Guide for Authors

All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

• Article requirements
• Ethics in publishing
• Conflict of interest
• Submission declaration
• Changes to authorship
• Article transfer service
• Copyright
• Role of the funding source
• Funding body agreements and policies
• Open access
• Green open access
• Language (usage and editing services)
• Referees
• Types of manuscript
• Essential title page information
• Abstract
• Graphical abstract
• Keywords
• Abbreviations
• Pagination and line numbers
• Introduction
• Material and methods
• Results
• Discussion
• Conclusions
• Acknowledgements
• Units
• Math formulae
• Footnotes
• References
• Appendices
• Video data
• AudioSlides
• Supplementary material
• Data deposit and linking
• Use of the Digital Object Identifier
• Proofs
• Offprints


International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology


Phytomedicine is primarily a therapy-oriented Journal, which publishes innovative studies on efficacy, safety, quality and mechanisms of action of specified plant extracts, phytopharmaceuticals and their purified constituents. This includes clinical and preclinical studies of properly standardized herbal medicinal products, herbal preparations and isolated compounds, which have reproducible pharmacological activity.

The journal covers the following sections:

  • Clinical pharmacology and toxicology (randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, and observational open label studies),
  • Behavioral, mental, affective, and stress-associated disorders,
  • Age-associated disorders,
  • Neuropharmacology,
  • Endocrine pharmacology,
  • Metabolic syndrome and obesity,
  • Cancer,
  • Immunopharmacology, inflammation,
  • Infectious diseases,
  • Pulmonary diseases,
  • Gastrointestinal diseases,
  • Cardiovascular diseases,
  • Urogenital diseases,
  • Systems biology,
  • Pre-clinical toxicology of herbal preparations,
  • Interaction with drugs,
  • Pharmacokinetic of natural compounds,
  • Standardization and quality of herbal preparations,
  • Legislation of botanicals,
  • Invited reviews

Article requirements

Please note the following requirements for consideration of an article, upon submitting your manuscript:

1. Is your article within the scope of Phytomedicine?
Your article must meet the scope of Phytomedicine (please see above). Articles that are not in the scope, will be rejected immediately!

  • Articles on the isolation and structure elucidation of novel bioactive compounds or the development of new analytical methods do not fall into the scope of Phytomedicine. However, pharmacological and clinical studies of novel natural products, where new compounds or methods of analysis of active of pharmaceutical ingredients in herbal preparations and biological fluids and tissues are reported (e.g. in pharmacokinetic studies), are welcome.
  • Dietary Supplements, "Botanicals" or "Functional Food" are not within the scope of Phytomedicine unless they are specified/standardized and pharmacologically investigated analogues to herbal drugs and if the evidence presented is comparable to therapeutic outcomes with a positive control.
  • Studies on pure compounds are not accepted if their origin is not clearly related to the plant kingdom.
  • Pharmacological studies of isolated compounds in various forms (salts, ethers, etc.), which do not exist in nature are out of scope of Phytomedicine.
  • Screening results of a large number of plant extracts or plant constituents for pharmacological activities will not be considered unless they are focused on those plants or constituents which show superior activities in comparison with generally accepted positive (reference) compounds.

2. Does your article comply with the standard requirements of Phytomedicine?
Your article must meet the criteria assuring reproducible quality and efficacy of herbal preparations.

  • Plant name and herbal substance
    Latin binomial name and the author, local name and English name and plant part(s) used must by specified for all plants used in the study. It should be stated that the plant name has been checked with The authentication of fresh plants or dried herbal drugs, including those of formulas, must be carried out by means of macroscopic and/or microscopic, molecular biological, chemical, chromatographic and/or other suitable pharmacognostic methods. Voucher specimens of plant materials used for all studies must be deposited and identified with a voucher number, the date and location of collection. The plant material may derive from natural origin, from cultivated plants, or from an herbal drug market. In case of commercially procured material the source, batch number, and quality control data should be specified. All scientific names of the plants must be written in italics through the whole manuscript!
  • Herbal medicinal products and herbal extracts
    Herbal medicinal products or herbal preparations must be declared in accordance to EMA guidelines ( In particular, herbal extracts must be clearly and comprehensively described with respect to the plant part used, the drug extract ratio, type and concentration of extraction solvent, extraction conditions etc. They must be sufficiently characterized (e.g. by HPLC fingerprints) and specified for the content of marker compounds to ensure a consistent quality and reproducible pharmacological activity. The choice of marker must be justified. The analytical methods have to be validated for selectivity, accuracy and precision and briefly described, providing the most important information necessary to obtain reproducible results. Traditional and commercial names of herbal preparations should be mentioned in the Introduction of the manuscript, but not in the title. Phytomedicine accepts only international standard terminology – binomial Latin names of the plants and their combinations.
  • Herbal combinations
    Studies with herbal drug combinations (e.g. 2-5 plants) will be accepted only if each herbal drug undergo the same authentication and standardization process as described above, each single herbal extracts is HPLC fingerprinted and relevant marker constituents are quantified before and after the extracts are mixed. A 3-D-HPLC-profile of the multiherbal drug combination must be provided, e.g.: Amagaya S. et al. 2001, Phytomedicine 8: 338-347.; For TCM-multi-herbal drug combinations (formula) see: Zeng K.-W. et al. 2012, Phytomedicine 19, 122-129. Additionally, we encourage the use other relevant and validated physiological, biological, or biochemical methods, which ensure reproducible pharmacological activity of multi-herbal drug combinations.

