Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Changes to authorship
    • Article transfer service
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Additional Information
    • Use of word processing software
    • Article Structure
    • Introduction
    • Discussion
    • Experimental
    • Highlights
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Nomenclature and Units
    • Database linking
    • Artwork
    • Color Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Journal Abbreviations Source
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Interactive plots
    • Submission checklist
    • Additional Information
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints

    Phytochemistry invites research articles on all aspects of pure and applied plant chemistry, plant biochemistry, plant molecular biology and chemical ecology. The Journal is currently divided up into the following sections:

    Editorial Comment, Molecules of Interest, Review Articles, Structural Elucidation and Full Papers.

    Editorial Comment will be an occasional series where Regional Editors, Board Members or other scientists will be invited to comment on phytochemistry topics of global interest and debate.

    Molecules of Interest will consist of invited short reviews (3-4) printed pages of individual compounds or macromolecules of plant, fungal or algal origin. These can be novel compounds or newly discovered properties of familiar compounds. Please contact Dr Richard J Robins if you wish to prepare a Molecules of Interest paper.

    Review Articles are published at regular intervals, ranging in scope from primary metabolism and regulation of plant growth, through plant enzymology to natural product chemistry and the biological activity of plant products. They deal with significant new areas of research and are intended to command the interest of the general reader. Authors should consult their Regional Editors with an outline of their proposed Review before preparing such articles. Published Reviews include a biography and picture of each author.

    Structure Elucidation papers, accepted as full papers in the Chemistry section, should include either a substantial description of several new compounds without any conclusion as to their significance, or a description of the study of new compounds with expected structures incorporating conclusions. These papers with a minimum of 16 pages of double-spaced manuscript should follow the general style of Full Papers although the Introduction, Results and Discussion may be combined as a single narrative. Brief abstracts must be included, containing significant facts derived from the work. Reports of known compounds, however rare, from new plant sources will not generally be accepted unless they have real chemotaxonomic or other biological significance. Authors are specifically discouraged from submitting papers as fragmented analyses of particular plant constituents.

    Full Papers: Full journal articles will be drawn from areas described in the Aims and Scope:
    Bioactive Products
    Ecological Biochemistry
    Molecular Genetics & Genomics
    Protein Biochemistry & Proteomics
    Update in Bioinformatics
    They are comprehensive papers, typically 6-8 printed pages in length (a minimum of 20 pages of double-spaced manuscript). Papers on plant chemistry must be substantial and contain convincing justification for undertaking the study, as well as having conclusions (e.g. on the biology, chemotaxonomy, new biosynthetic pathways etc.). Papers submitted under the Bioactive Products area are unlikely to be accepted if the bioactivity is measured on a mixture of compounds without further resolution.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see and

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at:

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Article transfer service

    This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. Please note that your article will be reviewed again by the new journal. More information about this can be found here:


    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see
    Open access articles please see

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The open access publication fee for this journal is $3300, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy:

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop ( or visit our customer support site ( for more information.


    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online. Use the following guidelines to prepare your article. Via the homepage of this journal ( you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of the various files. The system automatically converts source files to a single Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail and via the author's homepage, removing the need for a hard-copy paper trail.

    Please submit, with the manuscript, the names, addresses and e-mail addresses of 4 potential referees. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

    Additional Information

    Please submit regular articles to the appropriate Regional Editor for your geographical region. The address of the corresponding author defines which Regional Editor to select.

    For the Americas and East Asia: Professor N. G. Lewis.
    For the Rest of the World: Dr Richard J Robins.

    • Regular articles go to the appropriate geographical editor.
    • MOIs go to Dr Richard Robins.
    • Review articles should be pre-arranged with one the appropriate Regional Editor.
    • Special Issue Papers go to the Organizing Editor/Editors.
    • Solicited/Commissioned Reviews go to the editor who commissioned them.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article Structure

    The content of manuscripts must be arranged as follows: (1) a Graphical Abstract; (2) a Title Page with authors name(s) and address(es); (3) and Abstract, in which contents are briefly stated; (4) Keywords; (5) Introduction, and (6) the Results and Discussion (preferably combined). Although each section may be separated by headings, they should form one continuous narrative and only include details essential to the arguments presented. If a discussion is separately provided, it should not include a repetition of the results, but only indicate conclusions reached on the basis of them, and those from other referred works; (7) Conclusions or Concluding Remarks; (8) the Experimental should include brief details of the methods used such that a competent researcher in the field may be able to repeat the work; (9) Acknowledgments; (10) Figures and Legends, Formulae, Tables and References. Authors have to include pagination.

