Guide for Authors

  • All journal information and instructions compiled in one document (PDF) in just one mouse-click Author information pack

    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Submission declaration and verification
    • Contributors
    • Authorship
    • Changes to authorship
    • Article transfer service
    • Copyright
    • Role of the funding source
    • Funding body agreements and policies
    • Open access
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • Submission
    • Referees
    • Taxonomic issues - essential checklist
    PREPARATION
    • Manuscript Submisison
    • Use of word processing software
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Graphical abstract
    • Highlights
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Units
    • Nomenclature and units
    • Database linking
    • Math formulae
    • Footnotes
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Online proof correction
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES

    Introduction
    Phytochemistry Letters invites rapid communications on all aspects of natural product research including: structural elucidation of natural products, biotechnology, pharmacology of natural products, ethnobotany and traditional usage, genetics of natural products, analytical evaluation of herbal medicines, clinical efficacy, safety and pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines, bioassay-guided isolation, natural product synthesis and chemical modification, natural product biosynthesis, metabolomics, natural product metabolism and chemical ecology.

    Link to full Guide for Authors
    Some of the notes shown here do not include all special characters. The full instructions to authors, including all special characters are available for download as a pdf file. pdf link Types of paper
    • Short Communications
    • Mini-Reviews

    Contact details for submission
    All manuscripts should be submitted electronically through Elsevier Editorial System (EES) which can be accessed at http://ees.elsevier.com/phytol/

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Submission declaration and verification

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis or as an electronic preprint, see http://www.elsevier.com/postingpolicy), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, including electronically without the written consent of the copyright-holder. To verify originality, your article may be checked by the originality detection service CrossCheck http://www.elsevier.com/editors/plagdetect.

    Contributors

    Each author is required to declare his or her individual contribution to the article: all authors must have materially participated in the research and/or article preparation, so roles for all authors should be described. The statement that all authors have approved the final article should be true and included in the disclosure.

    Authorship

    All authors should have made substantial contributions to all of the following: (1) the conception and design of the study, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, (3) final approval of the version to be submitted.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    Article transfer service

    This journal is part of our Article Transfer Service. This means that if the Editor feels your article is more suitable in one of our other participating journals, then you may be asked to consider transferring the article to one of those. If you agree, your article will be transferred automatically on your behalf with no need to reformat. More information about this can be found here: http://www.elsevier.com/authors/article-transfer-service.

    Copyright

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research: Open access and Subscription.

    For subscription articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' (for more information on this and copyright, see http://www.elsevier.com/copyright). An e-mail will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement.
    Subscribers may reproduce tables of contents or prepare lists of articles including abstracts for internal circulation within their institutions. Permission of the Publisher is required for resale or distribution outside the institution and for all other derivative works, including compilations and translations (please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions). If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: please consult http://www.elsevier.com/permissions.

    For open access articles
    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete an 'Exclusive License Agreement' (for more information see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement). Permitted reuse of open access articles is determined by the author's choice of user license (see http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesslicenses).

    Retained author rights
    As an author you (or your employer or institution) retain certain rights. For more information on author rights for:
    Subscription articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/author-rights-and-responsibilities.
    Open access articles please see http://www.elsevier.com/OAauthoragreement.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Funding body agreements and policies

    Elsevier has established agreements and developed policies to allow authors whose articles appear in journals published by Elsevier, to comply with potential manuscript archiving requirements as specified as conditions of their grant awards. To learn more about existing agreements and policies please visit http://www.elsevier.com/fundingbodies.

    Open access

    This journal offers authors a choice in publishing their research:

    Open access
    • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse
    • An open access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    Subscription
    • Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access)
    • No open access publication fee

    All articles published open access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:
    Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY-NC-SA).
    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide open access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published open access.
    Your publication choice will have no effect on the peer review process or acceptance of submitted articles.

    The publication fee for this journal is $2,600, excluding taxes. Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policy: http://www.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    Submission

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Submit your article
    Please submit your article via http://ees.elsevier.com/phytol/

    Referees

    Please submit the names and institutional e-mail addresses of several potential referees. For more details, visit our Support site. Note that the editor retains the sole right to decide whether or not the suggested reviewers are used.