  • Chemicals, phytochemicals and other purified compounds For purified compounds, please provide chemical names using relevant information from the NCBI PubChem which can be found on the website In studies with purified compounds the evidences of their purity (13C NMR or HPLC peak purity test) are required.

3. Is your article approaching new findings?
Scientific novelty of your study must be clearly demonstrated. The articles limited with a repetition of well-known data or identification of only well-known ubiquitous compounds with little or no relation to activity are not acceptable.

4. Is your article relevant to clinical medicine?
Your article must be based on a thorough study, using proper controls and convincing evidences of therapeutic significance and observations.

Not acceptable are:

  • In vitro studies with concentrations of active compounds, which could not be implemented in-vivo and that are not appropriate for further pharmaceutical development.
  • In vitro studies without results on organs, tissues, fluids or cells.
  • In vitro studies without positive control.
  • In vivo single dose studies or studies with one set of experiments and few animals.
  • Studies on antimicrobial activity with only single dose, very high concentration, measuring only inhibition zones without MIC values, without information on type of activity (or growth inhibition) or microorganisms investigation.
  • Pharmacological studies of pure compounds, which are not supported by evidences on pharmacological activity of plant extract where it was identified.

5. Does your article meet the requirements to clinical and pharmacological studies?
Your article must comply with the basic criteria for conducting and reporting clinical and pharmacological studies.

Requirements for clinical studies:

Requirements for pharmacological studies (in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo):

  • Investigations with animals must state in the Methods section that the research was conducted in accordance with internationally accepted principles for laboratory animal use and care (e.g. European community guidelines/ EEC Directive of 1986 or the US guidelines/ NIH publication).
  • The route of drug administration, different of oral, must be justified.
  • Appropriate and justified statistical methods must be used.Positive controls (reference standards must be included in study design).
  • Many natural compounds are known for their polyvalent (pleiotropic) activities and are only of interest if one or two pharmacological activities are dominant and somehow superior in comparison with generally accepted reference standards/compounds. Their potential therapeutic application must be justified for specified indication.
  • Antimicrobial evaluation of plants are of scientific value only if these plant extracts show superior biological activities in comparison with a synthetic or natural antimicrobial agent standard. It is preferred that in vitro activity (MIC) of an extract in not higher than 100 ìg/ml. For the correct determination of MIC values, standardized methodologies such as those of CLSI or EUCAST are preferred.
  • All articles that are reporting gene expression profiling data (microarray experiments) should comply with the Minimum Information about Microarray Experiments (MIAME,
  • At least two microarrays should be provided for each experimental condition. Results of selected genes should be validated by a second method (e.g. RT-PCR) or protein data should be provided. In addition functional test (animal experiments/clinical data) undertaken simultaneously are desirable to allow an appraisement of the biological/clinical relevance of the data. Alternatively, results of in vivo experiments with comparable dosages can be discussed. The presentation of a sole data collection is not acceptable. Biologically relevant information should be presented.
  • We recommend do not overuse specific names, notions and terms from various theories of traditional medical systems (e.g. TCM, Ayurveda, etc.). That makes articles difficult for perceptions and understanding. The essence of these theories should be translated into internationally accepted scientific theories, while traditional names and terms should be converted to English. Final interpretation of the results of the study must adhere to conventional scientific theories.

Ethics in publishing

For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

Conflict of interest

All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

Submission declaration

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere including electronically in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

Changes to authorship

This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

Article transfer service

This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information about this can be found here:


Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.

Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

For open access articles: Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted third party reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

Author rights
As an author you (or your employer or institution) have certain rights to reuse your work. For more information see

Role of the funding source

You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

Funding body agreements and policies

Elsevier has established a number of agreements with funding bodies which allow authors to comply with their funder's open access policies. Some authors may also be reimbursed for associated publication fees. To learn more about existing agreements please visit

Open access

This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

Open access
• Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
• An open access publication fee is payable by authors or on their behalf e.g. by their research funder or institution
• Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our universal access programs (
• No open access publication fee payable by authors.