    Subdivision - numbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1. (then 1.1.1., 1.1.2., ...), 1.2., etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to "the text". Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.


    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Specific names (genus, species, authority for the binomial) of all experimental plants must be given at first mention according to the Index Kewensis (searchable online at or similar authority (The Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants, by D.J. Mabberley, 2nd ed., June 1997, Cambridge University Press; ISBN: 0521414210), and preferably be in the form recommended by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. Named varieties of cultivars are given, e.g. Lactuca sativa cv. Grand Rapids. (The official printed version of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature has been published as International Code of Botanical Nomenclature {Tokyo Code}. Regnum Vegetabile 131. Koeltz Scientific Books, Konigstein. ISBN 3-87429-367-X or 1-878762-66-4 or 80-901699-l-0.)

    A Theory section should extend, not repeat, the background to the article already dealt with in the Introduction and lay the foundation for further work. In contrast, a Calculation section represents a practical development from a theoretical basis.

    Results should be clear and concise.


    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.


    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.
    Subsections on the Experimental Procedures should be italicized and inserted as part of the first line of the text to which they apply. Phytochemistry encourages an extensive use of abbreviations (these are listed at the back of the Instructions to Authors, or the reader is referred to other sources). The Experimental should begin with a subsection entitled General Experimental Procedures. This subsection will typically contain brief details of instruments used, and identification of sources of specialized chemicals, biochemicals and molecular biology kits.
    The next subsection describes the source(s) and documentation of biological materials used, whether in reference to whole plants or parts therefrom, crude drugs, or any other plant material from which identifiable chemical substances are obtained for the first time. Documentation must also include a reference to voucher specimen(s) and voucher number(s) of the plants or other material examined. If available, authors should quote the name and address of the authority who identified each non-cultivated plant investigated. Specimens should preferentially be deposited in a major regional herbarium where the collection is maintained by state or private institution and which permits loan of such materials.
    With other microorganisms, the culture collection from which they were either accessed and/or deposited should be included, together with identification of the strain designation code. The Experimental Procedures employed should be concise but sufficiently detailed that a qualified researcher will be able to repeat the studies undertaken, and these should emphasize either truly new procedures or essential modifications of existing procedures. Experimental details normally omitted include: (1) method of preparation of common chemical and biochemical derivatives, (2) excessive details of separation of compounds, proteins and enzymes, e.g. preparation of columns, TLC plates, column and fraction size.
    Compound characterization: Physical and spectroscopic data for new compounds must be comprehensive, and follow the order shown below: compound name (and assigned number in text); physical state of compound (e.g. oil, crystal, liquid, etc.), melting and/or boiling point; optical rotation and/or circular dichroism measurements, if optically active; UV; IR, 1H NMR; 13C NMR; MS. For all new compounds, either high-resolution mass spectral or elemental analysis data are required.

    The main conclusions of the study may be presented in a short Conclusions section, which may stand alone or form a subsection of a Discussion or Results and Discussion section.

    Essential title page information
    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible. "New" and "novel" are not allowed within title and abstract.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate (marked by an asterisk) who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a "Present address" (or "Permanent address") may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself. The abstract should not contain compound numbers which refer to other parts of the manuscript, full chemical or known trivial names of compounds should be given.

    Graphical abstract
    Please provide, when submitting your article, a graphical abstract. This comprises the title, authors, identical to the article itself, a summary of about 25 words, and a pictogram: one figure representative of the work described. Maximum final dimensions of the pictogram are 5 x 5 cm: bear in mind readability after reduction, especially if using one of the figures from the article itself. Compound numbers can be given in the graphical abstract if they refer to a graphic also shown there. Graphical abstracts will be collated to provide a contents list for rapid scanning. For an example of recent graphical abstracts please download this pdf file. pdf link


    Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate editable file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See for examples.


    Authors must give 3-10 keywords or phrases, which identify the most important subjects covered by the paper. They should be placed at the beginning of the manuscript in the following order: name of plant species examined (Latin binomial); plant family; common epithet (where applicable); type of investigation; class of compound; protein or gene; name of compound(s); protein(s) and gene(s).