    Additional information
    Manuscripts that detail the isolation of just one new compound are not substantial enough to be sent out of review and are out of scope. Furthermore, where pharmacology has been performed on one new compound to increase the amount of novel data, the pharmacology must be substantial and/or related to the medicinal use of the producing organism.
    Submissions from any field of natural product research are encouraged and the following list is not exhaustive:
    • Structural elucidation of natural products
    • Analytical evaluation of herbal medicines
    • Clinical efficacy, safety and pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines
    • Natural product biosynthesis
    • Natural product synthesis and semi-synthesis
    • Chemical ecology
    • Biotechnology
    • Bioassay-guided isolation
    • Pharmacognosy
    • Pharmacology of natural products
    • Metabolomics
    • Ethnobotany and traditional usage
    • Natural product metabolism
    • Genetics of natural products

    Taxonomic issues - essential checklist

    In the context of Phytochemistry Letters taxonomic issues need to be addressed in a variety of ways.

    •It is general practice that voucher specimens should be deposited in a recognized herbarium. These voucher specimens need to be fully cited within the article (with collector, collector number and herbarium). In the case of lesser known plants, we encourage authors to include electronic scans of the specimens as part of their supplementary data.
    •As an essential step, authors will have to check the taxonomic validity of the plant names using one of the international databases, and preferably www.theplantlist.org
    •In future, such a check will be built into the submission and review process and authors will only be able to submit manuscripts, after the validation of the species' taxonomy.
    •A particular problem are complex preparations, especially those containing plant extracts. Here detailed evidence on the authentication during the production needs to be ascertained. In addition fingerprints of the preparations tested are advisable.
    •Very commonly these questions have been ignored in clinical studies of herbal preparations. The following two papers make it clear that a correct taxonomic nomenclature is an essential requirement in such studies:
    Heinrich and Verpoorte, J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014, doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2014.01.016 and Rivera et al J. Ethnopharmacol. 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.022

    Manuscript Submisison

    The following item should be submitted via the online submission page:

    Mol files (optional): Elsevier would like to enrich online articles by visualising and providing details of chemical structures you define as the main chemical compounds described in your article. For this purpose, mol files of the key compounds can be uploaded in EES.Please use your preferred drawing tool to export chemical structures as mol files and ensure that they are well defined and do not contain aromatic bonds, R-Groups or other variables. More information.

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - numbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, ...), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to 'the text'. Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Introduction
    State the objectives of the work and provide an adequate background, avoiding a detailed literature survey or a summary of the results.

    Specific names (genus, species, authority for the binomial) of all experimental plants must be given at first mention according to the Index Kewensis (searchable online at http://www.ipni.org) or similar authority. (The Plant-Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants, by D. J. Mabberley, 2nd ed., June 1997, Cambridge University Press; ISBN:0521414210), and preferably be in the form recommended by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (http://www.bgbm.fu-berlin.de/iapt/nomenclature/code/tokyo-e/default.htm). Named varieties of cultivars are given e.g. Lactuca sativa cv. Grand Rapids. (The official printed version of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature has been published as International Code of Botanical Nomenclature {Tokyo Code}. Regnum Vegetabile 131. Koeltz Scientific Books, Konigstein. ISBN: 3-87429-367-X or 1-878762-66-4 or 80-901699-l-0.)

    Material and methods
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    Experimental
    Provide sufficient detail to allow the work to be reproduced. Methods already published should be indicated by a reference: only relevant modifications should be described.

    Subsections on the Experimental Procedures should be italicized and inserted as part of the first line of the text to which they apply. Phytochemistry Letters encourages an extensive use of abbreviations (these are below, or the reader is referred to other sources). The Experimental should begin with a subsection entitled General Experimental Procedures. This subsection will typically contain brief details of instruments used, and identification of sources of specialized chemicals, biochemicals and molecular biology kits.

    This subsection describes the source(s) and documentation of biological materials used, whether in reference to whole plants or parts there from, crude drugs, or any other material from which identifiable chemical substances are obtained for the first time. Documentation must also include a reference to voucher specimen(s) and voucher number(s) of the plants or other material examined. If available, authors should quote the name and address of the authority who identified each non-cultivated plant investigated. Specimens should preferentially be deposited in a major regional herbarium where the collection is maintained by state or private institution and which permits loan of such materials.

    With micro-organisms, the culture collection from which they were either accessed and/or deposited should be included, together with identification of the strain designation code.