Regardless of how you choose to publish your article, the journal will apply the same peer review criteria and acceptance standards.

For open access articles, permitted third party (re)use is defined by the following Creative Commons user licenses:

Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY)
Lets others distribute and copy the article, create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), include in a collective work (such as an anthology), text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND)
For non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

The open access publication fee for this journal is USD 2500, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

Green open access

Authors can share their research in a variety of different ways and Elsevier has a number of green open access options available. We recommend authors see our green open access page for further information ( Authors can also self-archive their manuscripts immediately and enable public access from their institution's repository after an embargo period. This is the version that has been accepted for publication and which typically includes author-incorporated changes suggested during submission, peer review and in editor-author communications. Embargo period: For subscription articles, an appropriate amount of time is needed for journals to deliver value to subscribing customers before an article becomes freely available to the public. This is the embargo period and begins from the publication date of the issue your article appears in.

This journal has an embargo period of 12 months.

Language (usage and editing services)

Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.

Our online submission system guides you stepwise through the process of entering your article details and uploading your files. The system converts your article files to a single PDF file used in the peer-review process. Editable files (e.g., Word, LaTeX) are required to typeset your article for final publication. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, is sent by e-mail. In case of production related queries please contact


Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

Types of manuscript

Original papers
Articles should not exceed 12-15 typewritten pages or up to 5,000 words, including references, tables and figures. Previously reported methods should be referenced only. The number of references should not exceed 30 (except for review articles or reports on microarray data).

Short communications
Short communications should be condensed to 4-8 typewritten pages or not more than 2,500 words including references and a maximum of two illustrations.

Review articles
Review articles will only be by invitation. Review articles can provide concise and critical updates on a subject of current interest. Herbal drug-monographs are only acceptable if they contain the newest pharmacological and toxicological issues and an outlook on future directions.

Prof. Hildebert Wagner Award
The "Prof. Hildebert Wagner Award" was created to honor the outstanding efforts of Prof. Wagner for the journal Phytomedicine. This award will be granted to a graduate student or young post-doctoral researcher who is the first author of a paper reviewed by the Editors of Phytomedicine to be the best one in the Journal during the previous calendar year. The prize will be sponsored by Elsevier with EUR 500 for the awardee and a certificate for every Co-Author. Additionally an official notice will be published on the journal homepage of Phytomedicine (, on which the article will be available free of charge for one year. The reviewing editors for the first contribution to be awarded in Phytomedicine will be Prof. Hildebert Wagner himself, Prof. Alexander Panossian, and Prof. Susana Zacchino. To qualify, nominees must be younger than 35 years and an outstanding contribution to the field must be provided. Nominations can be made by first authors (resp. corresponding authors).

Nominations for the first "Prof. Hildebert Wagner Award" in 2016 can be done until June 30, 2016. The announcement of the winner will be by end of October 2016. Please choose Award-Article from the drop-down menu below, if you want your article to be considered for the Award.

Essential title page information

Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
Author names and affiliations. Please clearly indicate the given name(s) and family name(s) of each author and check that all names are accurately spelled. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that the e-mail address is given and that contact details are kept up to date by the corresponding author.
Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.


Anti-stress effects of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S)-protopanaxatriol in immobilized mice

Hyun A Oha, Dae-Eung Kimb, Hyuck Jai Choic, Nam Jae Kimc, and Dong-Hyun Kimac,*

a Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-ku, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
b Sempio Foods Company, 183, Osongsaengmyung-4ro, Cheongwongun, Chungcheongbukdo 363-954, Republic of Korea
c East-West Medical Research Institute, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, 23, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-ku, Seoul 130-872, Republic of Korea

* Corresponding author
Dong-Hyun Kim, Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-ku, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea
Tel.: +82 2 961 0374; fax: +82 2 957 5030.
E-mail address: (D.H. Kim).

**The phone, fax and email address of the corresponding author should be placed on the title page.


A concise and factual abstract is required. Abstracts should summarize the contents of the article in 350 words or less. The abstract should be structured in the following format:
Background: In one or two sentences, summarize the scientific body of knowledge surrounding your study and how this led to your investigation.
Hypothesis/Purpose: State the theory(ies) that you are attempting to prove or disprove by your study or the purpose if no hypothesis exists.
Study Design: Identify the overall design of your study.
Methods: Succinctly summarize the overall methods you used in your investigation. For clinical studies include the study population, type of intervention, method of data collection, and length of the study.
Results: Report the most important results of your study. Only include positive results that are statistically significant, or important negative results that are supported by adequate power. For clinical studies report actual data, not just P values.
Conclusion: State the answer to your original question or hypothesis.Summarize the most important conclusions that can be directly drawn from your study.