    About, approximately: ca.
    Anhydrous: dry (not anhyd.)
    Aqueous: aq.
    Circular dichroism: CD
    Concentrated (or mineral acids): conc.
    Concentrations: ppm (never ppb!), &mgr;M, mM, M, %
    Dry weight: dry wt; fresh weight: fr. wt
    Electricity: V, mA, eV
    Force due to gravity (centrifugation): g; rpm (revolutions/min)
    Gas chromatography: GC
    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry: GC-MS
    trimethylsilyl derivative: TMSi (TMS cannot be used as this refers to the internal standard tetramethylsilane used in 1H NMR)
    High performance liquid chromatography: HPLC
    Infrared spectroscopy: IR
    Length: nm, &mgr;m, mm, cm, m
    Literature: lit.
    Mass: pg, ng, &mgr;g, mg, g, kg
    Mass spectrometry: m/z [M]+ (molecular ion, parent ion)
    Melting points: uncorr. (uncorrected)
    Molecular mass: Da (daltons), kDa
    Molecular weight: Mr
    Nuclear magnetic resonance: 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Hz, &dgr;
    Numbers: e.g. 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10,000: per or -1
    Optical rotatory dispersion: ORD
    Paper chromatography: PC
    Precipitate: ppt.
    Preparative thin-layer chromatography: prep. TLC
    Radioactivity: dpm (disintegrations per min), Ci (curie), sp. act (specific activity), Bq (1 becquerel = 1 nuclear transformation/sec)
    Repetitive manipulations: once, twice, ×3, ×4, etc.
    RRt (relative retention time), Rt (Kovat's retention index), ECL (equivalent chain length - term frequently used in fatty acid work)
    Saturated: satd.
    Solution: soln.
    Solvent mixtures including chromatographic solvents: abbreviate as follows n-BuOH–HOAc–H2O (4:1:5)
    Statistics: LSD (least significant difference), s.d. (standard deviation), s.e. (standard error)
    Temperature: (with centigrade), mp, mps, mmp, bp
    Temperature: temp.
    Thin-layer chromatography: TLC, Rf
    Time: s, min, h, day, week, month, year
    Ultraviolet spectrophotometry: UV, A (absorbance, not OD - optical density)
    Volume: l (litre), &mgr;l, ml
    Weight: wt

    For preparation of Inorganics and Organics please see the full instructions to authors, including all special characters, available for download as a pdf file. pdf link

    For further terms used in biochemistry and molecular biology the authors should see the websites of the nomenclature committees.


    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Nomenclature and Units

    Chemical nomenclature, abbreviations and symbols must follow IUPAC rules. Whenever possible, avoid coining new trivial names; every effort should be made to modify an existing name. For example, when a new compound is described, it should be given a full systematic name according to IUPAC nomenclature and this should be cited in the Abstract or in the Experimental section. Isotopically-labeled substances should be written with the correct chemical name of the compound. The symbol for the isotope should be placed in square brackets and should precede that part of the name to which it refers, e.g. sodium [14C]formate.

    In Table headings and legends on graph axes numerical data should be identified in the form data name/units.

    For Presentation of Data please see the full instructions to authors, including all special characters, available for download as a pdf file. pdf link

    Mass spectral data should be presented in full as Supplementary Information for all newly identified compounds. If the data are already published elsewhere then relevant references should be quoted. Presentation of mass spectral data should in general follow the recommendations given in Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Processes, 142, 211-240 (1995), and must indicate the method used (EIMS, CIMS, GC-MS, TOFMS, FABMS, SIMS, APCI etc.) and the relevant experimental details (ionizing energy, voltages etc). The data should give only diagnostically important ions, the character of the fragmentation ions in relation to the molecular ion and the intensity relative to the major ion. For example-EIMS (probe) 70 eV, m/z (rel. int.): 386 [M]+ (36), 368 [M - H2O]+ (100), 353 [M - H2O - Me] + (23), 275 [M - 111] + (35), etc. CIMS (iso-butane, probe), 200 eV, m/z (rel. int.): 387 [M + H] + (100), 369 [(M + H) - H2O] + (23), etc. High-resolution spectra can be given in more detail if necessary for [M] + and the more important fragment ions.