    The Experimental Procedures employed should be concise but sufficiently detailed that a qualified researcher will be able to repeat the studies undertaken, and these should emphasize either truly new procedures or essential modifications of existing procedures. Experimental details normally omitted include: (1) method of preparation of common chemical and biochemical derivatives, (2) excessive details of separation of compounds, proteins and enzymes, e.g. preparation of columns, TLC plates, column and fraction size.

    Compound characterization: Physical and spectroscopic data for new compounds must be comprehensive, and follow the order shown below: compound name (and assigned number in text); physical state of compound (e.g. oil, crystal, liquid, etc.), melting and/or boiling point; optical rotation and/or circular dichroism measurements, if optically active; UV; IR; 1H NMR; 13C NMR; MS. For all new compounds, either high-resolution mass spectral or elemental analysis data are required. See later section for method of data presentation.

    Nomenclature: Chemical nomenclature, abbreviations and symbols must follow IUPAC rules. Whenever possible, avoid coining new trivial names; every effort should be made to modify an existing name. For example, when a new compound is described, it should be given a full systematic name according to IUPAC nomenclature and this should be cited in the Abstract or in the Experimental section. Isotopically-labeled substances should be written with the correct chemical name of the compound. The symbol for the isotope should be placed in square brackets and should precede that part of the name to which it refers, e.g. sodium [14C]formate.

    For presentation of Optical Rotation data, Infrared Spectra data, NMR Spectral data and Mass Spectral data please see the full instructions to authors, including all special characters available for download as a pdf file. pdf link



    X-ray crystallography. Only essential data (e.g. a three-dimensional structural drawing with bond distances) should be included in manuscripts. A complete list of data in CIF (Crystallographic Information File) format should be prepared separately and deposited with the Cambridge Crystallographic Data Centre (see http://www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk for further information) before the paper is submitted. A footnote indicating this fact is to be included in the manuscript. "CCDC contains the supplementary crystallographic data for this paper. These data can be obtained free of charge via http://www.ccdc.cam.ac.uk/conts/retrieving.html (or from the CCDC, 12 Union Road, Cambridge CB2 1EZ, UK; fax: +44 1223 336033; e-mail: deposit@ccdc.cam.ac.uk)". Crystal structures of proteins should be submitted to the Protein Data Bank (see http://www.rcsb.org/pdb; e-mail: info@rcsb.org). Please submit a copy of the CIF data when you submit your manuscript.

    Elemental analysis results for compounds which have been adequately described in the literature must be given in the form: (Found: C, 62.9; H, 5.4. Calc. for C13H13O4N: C, 63.2; H, 5.3%.) New compounds must be indicated by giving analytical results in the form: (Found: C, 62.9; H, 5.4. C13H13O4N requires: C, 63.2; H, 5.3%.) Thin-layer chromatography
    (a) For analytical TLC, dimensions of the plates can be deleted if layer thickness is 0.25 mm.
    (b) Abbreviate common adsorbents: (but use silica gel, not SiO2 as this does not describe the material accurately), Al2O3 (alumina).
    (c) Preparative forms of the technique should include details of (i) layer thickness (preparative TLC only), (ii) amount of sample applied to the layer, (iii) method of detection used to locate the bands and (iv) the solvent used to recover the compounds from the adsorbent after development.
    (d) Special forms of TLC on impregnated adsorbents can be abbreviated, e.g. AgNO3-silica gel (1:9), by wt can be assumed.

    Gas chromatography
    (a) Detector used should be specified, e.g. dual FID, EC, etc.
    (b) Carrier gas and flow rate should be given, e.g. N2 at 30 ml min-1.
    (c) Operating conditions, such as injector and detector heater temperatures etc., should be included.
    (d) Packed columns, e.g. 6 m x 3 mm (i.d. measurement only) packed with 1% SE-30 (support material and mesh size can be omitted unless unusual).
    (e) Capillary columns should be specified, e.g. WCOT (wall coated open tubular), SCOT (support coated open tubular). The split ratio used in the injection system and the injection volume for the sample should also be included.

    High performance liquid chromatography
    (a) Solvent or solvent gradients used together with flow rate should be given.
    (b) Column dimensions (length x i.d. only) and packing used.
    (c) Method of detection employed, e.g. UV or refractive index.

