzzy. If possible, send graphics with a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Preferably, save the original image at a high resolution (ie, 1200 dpi or higher) and with the image quality set at maximum. Each high-resolutiongraphic image should be saved and submitted in a separate file from the manuscript text.Original (first generation) graphics are the preferred files to work with because they have the highest resolution (ie, at thispoint the image has not been compressed to reduce its size). If necessary, high-resolution graphics can be reduced to alower resolution for use on the web and within the .pdf files. However, low-resolution graphics cannot be improved andmay result in poor online and printed images.Use a professional graphics program such as Adobe PhotoShop to edit and/or save photographs and graphics. Because ofdifficulties with exporting graphics from Microsoft PowerPoint, please send the original graphic (the one imported into PowerPoint), saved in an acceptable file format, such as jpg or eps (see chart for more options). However, if the graphicwas created in PowerPoint, send it as a PowerPoint file.
Manuscript SubmissionThe manuscript should be created and saved in Microsoft Word for Windows. If you use WordPerfect or another wordprocessing program, please use the "save as" option to save the file in Microsoft Word for Windows file format.
Copyright FormManuscript submitted to the Journal should be unpublished and not under consideration elsewhere. Under the terms ofthe Copyright Revision Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-533) it is necessary to have the rights of the authors transferred to thepublisher in order to provide for the widest possible dissemination of professional and scientific literature.
AssurancesFor all research manuscripts (including educational research), the author should indicate in the cover letter that theresearch has been reviewed and approved by the appropriate human research or ethics review committee, or that it hasbeen determined to be exempt from such review. For research that has undergone such review and approval, a statementto that effect should be included in the methods section.
Article SynopsisWith your article submission please include a brief synopsis of the article to appear in the print editionâs table of contents. The synopsis should be approximately 80-100 words in length, simply stating in summary the studyâs purpose and principal findings along with a very brief mention of the methods employed. The following are example synopses which may be modeled.
This article describes a qualitative research study using focus groups to explore consumer views of pharmacogenomics. A number of themes emerged from the focus groups, including incidence of medication side effects, privacy of genetic information, and costs of tests. Pharmacogenetic testing was seen as a potential positive contribution, but only if other factors were considered during the prescribing process. Since participants desired a high level of information from healthcare professionals, pharmacogenetic education of clinicians and pharmacists will be essential to satisfy patients' needs.Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing and solving prescription problems. In this study, pharmacists contacted prescribers for 1% of all new prescriptions for clarification, completion, or correction before dispensing. Errors that may compromise patient safety and medication outcome constituted almost 60% of the identified problems. There was an inverse correlation between intervention rates and the pharmacy's dispensing volume. Computerized physician order entry and electronically transmitted prescriptions may reduce the total rate of prescription problems but may also introduce new clinically important errors.
The theoretical framework of organizational flexibility was used to determine the needs of pharmacies when delivering services. A 25-item scale was developed to measure the level of importance and required improvement needed when implementing services in Australian community pharmacies. The analysis revealed gaps in the capacity of community pharmacy that could be addressed through management programs. To effectively implement services and sustain service delivery, more sophisticated planning and performance monitoring systems are required, supported by changes to infrastructure and staff mix.Submission of Manuscripts
All new manuscripts must be submitted through the RSAP online submission and review Web site (http://ees.elsevier.com/rsap/). Authors are requested to submit the text, tables, and artwork in electronic form to this address.Authors may suggest the names and contact information for reviewers; however, the selection of reviewers remains thepurview of the Editor.Submission items include a cover letter, key words, the manuscript (including title page, abstract, manuscript text, references,and table/figure legends), tables, and figures. When reporting the results of a study employing a survey questionnaire orinterview, a copy of the instrument should be provided as an appendix for the benefit of the reviewers. Papers accepted forpublication will have a table or appendix informing readers of the nature of the items comprising the survey instrument.Revised manuscripts should also be accompanied by a unique file (separate from the covering letter) with responses toreviewers' comments. The preferred order of files is as follows: cover letter, suggested reviewers (if applicable), response toreviews (revised manuscripts only), manuscript file(s), table(s), figure(s). Files should be labeled with appropriate anddescriptive file names (e.g., SmithText.doc, Fig1.eps, Table3.doc). Upload text, tables and graphics as separate files. Do notimport figures or tables into the text document. Complete instructions for electronic artwork submission can be found on theAuthor Gateway, accessible through the journal home page.
Authors who are unable to provide an electronic version or have other circumstances that prevent online submissionmust contact the Editor prior to submission to discuss alternate options. The Publisher and Editors regret that they arenot able to consider submissions that do not follow these procedures.Updated April 2012