Guide for Authors

  • Submission checklist

    It is hoped that this list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal's Editor for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.

    Ensure that the following items are present:

    • One Author designated as corresponding Author:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Telephone number

    Ensure that all necessary files have been uploaded:

    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)

    Further considerations

    • Manuscript has been "spellchecked"
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Colour figures are clearly marked as being intended for colour reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print or to be reproduced in colour on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only colour on the web is required, black and white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes

    For any further information please contact the Author Support Department at authorsupport@elsevier.com


    Submission of Articles

    Types of Contributions
    The publication policy is to publish (1) new original articles that have been appropriately reviewed by competent scientific people, (2) reviews of developments in the field, and (3) pedagogical papers covering specific areas of interest in pattern recognition. Various special issues will be organized from time to time on current topics of interest to Pattern Recognition.


    General

    Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the copyright-holder.

    Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to transfer copyright (for more information on copyright, see http://authors.elsevier.com). This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. A letter will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript. A form facilitating transfer of copyright will be provided.
    If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: contact Elsevier Global Rights Department, P.O. Box 800, Oxford, OX5 1DX, UK; phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, e-mail: permissions@elsevier.com

    On-line -submission to the journal prior to acceptance

    Submission to this journal proceeds totally online and you will be guided stepwise through the creation and uploading of your files. The system automatically converts source files to a single PDF file of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Please note that even though manuscript source files are converted to PDF files at submission for the review process, these source files are needed for further processing after acceptance. All correspondence, including notification of the Editor's decision and requests for revision, takes place by e-mail removing the need for a paper trail.

    Electronic format requirements for accepted articles

    General points
    We accept most wordprocessing formats, but Word, WordPerfect or LaTeX is preferred. Always keep a backup copy of the electronic file for reference and safety. Label storage media with your name, journal title, and software used. Save your files using the default extension of the program used. No changes to the accepted version are permissible without the explicit approval of the Editor. Electronic files can be stored on 3–inch diskette, ZIP-disk or CD (either MS-DOS or Macintosh).

    Wordprocessor documents
    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the wordprocessor used. The text should be in single–column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the wordprocessor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. Do not embed 'graphically designed' equations or tables, but prepare these using the wordprocessor's facility. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Author Gateway's Quickguide: http://authors.elsevier.com). Do not import the figures into the text file but, instead, indicate their approximate locations directly in the electronic text and on the manuscript. See also the section on Preparation of electronic illustrations.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the "spellchecker" function of your wordprocessor.

    LaTeX documents
    If the LaTeX file is suitable, proofs will be produced without rekeying the text. The text should be in single-column format. The article should preferably be written using Elsevier's document class "elsart", or alternatively the standard document class 'article'.

    The Elsevier LaTeX package (including detailed instructions for LaTeX preparation) can be obtained from the Author Gateway's Quickguide: http://authors.elsevier.com. It consists of the files: elsart.cls (use this file if you are using LaTeX2e, the current version of LaTeX), elsart.sty and elsart12.sty (use these two files if you are using LaTeX2.09, the previous version of LaTeX), guidelines for users of elsart, a template file for quick start, and the instruction booklet "Preparing articles with LaTeX".


    Preparation of text

    Presentation of manuscript

    General
    Please write your text in good English American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Italics are not to be used for expressions of latin origin, for example, in vivo, et al., per se. Use decimal points (not commas); use a space for thousands (10 000 and above).

    Type the manuscript, using double spacing and wide (3 cm) margins. Do not exceed 35 pages. (Avoid full justification, i.e., do not use a constant right-hand margin.) Ensure that each new paragraph is clearly indicated.

    Provide the following data on the title page (in the order given).

    Title.
    Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.

    Author names and affiliations.
    Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name, and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.

    Corresponding author.
    Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.

    Present / permanent address.
    If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract.
    A concise and factual abstract is required (maximum length 150 words). The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the methods used, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separate from the article, so it must be able to stand alone.

    References should therefore be avoided, but if essential, they must be cited in full, without reference to the reference list.

    Highlights.
    Highlights are mandatory for this journal. They consist of a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Keywords.
    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of five to ten keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These Keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations.
    Define abbreviations and symbols that are not standard in this field at their first occurrence in the article: in the abstract but also in the main text after it. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    N.B. Acknowledgements.
    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise.


    Arrangement of the article

    Subdivision of the article.
    Divide your article into clearly defined and numbered sections. Subsections should be numbered 1.1 (then 1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc.), 1.2, etc. (the abstract is not included in section numbering). Use this numbering also for internal cross-referencing: do not just refer to "the text." Any subsection may be given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line.

    Acknowledgements.
    Place acknowledgements, including information on grants received, before the references, in a separate section, and not as a footnote on the title page.

    References.
    See separate section, below.

    Vitae.
    Include in the manuscript a short (maximum 50 words) biography of each author.

    Figure legends, tables, figures, schemes.
    Present these separately from the text, in this order. They are described in more detail below. High-resolution graphics files must always be provided separate from the main text file (see Preparation of illustrations).

