Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • Preparation of manuscripts
    • Submission of manuscripts
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Human and animal rights
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration
    • Changes to authorship
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Referees
    PREPARATION
    • Use of word processing software
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Graphical abstract
    • Highlights
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Illustration services
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • 3D neuroimaging
    • Brain images and statistical images
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES


    The Neuroimaging section of Psychiatry Researchpublishes manuscripts on positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tumography, computerized electroencephalographic topography, regional cerebral blood flow, computed tomography, magnetoencephalography, autoradiography, post-mortem regional analyses, and other imaging techniques. Reports concerning results in psychiatric disorders, dementias and the effects of behavioral tasks and pharmacological treatments are featured. We also invite manuscripts on the methods of obtaining images and computer processing of the images themselves.

    Preparation of manuscripts

    Title page. The Title page should include the author byline, with names of authors on the same line(s). Superscript letters (a, b, c), not numerals, should be used to key institutional affiliation (if all authors are in the same department, the superscript letter should be omitted); an asterisk should be entered to designate the corresponding author. Underneath the byline, institutional affiliations should be listed (department, institution, city, state or province (if applicable) and country. Funding information should not be included on the title page but should instead be given following the Discussion section.In an asterisked Corresponding Author footnote at the bottom of the title page, telephone/fax numbers and e-mail address of the corresponding author should be provided; e-mail addresses, if desired, may also be provided for the co-authors (or co-corresponding author, if applicable).

    Abstract. The Abstract should be 150-200 words for full-length articles and 75 words for brief reports, summarizing the aims of the study, the methods used, the results and the major conclusions. Do not include a summary at the end of the article. Note that Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging does not use the structured abstract style; do not include bold-faced headings within the abstract. The Abstract should be a single paragraph. Do not include detailed statistics or p-values in the abstract; simply say “significant “or “non-significant.”The Abstract should be followed by up to seven Key Words, which accord with the indexing

    The abstract should be followed by up to seven key words should be listed which accord with the indexing conventions of Index Medicus. Note that the keywords should not duplicate words used in the title of the article, which will be automatically indexed.

    Text. Although exceptions will be considered, manuscripts should not exceed 5000 words, and shorter manuscripts (e.g., 3000 words) are preferred. Each article should contain the following major headings: Introduction (preceded by arabic number 1.), Methods (preceded by number 2.), Results (preceded by number 3.), Discussion (preceded by number 4.), Acknowledgment (optional section following the discussion, which should not be preceded by a numeral), and References (should not be preceded by a numeral).

    Subheadings should follow the numbering system used in the major heading; for example, the subheading "Subjects" within the Methods section should be flush left on a separate line and designated 2.1., the subheading "Procedures" should be designated 2.2., etc.

    Lower level headings, if required, should also be numbered (e.g., "2.1.1. Patients." as a lower order heading under "2.1. Subjects."). Only the first letter of the first word of each heading should be capitalized.

    The use of abbreviations within the text should be minimized, and each abbreviation, when introduced, must be defined and used onsistently thereafter. Systeme International measurements should be used. For products or instruments (do not abbreviate) used in the research reported, provide the name, city and country of the supplier in parentheses. All tables and figures must be referred to in the text.

    Manuscript categories

    Articles. Although exceptions will be considered, manuscripts should not exceed 5000 words, and shorter manuscripts (e.g., 3000 words) are preferred. Each article should contain the following major headings: Introduction (preceded by arabic number 1.), Methods (preceded by number 2.), Results (preceded by number 3.), Discussion (preceded by number 4.), Acknowledgment (optional section following the discussion, which should not be preceded by a numeral), and References (should not be preceded by a numeral). Subheadings should follow the numbering system used in the major heading; for example, the subheading "Subjects" within the Methods section should be flush left on a separate line and designated 2.1., the subheading "Procedures" should be designated 2.2., etc. Lower level headings, if required, should also be numbered (e.g., "2.1.1. Patients." as a lower order heading under "2.1.Subjects."). Only the first letter of the first word of each heading should be capitalized.

    Brief reports. Brief reports should not exceed 1500 words, including a 75-word abstract, 3 keywords, text, and references plus 1 table or 1 figure.

    Case reports. Case reports will only be considered as Letters to the Editor (see following instructions ).

    Letters to the Editor. Letters to the Editor should be 750-1000 words or less. The Letter should not include a title page, abstract or key words. Authors' names and affiliations should be listed at the end of the Letter, along with the corresponding author's email address. There should be no more than 5 references, and no tables or figures.

