Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Main points of the Guide for Authors
• Types of paper
• Ethics in publishing
• Human and animal rights
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration and verification
• Contributors
• Changes to authorship
• Article transfer service
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Open access
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Submission
• Use of word processing software
• Article Structure
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Graphical abstract
• Highlights
• Keywords
• Abbreviations
• Nomenclature and Units
• Footnotes
• Artwork
• References
• Video data
• AudioSlides
• Supplementary material
• Data in Brief
• Database linking
• Submission checklist
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Online proof correction
• Offprints

Main points of the Guide for Authors

  • The text must be double spaced
  • The lines and pages must be numbered
  • Highlights: Use short and very concise sentences. Not more than one line per item of highlight is recommended. Generally 3-5 items of highlight are acceptable
  • Two parts "Results" and "Discussion" which could be merged into one part "Results and discussion"
  • Reproducibility data are required
  • Illustrations must have high quality of resolution
  • Reference list must be written as indicated in the PRBI GfA
  • Legends must be detailed as indicated in the PRBI GfA
  • All the legends must be gathered on specific pages placed after the text and before the Tables and Figures
  • Five referees of international standing should be suggested, either whose work is cited in the submitted work or who have been working on the topic(s)
  • Language should be carefully checked by one English Language Editing Service (or at least by a professional colleague whose technical English is fluent)

Process Biochemistry is an application-orientated research journal devoted to reporting advances with originality and novelty, in the science and technology of the processes involving bioactive molecules and living organisms. These processes concern the production of useful metabolites or materials, or the removal of toxic compounds using tools and methods of current biology and engineering. Its main areas of interest include novel bioprocesses and enabling technologies (such as nanobiotechnology, tissue engineering, directed evolution, metabolic engineering, systems biology, and synthetic biology) applicable in food (nutraceutical), healthcare (medical, pharmaceutical, cosmetic), energy (biofuels), environmental, and biorefinery industries and their underlying biological and engineering principles.

Main topics covered include, with most of possible aspects and domains of application: cell culture and fermentation, biochemical and bioreactor engineering; biotechnology processes and their life science aspects; biocatalysis, enzyme engineering and biotransformation; and downstream processing.

Manuscripts and data using response surface methodology (RSM) which are mainly descriptive, without any physiological or systemic explanation or correlations are not suitable for submission to the journal.

Types of paper

Process Biochemistry accepts three types of manuscripts: Full length articles, Short communications, Reviews and Correspondence.

Full length articles should not generally exceed 25 double-spaced pages of text (not including the references) and should not contain more than 15 figures and/or tables.

Short communications should not exceed 10 double-spaced pages of text (not including the references) and no more than 5 figures and/or tables.

Reviews should not generally exceed 20 double-spaced pages of text (not including the references) and should not contain more than 10 figures and/or tables.

Correspondence articles (Letter to the Editor) discussing papers recently published in the journal or matters of general interest to the readership will be considered for publication. Authors of papers that are the subject of comment will be given an opportunity to reply. Letters may not exceed 800 words and 10 references.

Accelerated publications can sometimes be taken into consideration. The authors should clearly explain their request for accelerated handling in the cover letter.

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Human and animal rights

If the work involves the use of animal or human subjects, the author should ensure that the work described has been carried out in accordance with The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki) for experiments involving humans; EU Directive 2010/63/EU for animal experiments; Uniform Requirements for manuscripts submitted to Biomedical journals Authors should include a statement in the manuscript that informed consent was obtained for experimentation with human subjects. The privacy rights of human subjects must always be observed.

Conflict of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submission declaration and verification

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck


Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service

This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information about this can be found here:


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit

US National Institutes of Health (NIH) voluntary posting (" Public Access") policy: Elsevier facilitates author posting in connection with the voluntary posting request of the NIH (referred to as the NIH "Public Access Policy", see by posting the peer-reviewed author's manuscript directly to PubMed Central on request from the author, after formal publication. Upon notification from Elsevier of acceptance, we will ask you to confirm via e-mail (by e-mailing us at that your work has received NIH funding (with the NIH award number, as well as the name and e-mail address of the Prime Investigator) and that you intend to respond to the NIH request. Upon such confirmation, Elsevier will submit to PubMed Central on your behalf a version of your manuscript that will include peer-review comments, for posting 12 months after the formal publication date. This will ensure that you will have responded fully to the NIH request policy. There will be no need for you to post your manuscript directly to PubMed Central, and any such posting is prohibited. Individual modifications to this general policy may apply to some Elsevier journals and its society publishing partners.