    X-ray crystallography
    Only essential data (e.g. a three-dimensional structural drawing with bond distances) should be included in manuscripts. A complete list of data in CIF (Crystallographic Information File) format should be prepared separately and deposited with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (see for further information) before the paper is submitted. A footnote indicating this fact is to be included in the manuscript. "CCDC...contains the supplementary crystallographic data for this paper. These data can be obtained free of charge via (or from the CCDC, 12 Union Road, Cambridge CB2 1EZ, UK; fax: +44 1223 336033; e-mail:". Crystal structures of proteins should be submitted to the Protein Data Bank (see; e-mail: Please submit a copy of the CIF data when you submit your manuscript.

    Elemental analysis results for compounds which have been adequately described in the literature must be given in the form: (Found: C, 62.9; H, 5.4. Calc. for C13H13O4N: C, 63.2; H, 5.3%.) New compounds must be indicated by giving analytical results in the form: (Found: C, 62.9; H, 5.4. C13H13O4N requires: C, 63.2; H, 5.3%.)

    Thin-layer chromatography
    (a) For analytical TLC, dimensions of the plates can be deleted if layer thickness is 0.25 mm.
    (b) Abbreviate common adsorbents: (but use silica gel, not SiO2 as this does not describe the material accurately), Al2O3 (alumina).
    (c) Preparative forms of the technique should include details of (i) layer thickness (preparative TLC only), (ii) amount of sample applied to the layer, (iii) method of detection used to locate the bands and (iv) the solvent used to recover the compounds from the adsorbent after development.
    (d) Special forms of TLC on impregnated adsorbents can be abbreviated, e.g. AgNO3-silica gel (1:9), by wt can be assumed.
    (e) Solvent mixtures should be specified as under Abbreviations above.

    Gas chromatography
    (a) Detector used should be specified, e.g. dual FID, EC, etc.
    (b) Carrier gas and flow rate or inlet pressure should be given, e.g. N2 at 3 ml min-1/10 psi.
    (c) Operating conditions, such as injector and detector heater temperatures, oven temperature programme, should be included.
    (d) Packed columns, e.g. 6 m x 3 mm (i.d. measurement only) packed with 1% SE-30 (support material and mesh size can be omitted unless unusual).
    (e) Capillary columns the type (e.g. WCOT, SCOT), manufacturer's designation (e.g. DB5) and dimensions (length, internal/external diameter, film thickness) should be specified.

    High performance liquid chromatography
    (a) Solvent or solvent gradients used together with flow rate should be given.
    (b) Column dimensions (length x i.d. only) and packing used.
    (c) Method of detection employed, e.g. UV or refractive index.

    Biochemical conventions
    Unless a common biochemical term (e.g. ATP, NADH), biochemicals that are abbreviated should be spelled out in full (in brackets) immediately following their first usage in the text.

    Enzyme names are typically not abbreviated, unless there are accepted abbreviations, such as ATPase. Where possible, E.C. numbers should be used for enzymes, and the recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) should be used (see below).

    Enzyme characterization
    (a) Enzyme activity is expressed in units of katals (symbol kat), the conversion of one mol of substrate per sec. It should be made clear that the measurements were made under specified optimum conditions and were not seriously affected by losses during extraction and analysis.
    (b) pH optima should be given together with pH values for half maximal activity.
    (c) Kinetic parameters should be expressed as Vmax, Km etc.
    (d) Enzyme inhibitors-effectiveness should be expressed as Ki or concentration for half-maximal activity.
    (e) Optimal temperature of enzymes should not be given. This should be expressed in terms of "Energy of Activation" and "Energy of Activation for Denaturation".
    (f) Enzyme nomenclature is now given in "Enzyme Nomenclature, Recommendations", Academic Press (1992) (
    (g) Labeling of proteins and nucleic acids-use of labeled precursors in assessing the rate of synthesis of macromolecules must be validated by evidence of real, direct incorporation. The possibility of occlusion or adsorption of isotopic material should be noted and it should be shown that the labeled precursor is incorporated without prior catabolism.

    Protein and nucleotide sequences
    The Experimental must contain explicit documentation of the ends of nucleotide probes used in the study if previously unpublished, or by appropriate reference to published nucleotide numbers and/or restriction map. In manuscripts to be published in Phytochemistry, any new protein and/or nucleotide sequence must have been submitted to EMBL, GenBank™ or DNA Data Bank of Japan databases, with designated accession number(s) obtained prior to paper acceptance by the Regional Editor. The Author(s) must ensure access to this database information by timely release of data prior to publication, as well as providing necessary documentation to those already in the databases.