    Biochemical conventions

    Unless a common biochemical term (e.g. ATP, NADH), biochemicals that are abbreviated should be spelled out in full (in brackets) immediately following their first usage in the text. Enzyme names are typically not abbreviated, unless there are accepted abbreviations, such as ATPase. Where possible, E.C. numbers should be used for enzymes, and the recommendations of the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB) should be used (see below). Enzyme characterization
    (a) Enzyme activity is expressed in units of katals (symbol kat), the conversion of one mol of substrate per sec. It should be made clear that the measurements were made under specified optimum conditions and were not seriously affected by losses during extraction and analysis.
    (b) pH optima should be given together with pH values for half maximal activity.
    (c) Kinetic parameters should be expressed as Vmax, Km etc.
    (d) Enzyme inhibitors-effectiveness should be expressed as Ki or concentration for half-maximal activity.
    (e) Optimal temperature of enzymes should not be given. This should be expressed in terms of "Energy of Activation" and "Energy of Activation for Denaturation".
    (f) Enzyme nomenclature is now given in "Enzyme Nomenclature, Recommendations", Academic Press (1992) (http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb ).
    (g) Labelling of proteins and nucleic acids-use of labelled precursors in assessing the rate of synthesis of macromolecules must be validated by evidence of real, direct incorporation. The possibility of occlusion or adsorption of isotopic material should be noted and it should be shown that the labelled precursor is incorporated without prior catabolism.

    Protein and nucleotide sequences

    The Experimental must contain explicit documentation of the ends of nucleotide probes used in the study if previously unpublished, or by appropriate reference to published nucleotide numbers and/or restriction map.

    In manuscripts to be published in Phytochemistry Letters, any new protein and/or nucleotide sequence must have been submitted to EMBL, GenBank or DNA Data Bank of Japan databases, with designated accession number(s) obtained prior to paper acceptance by the Regional Editor. The Author(s) must ensure access to this database information by timely release of data prior to publication, as well as providing necessary documentation to those already in the databases.

    Nucleotide sequence data can be submitted either electronically (e-mail) or in computer-readable format, GenBank , EMBL and the DNA Data Bank of Japan addresses are: GenBank Submissions, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Building 38A, Room 8N-803, Bethesda, MD 20894. Tel.: +1 301 496-2475; e-mail (submissions): gb-sub@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; e-mail (information): info@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov; EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Submissions, European Bioinformatics Institute, Hinxton Hall, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SD, UK. Tel.: +44 (0) 1223-494401; fax: +44 (0) 1223-494472; e-mail: datasubs@ebi.ac.uk; world wide web: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/embl; or DNA Data Bank of Japan, Center for Information Biology, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuuoka 411-8540, Japan. Tel.: (+81) 559-81-6853; fax: (+81) 559-81-6849; e-mail: ddbjsub@ddbj.nig.ac.jp (for data submissions); world wide web: http://www.ddbj.nig.ac.jp.

    Contributors must obtain the designated accession number, which will be incorporated into the paper, prior to printing.

    Only novel DNA sequences will be published. Sequences that show close similarity to known coding or other sequences such as promoters will not be published and will be cited by accession number. Translated protein sequence information should be published as alignments against other gene family members. Papers containing such information about genes already known in other species should have sufficient novelty and biological significance. Sequence only papers or papers which duplicate work in another species will not be published.

    Genes known by three letter names should be written in italics. The corresponding cognate protein should be written in capital, non-italic text.
    GenBank/DNA sequence linking

    DNA sequences and GenBank accession numbers: Many Elsevier journals cite "gene accession numbers" in their running text footnotes. Gene accession numbers refer to genes or DNA sequences about which further information can be found in the database at the National Center for Biotechnical Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine. Authors wishing to enable other scientists to use the accession numbers cited in their papers via links to these sources should type this information in the following manner.

    For each and every accession number cited in an article, authors should type the accession number in bold, underlined text. Letters in the accession number should always be capitalised (see example 1 below). This combination of letters and format will enable Elsevier's typesetters to recognize the relevant texts as accession numbers and add the required link to GenBank's sequences.
    Example 1: "GenBank accession nos. AI631510, AI631511, AI632198, and BF223228), a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117)".
    Authors are encouraged to check accession numbers used very carefully. An error in a letter or number can result in a dead link.

    In the final version of printed article, the accession number text will not appear bold or underlined (see example 2 below).
    Example 2: "GenBank accession nos. AI631510, AI631511, AI632198, and BF223228, a B-cell tumor from a chronic lymphatic leukemia (GenBank accession no. BE675048), and a T-cell lymphoma (GenBank accession no. AA361117)".
    In the final version of the electronic copy, the accession number text will be linked to the appropriate source in the NCBI databases, enabling readers to go directly to that source from the article. Results
    Results should be clear and concise.