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2200, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.


Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail.

A cover letter should be submitted on-line by the authors together with the manuscript, which includes the following points: 1) all authors agree to submit the work to Process Biochemistry, 2) the work has not been published/submitted or being submitted to another journal, 3) the novelty and significant contribution of the submitted work are briefly described.

In their on-line submission, authors are required to suggest at least three independent referees (and preferably up to five, outside their own institution) with their position, institution, and email address; and preferably the suggested referees are of international standing and are working on the same or similar topics. The final choice of referees is up to the Editors. All submissions will be reviewed by at least two referees. But, manuscripts will be pre-screened for suitability and may be returned to the authors without peer review if they do not meet the criteria for originality and novelty or cause misunderstanding.

When a manuscript is rejected by an editor, generally it should not be resubmitted in its original version, but may be resubmitted after substantial modifications and/or addition of significant experimental data. It is up to the discretion of the editors to reconsider such resubmitted manuscripts as new submissions. Please include a letter of transmittal explaining why a resubmitted manuscript should be reconsidered by the editors, a detailed response to the issues raised by the editors/reviewers and the editor for the original version, and a concise outline of the revisions. Any corresponding author or co-author of one manuscript which has been rejected (without resubmission encouragement) must not resubmit a similar manuscript. If so, these authors will have a punishment of two years of prohibition to submit.

It is highly recommended to validate the pertinent and main data of the manuscripts by reproducibility assays, that is to say, to give in the corresponding (parts of the) Tables their mean values and standard deviations, and in the corresponding (parts of the) Figures their error bars. These data should be then obtained with a minimum of triplicate assays.

Moreover the authors must give a list of all related manuscripts/papers, whether in submission or in press.

Use of word processing software

It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

Article Structure

The texts should be double-spaced with all lines numbered and be as concise as possible. All manuscripts must be submitted in the following format: Title page; second page contains the Abstract and keywords; subsequent pages include the Introduction, Materials and methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgement(s), References, Figure legends, Tables, and Figures. Figure legends should be gathered on a separate page(s), followed by Tables and Figures with a separate page for each one. For experimental design results, as they are scientifically not usable, 3D figures are generally discouraged. Indicate then only the pertinent data in 2D diagrams. Page numeration starts from the first page. The Results and Discussion sections may be combined but should be thorough in the discussion about the novelty and impact of the submitted work. Articles without sufficient discussion will be systematically rejected. Legends for tables and figures should be complete and concise: one figure or one table should be perfectly understandable with its own legend, and incomplete legends will not be accepted. It is recommended to use a concise and short title, followed by another sentence(s) including specific details.

Should be concise in the related background description and lead to the objectives and novelty of the work.

Material and Methods
Provide sufficient details to allow the work to be reproduced, including the information about suppliers and catalogue numbers when appropriate. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

Results and discussion
These two parts can be separated as "Results" and "Discussion" or combined into one section. The discussion about each major point of the results is very important, and should not repeat the experimental results; generally citation of related references is necessary.

This section is not obligatory and can exist as a short paragraph at the end of "Results and Discussion" section. When it exists as a section, it should be short and concise but should not repeat the Abstract. Generally the Conclusion does not cite references, and it is different from the discussion.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


  • Word limits : 100-150 words for Short Communications and 150-200 words for Full Length Articles and Reviews
  • Provide a brief background of the research and a description of the results without extensive experimental detail
  • Summarize the significance of the findings
  • Do not include reference citations
  • Avoid uncommon abbreviations

Graphical abstract

A Graphical abstract is mandatory for research papers, but not for Review articles. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership. A graphical abstract should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images and in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


  • Three to five highlights are required.
  • Each highlight can be a maximum of 85 characters, including spaces.
  • Convey the core findings to give an overview of the article.
  • Submit as a separate source file in EES; e.g., Word .doc (NOT a .PDF)
  • See for examples.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


Abbreviations for units should follow the suggestions of the British Standards publication BS 1991. The full stop should not be included in abbreviations, e.g. m (not m.), ppm (not p.p.m.), % and / should be used in preference to 'per cent' and 'per'. Where abbreviations are likely to cause ambiguity or may not be readily understood by an international readership, units should be put in full.