    Nucleotide sequence data can be submitted either electronically (e-mail) or in computer-readable format, GenBank™, EMBL and the DNA Data Bank of Japan addresses are:
    GenBank Submissions, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Building 38A, Room 8N-803, Bethesda, MD 20894. Tel.: +1 301 496-2475; e-mail (submissions):; e-mail (information):
    EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Submissions, European Bioinformatics Institute, Hinxton Hall, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. Tel.: +44 (0) 1223-494401; fax: +44 (0) 1223-494472; e-mail:; world wide web:
    DNA Data Bank of Japan, Center for Information Biology, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuuoka 411-8540, Japan. Tel.: (+81) 559-81-6853; fax: (+81) 559-81-6849; e-mail: (for data submissions); world wide web:
    Contributors must obtain the designated accession number, which will be incorporated into the paper, prior to printing.

    Only novel DNA sequences will be published. Sequences that show close similarity to known coding or other sequences such as promoters will not be published and will be cited by accession number. Translated protein sequence information should be published as alignments against other gene family members. Papers containing such information about genes already known in other species should have sufficient novelty and biological significance. Sequence only papers or papers which duplicate work in another species will not be published.
    Genes known by three letter names should be written in italics. The corresponding cognate protein should be written in capital, non-italic text.

    Database linking

    Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving their readers one-click access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See for more information and a full list of supported databases.


    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color Artwork

    Colour in print: The charge for printed colour will be given on request by contacting
    Colour on the web: Any figure can appear free of charge in colour in the web version of your article, regardless of whether or not this is reproduced in colour in the printed version. Please note that if you do not opt for colour in print, you should submit relevant figures in both colour (for the web) and black-and-white (for print).

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.


    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.


    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as "in press" implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Reference management software
    This journal has standard templates available in key reference management packages EndNote ( and Reference Manager ( Using plug-ins to wordprocessing packages, authors only need to select the appropriate journal template when preparing their article and the list of references and citations to these will be formatted according to the journal style which is described below.

    Reference style
    Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
    1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
    2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
    3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
    Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
    Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown ....'
    List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
    Reference to a journal publication:
    Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2010. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 2000. The Elements of Style, fourth ed. Longman, New York.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.

    Journal Abbreviations Source

    Journal titles should be abbreviated (e.g. Carbohydr. Res.) following the Chemical Abstracts Service Source Index (CASSI) style (a list of abbreviated journal titles is available online at

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.


    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at

    Interactive plots

    This journal encourages you to include data and quantitative results as interactive plots with your publication. To make use of this feature, please include your data as a CSV (comma-separated values) file when you submit your manuscript. Please refer to for further details and formatting instructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at

    Additional Information

    Is the subject matter really appropriate to Phytochemistry?
    Is the work described both new and significant?
    Have you supplied a Graphical Abstract?
    Is the Title both short and informative?
    Does the Abstract fully represent your scientific contribution? Is it self-contained? (Avoid formulae, numbers and abbreviations given in the text.)
    Have you avoided repeating yourself? Have you avoided presenting the same data more than once? Can you really justify writing separate 'Results' and 'Discussion' sections?
    Have you checked plant names? Are you sure of the identity of the plants examined? Have you indicated the part of the plant you extracted? Have you deposited a voucher specimen and given access information?
    Have you remembered to add the accepted IUPAC systematic names for new plant products?
    Have you used all the suggested abbreviations in the Experimental?
    Have you remembered to enclose with (or cite in) your manuscript and other relevant papers (e.g. reprint of previous paper in a series, any manuscripts of papers in press referred to in the paper, etc.)?
    Is your manuscript double-spaced throughout with adequate margins and consists of one file containing all your text, figures and tables with a file name extension, plus separate original graphic files ready for online submission?

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Online proof correction

    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
    If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
    We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately. Please use this proof only for checking the typesetting, editing, completeness and correctness of the text, tables and figures. Significant changes to the article as accepted for publication will only be considered at this stage with permission from the Editor.It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.


    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop ( Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (

    You can track your submitted article at You can track your accepted article at You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via


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