    Discussion
    This should explore the significance of the results of the work, not repeat them. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Graphical abstract

    A Graphical abstract is mandatory for this journal. It should summarize the contents of the article in a concise, pictorial form designed to capture the attention of a wide readership online. Authors must provide images that clearly represent the work described in the article. Graphical abstracts should be submitted as a separate file in the online submission system. Image size: please provide an image with a minimum of 531 × 1328 pixels (h × w) or proportionally more. The image should be readable at a size of 5 × 13 cm using a regular screen resolution of 96 dpi. Preferred file types: TIFF, EPS, PDF or MS Office files. See http://www.elsevier.com/graphicalabstracts for examples.
    Authors can make use of Elsevier's Illustration and Enhancement service to ensure the best presentation of their images also in accordance with all technical requirements: Illustration Service.

    Highlights

    Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other units are mentioned, please give their equivalent in SI.

    Nomenclature and units

    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI. You are urged to consult IUPAC: Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry: http://www.iupac.org/ for further information.

    Database linking

    Elsevier encourages authors to connect articles with external databases, giving their readers one-click access to relevant databases that help to build a better understanding of the described research. Please refer to relevant database identifiers using the following format in your article: Database: xxxx (e.g., TAIR: AT1G01020; CCDC: 734053; PDB: 1XFN). See http://www.elsevier.com/databaselinking for more information and a full list of supported databases.

    Math formulae

    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible and use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line for small fractional terms, e.g., X/Y. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp. Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separately from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Footnotes

    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves separately at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.
    Table footnotes
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Color artwork
    Please make sure that artwork files are in an acceptable format (TIFF (or JPEG), EPS (or PDF), or MS Office files) and with the correct resolution. If, together with your accepted article, you submit usable color figures then Elsevier will ensure, at no additional charge, that these figures will appear in color on the Web (e.g., ScienceDirect and other sites) regardless of whether or not these illustrations are reproduced in color in the printed version. For color reproduction in print, you will receive information regarding the costs from Elsevier after receipt of your accepted article. Please indicate your preference for color: in print or on the Web only. For further information on the preparation of electronic artwork, please see http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.
    Please note: Because of technical complications which can arise by converting color figures to 'gray scale' (for the printed version should you not opt for color in print) please submit in addition usable black and white versions of all the color illustrations.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Text graphics
    Text graphics may be embedded in the text at the appropriate position. If you are working with LaTeX and have such features embedded in the text, these can be left. See further under Electronic artwork.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citation in text
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Web references
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Reference style
    Text: All citations in the text should refer to:
    1. Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;
    2. Two authors: both authors' names and the year of publication;
    3. Three or more authors: first author's name followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication.
    Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.
    Examples: 'as demonstrated (Allan, 2000a, 2000b, 1999; Allan and Jones, 1999). Kramer et al. (2010) have recently shown ....'
    List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.
    Examples:
    Reference to a journal publication:
    Van der Geer, J., Hanraads, J.A.J., Lupton, R.A., 2010. The art of writing a scientific article. J. Sci. Commun. 163, 51–59.
    Reference to a book:
    Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., 2000. The Elements of Style, fourth ed. Longman, New York.
    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:
    Mettam, G.R., Adams, L.B., 2009. How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: Jones, B.S., Smith , R.Z. (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age. E-Publishing Inc., New York, pp. 281–304.