Nomenclature and Units

The SI system should be used for all scientific and laboratory data: if, in certain instances, it is necessary to quote other units, these should be added in parentheses. Temperatures should be given in degrees Celsius. The unit 'billion': 109 in America (ten to the power 9), and 1012 in Europe (ten to the power 12), is ambiguous and should not be used.


Footnotes should be avoided especially if they contain information which could equally well be included in the text. The use of proprietary names should be avoided. Papers essentially of an advertising nature will not be accepted.


Electronic artwork
General points
• Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
• Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
• Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
• Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
• Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
• Provide captions to illustrations separately.
• Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the published version.
• Submit each illustration as a separate file.
A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
Please do not:
• Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
• Supply files that are too low in resolution;
• Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Color artwork
Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color online (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or online only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see


References should be cited at the appropriate point in the text by a number in square brackets. A list of references, in numerical order, should appear at the end of the paper. All references in this list should be indicated at some point in the text and vice versa. Unpublished data or private communications AND WEBSITE ADDRESSES should not appear in the list. Examples of layout of references are given below.

[1] Hsieh C, Hsu TH, Yang FC. Production of polysaccharides of Ganoderma lucidum (CCRC36021) by reusing thin stillage. Process Biochem 2005;40:909-916.

[2] Stephanopoulos GN, Aristidou AA, Nielsen JE. Metabolic engineering: principles and methodologies. New York: Academic Press; 1998. p. 494

[3] Zhong JJ, Yoshida T. Rheological chracteristics of suspended cultures of Perilla frutescens and their implications in bioreactor operation for anthocyanin production. In: Ryu DDY, Furusaki S editors. Advances in Plant Biotechnology. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 1994. p. 255-279.

[4] Lima R, Salcedo, RL. An optimized strategy for equation-oriented global optimization. In: Grievink J, Schijndel JV. editors. 10th European Symposium on Computer Aided Chemical Engineering. New York: Academic Press; 2002. p. 913-918.

[5] Curtin CD. Towards molecular bioprocessing as a tool to enhance production of anthocyanins in Vitis vinifera L. cell suspension culture. Australia: Flinders University; Ph.D. thesis; 2004. p.250.

[6] Snow-Brand-Milk-Prod. Lysozyme purification by affinity chromatorgraphy on crosslink chitosan sulfate. Jpn. Patent. JP 05260-966. 92.03.24.

[7] Enfors SO, editor. Physiological stress responses in bioprocesses. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology. vol. 89. Berlin: Springer; 2004. p. 244.

[8] Schweder T, Hecker M. Monitoring of stress response, In: Enfors SO, editor. Physiological stress responses in bioprocesses. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology vol. 89. Berlin: Springer; 2004. p. 47-71.

Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Reference management software
Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below:
When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.


The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Supplementary material captions
Each supplementary material file should have a short caption which will be placed at the bottom of the article, where it can assist the reader and also be used by search engines.

Data in Brief

Authors have the option of converting any or all parts of their supplementary or additional raw data into one or multiple Data in Brief articles, a new kind of article that houses and describes their data. Data in Brief articles ensure that your data, which is normally buried in supplementary material, is actively reviewed, curated, formatted, indexed, given a DOI and publicly available to all upon publication. Authors are encouraged to submit their Data in Brief article as an additional item directly alongside the revised version of their manuscript. If your research article is accepted, your Data in Brief article will automatically be transferred over to Data in Brief where it will be editorially reviewed and published in the new, open access journal, Data in Brief ( The open access fee for Data in Brief is $500. For authors who submit in 2015 a reduced fee of $250 will apply. Please use the following template to write your Data in Brief:

Database linking

Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving readers access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See for more information and a full list of supported databases.

Submission checklist

The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
Ensure that the following items are present:
One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
• E-mail address
• Full postal address
All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
• Keywords
• All figure captions
• All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
Further considerations
• Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
• References are in the correct format for this journal
• All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
• Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Internet)
Printed version of figures (if applicable) in color or black-and-white
• Indicate clearly whether or not color or black-and-white in print is required.
For any further information please visit our customer support site at

Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

Online proof correction

Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (

You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via