Graphical abstract

A Graphical abstract is mandatory for this journal. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See for examples.
Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.


Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.


A section of abbreviations should precede the manuscript. Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.
See "Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals" (1991) New England Journal of Medicine 324:424–428.

Pagination and line numbers

Only manuscripts with page and line numbers will be reviewed.


Provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results. State the objectives of the work. No results of the study should be described in this section.

Material and methods

Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

This section should contain some subsections common for almost all studies:

  • Plant names and parts used (requirements see above)
  • Study medication, herbal extracts (requirements see above)
  • Chemical compounds (requirements see above)
  • Statistical analysis (requirements see above)
  • Assays (requirements see above)
  • Animal studies (requirements see above)
  • Study design (requirements see above)


Results should be clear and concise.


This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.


Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).


Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

Math formulae

Please submit math equations as editable text and not as images. Present simple formulae in line with normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).


Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article. Many word processors can build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Otherwise, please indicate the position of footnotes in the text and list the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.


Citation in text
Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

Reference links
Increased discoverability of research and high quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. In order to allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

Web references
As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

References in a special issue
Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

Most Elsevier journals have a standard template available in key reference management packages. This covers packages using the Citation Style Language, such as Mendeley ( and also others like EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to word processing packages which are available from the above sites, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style as described in this Guide. The process of including templates in these packages is constantly ongoing. If the journal you are looking for does not have a template available yet, please see the list of sample references and citations provided in this Guide to help you format these according to the journal style.

If you manage your research with Mendeley Desktop, you can easily install the reference style for this journal by clicking the link below: When preparing your manuscript, you will then be able to select this style using the Mendeley plug-ins for Microsoft Word or LibreOffice. For more information about the Citation Style Language, visit

Reference style
Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown ....'

List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.

Reference to a journal publication:
Wagner., H., Ulrich-Merzenich, G., 2009. Synergy research: Approaching a new generation of phytopharmaceuticals. Phytomedicine 16, 97–110.

Reference to conference proceedings:
Argyropoulos D, Kudadam J, Müller J, 2009. Color degradation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) as affected by the drying process. In: 5th International Technical Symposium on Food Processing, Monitoring Technology in Bioprocesses and Food Quality Management, Potsdam, Germany, August 31– September 2, pp. 730–736.

Willcox, M.L., Graz, B., Falquet, J., Diakite, C., Giani, S., Diallo, D., 2011. A "reverse pharmacology" approach for developing an anti-malarial phytomedicine. Malaria J. 10 (Suppl. 1), S8.

Reference to a book:
Cramer, J.A., Spilker, B., 1998. Quality of Life and Pharmacoeconomics. An Introduction. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia.

Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
Cragg, G.M., Boyd, M., 1996. Drug discovery and development at the National Cancer Institute: the role of natural products of plant origin. In: Balick, M.J., Elisabetsky, E., Laird, S.A. (Eds.), Medicinal Plan Resources of the Tropical Forest. Columbia University Press, New York, pp. 101–136.

Journal abbreviations source
Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations:


If there is more than one appendix, they should be identified as A, B, etc. Formulae and equations in appendices should be given separate numbering: Eq. (A.1), Eq. (A.2), etc.; in a subsequent appendix, Eq. (B.1) and so on. Similarly for tables and figures: Table A.1; Fig. A.1, etc.

Video data

Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 150 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.


The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

Supplementary material

Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

Data deposit and linking

Elsevier encourages and supports authors to share raw data sets underpinning their research publication where appropriate and enables interlinking of articles and data. Please visit for more information on depositing, sharing and using research data.

Ensure that the following items are present:
1. One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:

  • Full postal address
  • E-mail address
  • Tel / fax number

2. All necessary files have been uploaded separately

  • Author Agreement
  • Cover letter
  • Manuscript
  • Tables
  • Figures
  • Graphical Abstract (mandatory)
  • Supplementary material (if needed)

3. Correct order within the manuscript:

  • Title Page (Heading, Author names (the superscripts behind the names which indicates the Institutes/affiliation of the authors have to be a,b,c,.... and * for the corresponding author in addition), Institutes/affiliation, Corresponding Author with full address, Word count)
  • Abstract: has to be structured into Background, Hypothesis/Purpose, Study Design, Methods, Results, Conclusion
  • Keywords not more than 6
  • Abbreviations
  • Introduction
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  • Results and discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Conflict of interest (mandatory)
  • References
  • Table legends
  • Figure legends
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4. References about 30 (have to be numbered)

  • References are in the correct format for this journal
  • References in alphabetical order
  • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
  • Citation according to our journal style

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6. Further considerations

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Use of the Digital Object Identifier

The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.


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