    Journal abbreviations source
    Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Abbreviations
    About, approximately: ca.
    Anhydrous: dry (not anhyd.)
    Aqueous: aq.
    Circular dichroism: CD
    Concentrated (or mineral acids): conc.
    Concentrations: ppm (never ppb!), M, mM, M, %, mol
    Dry weight: dry wt; fresh weight: fr. wt
    Electricity: V, mA, eV
    Force due to gravity (centrifugation): g; rpm (revolutions min-1)
    Gas chromatography: GC
    Gas chromatography mass spectrometry: GC MS trimethylsilyl derivative: TMSi (TMS cannot be used as this refers to the internal standard tetramethylsilane used in 1H NMR)
    High performance liquid chromatography: HPLC
    Infrared spectrophotometry: IR
    Length: nm, m, mm, cm, m
    Literature: lit.
    Mass spectrometry: m/z [M]+ (molecular ion, parent ion)
    Melting points: uncorr. (uncorrected)
    Molecular mass: Da (daltons), kDa
    Molecular weight: Mr
    Nuclear magnetic resonance: 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Hz, ð
    Numbers: e.g. 1, 10, 100, 1000, 10,000: per or -1
    Optical rotatory dispersion: ORD
    Paper chromatography: PC
    Precipitate: ppt.
    Preparative thin-layer chromatography: prep. TLC
    Radioactivity: dpm (disintegrations per min), Ci (curie), sp. act (specific activity), Bq (1 becquerel=1 nuclear transformation sec-1)
    Repetitive manipulations: once, twice, x3, x4, etc.
    RRt (relative retention time), Rt (Kovat's retention index), ECL (equivalent chain length term frequently used in fatty acid work)
    Saturated: satd.
    Solution: soln.
    Solvent mixtures including chromatographic solvents: abbreviate as follows n-BuOH HOAc H2O (4:1:5)
    Statistics: LSD (least significant difference), s.d. (standard deviation), s.e. (standard error)
    Temperature: (with centigrade), mp, mps, mmp, bp
    Temperature: temp.
    Thin-layer chromatography: TLC, Rf
    Time: s, min, h, day, week, month, year
    Ultraviolet spectrophotometry: UV, A (absorbance, not OD optical density)
    Volume: l (litre), l, ml
    Weight: wt, pg, ng, g, mg, g, kg

    Inorganics, e.g. AlCl3 (aluminum chloride), BF3 (boron trifluoride), Cr-, CO2, H2, HCl, HClO4 (perchloric acid), HNO3, H2O, H2O2, H2SO4, H3BO3 (boric acid), He, KHCO3 (potassium bicarbonate), KMnO4 (potassium permanganate), KOH, K-Pi buffer (potassium phosphate buffer), LiAlH4 (lithium aluminium hydride), Mg2+, MgCl2, N2, NH3, (NH4)2SO4, Na+, NaBH4 (sodium borohydride), NaCl, NaIO4 (sodium periodate), NaOH, Na2SO3 (sodium sulphite), Na2SO4 (sodium sulphate), Na2S2O3 (sodium thiosulphate), O2, PPi (inorganic phosphate), SO, Tris (buffer).

    Organics, e.g. Ac2O (acetic anhydride), n-BuOH (butanol), C6H6 (benzene), CCl4 (carbon tetrachloride), CH2Cl2 (methylene chloride), CHCl3 (chloroform), CH2N2 (diazo-methane), CM (carboxymethyl), DEAE (diethylaminoethyl), DMF (dimethylformamide), DMSO (dimethyl sulphoxide), EDTA (ethylene-diaminetetra-acetic acid), Et2O (diethyl ether), EtOAc (ethyl acetate), EtOH (ethanol), HCO2H (formic acid), HOAc (acetic acid), iso-PrOH (iso-propanol), Me2CO (acetone), MeCOEt (methyl ethyl ketone), MeOH (methanol), NaOAc (sodium acetate), NaOMe (sodium methoxide), petrol (not light-petroleum or petroleum ether), PhOH (phenol), PrOH (propanol), PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone), TCA (trichloroacetic acid), TFA (trifluoroacetic acid), THF (tetrahydrofuran). 1H NMR solvents and standards: CDCl3 (deuterochloroform), D2O, DMSO-d6 [deuterodimethylsulphoxide, not (CD3)2SO], pyridine-d5 (deuteropyridine), TMS (tetramethylsilane).

    For further terms used in biochemistry and molecular biology the authors should see the websites of the nomenclature committees (http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/ ).

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Online proof correction

    Corresponding authors will receive an e-mail with a link to our online proofing system, allowing annotation and correction of proofs online. The environment is similar to MS Word: in addition to editing text, you can also comment on figures/tables and answer questions from the Copy Editor. Web-based proofing provides a faster and less error-prone process by allowing you to directly type your corrections, eliminating the potential introduction of errors.
    If preferred, you can still choose to annotate and upload your edits on the PDF version. All instructions for proofing will be given in the e-mail we send to authors, including alternative methods to the online version and PDF.
    We will do everything possible to get your article published quickly and accurately - please upload all of your corrections within 48 hours. It is important to ensure that all corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Please check carefully before replying, as inclusion of any subsequent corrections cannot be guaranteed. Proofreading is solely your responsibility. Note that Elsevier may proceed with the publication of your article if no response is received.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/p/8045. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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