    Introduction. The introduction should be brief and explain the purpose of the study; an extensive review of the literature should be avoided, but directly relevant articles by other investigators, as well as by the authors themselves, must be cited. If the manuscript includes subjects who have been included in previous reports, references should be provided and the number of subjects whose data have been included elsewhere should be specified.

    Methods. The Methods should contain sufficient detail to enable others to repeat the procedures without studying the references directly.

    Results. The Results should summarize the most important data, and statistical correlations should be included. Tabular data should not be duplicated in the text; important points and trends should be pointed out. The final sentence should emphasize the importance attached to the observations.

    Discussion. The discussion should relate directly to the study being reported and give perspective to the adequacy of the materials and methods for the purpose of the study. Results should be interpreted to lend meaning to the observations. Any discrepancies with previously published results should be explained. The paper should conclude with a brief statement regarding the significance of the study.

    Acknowledgement. The Acknowledgement section is an optional section and should also be used for grant-support information.

    Contributors. The individual contributions of each author should be briefly summarized.

    Conflict of interest. All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three (3) years of beginning the work submitted that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest that should be disclosed include employment, consultancies, stock ownership (except for personal investment purposes equal to the lesser of one percent (1%) or USD 5000), honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications, registrations, and grants. If there are no conflicts of interest, authors should state that there are none.

    Abbreviations. Define abbreviations at their first occurrence in the article. Abbreviations should be defined when they first occur in the abstract, in the text, and also in tables and figure legends. Once an abbreviation has been introduced in the main body of the text, it should be used throughout.

    Statistical reporting. Statistical reporting should be complete, including at a minimum name of statistical test, test value, degrees of freedom where appropriate, and p-value. Italic font should be used for n (sample size) and statistical terms, e.g., t, r, F, U, p.

    Submission of manuscripts

    Once a manuscript has successfully been submitted via the online submission system, authors may track the status of their manuscript using the online submission system (details will be provided by e-mail). If your manuscript is accepted by the journal, subsequent tracking facilities are available on Elsevier's Author Gateway, using the unique reference number provided by Elsevier and corresponding author name (details will be provided by e-mail).

    Authors may send queries concerning the submission process or journal procedures to the Managing Editor (E-mail: sherry.buchsbaum@gmail.com).

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Human and animal rights

    If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans http://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/lab_animals/legislation_en.htm; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals http://www.icmje.org. Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors must disclose any financial and personal relationships with other people or organizations that could inappropriately influence (bias) their work. Examples of potential conflicts of interest include employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations, and grants or other funding. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    Elsevier has established agreements with funding bodies, http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies. This ensures authors can comply with funding body open access requirements, including specific user licenses, such as CC BY. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. If you need to comply with your funding body policy, you can apply for the CC BY license after your manuscript is accepted for publication.

    To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The publication fee for this journal is 3000, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/psyn.

    Referees

    Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

    Editorial Policy
    Submitted manuscripts will be reviewed anonymously by at least two referees. Should a revised manuscript be required by the editors, the authors are requested to resubmit their revised manuscript to the journal within 6 months time. Studies on humans submitted to the journal must comply with the principles laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki (Br Med J 1964; 2: 177-178). The editors retain the right to reject papers on the grounds that, in their opinion, the ethical justification is questionable. Manuscripts may be edited to improve clarity and expression.

    Manuscripts that are not published and that are not resubmitted in revised form will be destroyed within 1 year of the date of submission.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article structure

    The Abstract should be 150-200 words for full-length articles and 75 words for brief reports.

    Subdivision - numbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    Graphical abstract

    A Graphical abstract is optional and should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: Please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
    Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

    Highlights

    Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    In the abstract, define all abbreviations so that electronic searches for commonly used abbreviations or the full name can be successful. Avoid abbreviations unique to the current article so as to widen the circle of readers. We recognize that many abbreviations or acronyms may be more familiar to the reader than the full name. However abbreviations and acronyms used by relatively few other published reports or abbreviations with several alternatate meanings in data base searches should always be spelled out throughout the report.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Illustration services

    Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/illustrationservices) offers Illustration Services to authors preparing to submit a manuscript but concerned about the quality of the images accompanying their article. Elsevier's expert illustrators can produce scientific, technical and medical-style images, as well as a full range of charts, tables and graphs. Image 'polishing' is also available, where our illustrators take your image(s) and improve them to a professional standard. Please visit the website to find out more.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference style
    Literature citations. References in the text to literature cited should be given by the surname of the author(s), followed by the year of publication in parentheses, e.g., Smith and Smith (2011) or (Allen et al., 2006; Smith, 2008a, 2008; Jones and Jones, 2013). For three or more authors, the surname ofthe first author followed by et al. should be used. For citations to articles with two authors, use “and” instead of ampersand (Jones and Smith, 2010). References should be arranged in alphabetical order by first author and should not be numbered. For single-authored articles, if more than one article by the same author is included, list each reference in chronological order. If both articles were published in the same year, alphabetize by the first major word of the article title and designate the first listed article as "a," the second as "b," etc. For multi-authored articles, list in alphabetical order by (1) last name of first author, (2) last name of second author, etc. If the names of all authors are identical, list in chronological order. If both authors' names and year of publication are the same, alphabetize by the first major word of the article title.

    Provide the last names and first initials of all authors (do not use et al. in the reference list). Journal titles should not be abbreviated; provide the journal's full name. Do not italicize journal or book titles. Be sure that all references are complete: Journal articles should include authors, year of publication, article title, full journal name, volume number, and beginning and concluding page numbers. Book chapters should include authors, year of publication, chapter title, name(s) of volume editor(s), volume title, volume number (if any), name of publisher, city of publication, and page numbers. Books should include author(s) or editor(s), year of publication, book title, publisher, and city of publication. Include only references that have been cited in the text. Provide the names of all authors; do not use “et al.” in the reference list.

    Examples of typical types of references follow. In addition to the particular reference styles, the examples illustrate the order in which references should be listed and give examples of "a" and "b" designations.

    Bernstein, T.M., 1985. The Careful Writer: A Modern Guide to English Usage. Atheneum, New York.
    Buchsbaum, M.S., 1990. Frontal lobes, basal ganglia, temporal lobes--three sites for schizophrenia? Schizophrenia Bulletin 16, 377-378.
    Buchsbaum, M.S., Holcomb, H.H., DeLisi, L.E., Hazlett, E., 1986. Brain imaging in affective disorders. In:Rush, A.J., Altshuler, K.Z. (Eds.), Depression: Basic Mechanisms, Diagnosis and Treatment. The Guilford Press, New York, pp. 126-142.
    Issa, F., Gerhardt, G.A., Bartko, J.J., Suddath, R.L., Lynch, M. Gamache, P.H., Freedman, R., Wyatt, R.J., Kirch, D.G., 1994a. A multidimensional approach to analysis of cerebrospinal fluid biogenic amines in schizophrenia: I. Comparisons with healthy control subjects and neuroleptic-treated/unmedicated pairs analyses. Psychiatry Research 52, 237-249.
    Issa, F., Kirch, D.G., Gerhardt, G.A., Bartko, J.J., Suddath, R.L., Freedman, R., Wyatt, R.J., 1994b. A multidimensional approach to analysis of cerebrospinal fluid biogenic amines in schizophrenia: II. Correlations with psychopathology. Psychiatry Research 52, 251-258.
    Strunk, W., White, E.B., 1979. The Elements of Style, 3rd ed. MacMillan, New York.

    The correctness of the reference list is the entire responsibility of the author! Please check it carefully and remember to recheck when your article has been revised. Unpublished results should not be included in the reference list but, rather, should be quoted in the text (Smith and co-workers, unpublished results).

    Reference links
    Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    3D neuroimaging

    You can enrich your online articles by providing 3D neuroimaging data in NIfTI format. This will be visualized for readers using the interactive viewer embedded within your article, and will enable them to: browse through available neuroimaging datasets; zoom, rotate and pan the 3D brain reconstruction; cut through the volume; change opacity and color mapping; switch between 3D and 2D projected views; and download the data. The viewer supports both single (.nii) and dual (.hdr and .img) NIfTI file formats. Recommended size of a single uncompressed dataset is 100 MB or less. Multiple datasets can be submitted. Each dataset will have to be zipped and uploaded to the online submission system via the '3D neuroimaging data' submission category. Please provide a short informative description for each dataset by filling in the 'Description' field when uploading a dataset. Note: all datasets will be available for downloading from the online article on ScienceDirect. If you have concerns about your data being downloadable, please provide a video instead. For more information see: http://www.elsevier.com/3DNeuroimaging.

    Brain images and statistical images

    Brain images should be of sufficient size that small marked regions are clearly visible. Large areas of surrounding black background should be minimized so that the brain images make up the majority of the illustration. Enlargements of portions of the brain should be considered as an additional part of the illustration.

    In color illustrations please provide a color bar with scale points marked so that the colors will be interpretable.

    The legend to the figure should mention the right-left orientation of the figure.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Online proof correction

    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
    If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
    We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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