    Text graphics.
    Present incidental graphics not suitable for mention as figures, plates or schemes at the end of the article and number them 'Graphic 1', etc. Their precise position in the text can then be defined similarly (both on the manuscript and in the file). See further under the section, Preparation of illustrations. If you are working with LaTeX and have such features embedded in the text, these can be left, but such embedding should not be done specifically for publishing purposes. Further, high-resolution graphics files must be provided separately (see Preparation of illustrations).

    Specific remarks

    Mathematical formulae:
    Present simple formulae in the line of normal text where possible. In principle, variables are to be presented in italics. Use the solidus (/) instead of a horizontal line, e.g., Xp/Ym rather than
    Xp
    Ym
    Powers of e are often more conveniently denoted by exp.
    Number consecutively any equations that have to be displayed separate from the text (if referred to explicitly in the text).

    Footnotes.
    Footnotes should be used sparingly. Number them consecutively throughout the article, using superscript Arabic numbers. Many wordprocessors build footnotes into the text, and this feature may be used. Should this not be the case, indicate the position of footnotes in the text and present the footnotes themselves at the end of the article. Do not include footnotes in the Reference list.

    Table footnotes.
    Indicate each footnote in a table with a superscript lowercase letter.

    Tables.
    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    Nomenclature and units.
    Follow internationally accepted rules and conventions: use the international system of units (SI). If other quantities are mentioned, give their equivalent in SI.

    References


    Responsibility for the accuracy of bibliographic citations lies entirely with the authors.

    Citations in the text:
    Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications should not be in the reference list, but may be mentioned in the text. Citation of a reference as ?in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

    Citing and listing of web references.
    As a minimum, the full URL should be given. Any further information, if known (author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired, or can be included in the reference list.

    Text:
    Indicate references by number(s) in square brackets in line with the text. The actual authors can be referred to, but the reference number(s) must always be given.

    Example: "....as demonstrated [3,6]. Barnaby and Jones [8] obtaines a different result...."

    List:
    Number the references (numbers in square brackets) in the list in the order in which they appear in the text.

    Examples:

    Reference to a journal publication:

    [1] J. van der Geer, J.A.J. Hanraads, R.A. Lupton, The art of writing a scientific article, J. Sci. Commun. 163 (2000) 51-59.

    Reference to a book:

    [2] W. Strunk Jr., E.B. White, The Elements of Style, third ed., Macmillan, New York, 1979.

    Reference to a chapter in an edited book:

    [3] G.R. Mettam, L.B. Adams, How to prepare an electronic version of your article, in: B.S. Jones, R.Z. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to the Electronic Age, E-Publishing Inc., New York, 1999, pp. 281-304.


    Preparation of illustrations

    Preparation of electronic illustrations

    Submitting your artwork in the correct electronic format helps us to produce your work to the best possible standards, ensuring accuracy, clarity and a high level of detail.

    General points


    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Save text in illustrations as "graphics" or enclose the font.
    • Only use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Helvetica, Times, Symbol.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files, and supply a separate listing of the files and the software used.
    • Provide all illustrations as separate files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Produce images near to the desired size of the printed version.

    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://authors.elsevier.com/artwork

    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.

    Formats

    Regardless of the application used, when your electronic artwork is finalised, please "save as" or convert the images to one of the following formats (Note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below.):

    EPS: Vector drawings. Embed the font or save the text as "graphics".
    TIFF: Colour or greyscale photographs (halftones): always use a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF: Bitmapped line drawings: use a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF: Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (colour or greyscale): a minimum of 500 dpi is required.
    DOC, XLS or PPT: If your electronic artwork is created in any of these Microsoft Office applications please supply "as is".

    Please do not:
    • Supply embedded graphics in your wordprocessor (spreadsheet, presentation) document;
    • Supply files that are optimised for screen use (like GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); the resolution is too low;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Captions

    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Line drawings

    Supply high-quality drawings produced in black font colour. The lettering and symbols, as well as other details, should have proportionate dimensions, so as not to become illegible or unclear after possible reduction; in general, the figures should be designed for a reduction factor of two to three. The degree of reduction will be determined by the Publisher. Illustrations will not be enlarged. Consider the page format of the journal when designing the illustrations.

    Do not use any type of shading on computer-generated illustrations.

    Photographs (halftones)

    Remove non-essential areas of a photograph. Do not mount photographs unless they form part of a composite figure. Where necessary, insert a scale bar in the illustration (not below it), as opposed to giving a magnification factor in the legend.

    Note that photocopies of photographs are not acceptable.


    Proofs

    When your manuscript is received by the publisher it is considered to be it its final form. Proofs are not to be regarded as 'drafts'.

    One set of page proofs will be sent to the corresponding author, to be checked for typesetting/editing. No changes in, or additions to, the accepted (and subsequently edited) manuscript will be allowed at this stage. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

    A form with queries from the copyeditor may accompany your proofs. Please answer all queries and make any corrections or additions required.

    The Publisher reserves the right to proceed with with publication if corrections are not communicated. Return corrections within two days of receipt of the proofs. Should there be no corrections please confirm this.

    Elsevier will do everything possible to get your article corrected and published as quickly and accurately as possible. In order to do this we need your help. When you receive the proof of your article for correction, it is important to ensure that all of your corrections are sent back to us in one communication. Subsequent corrections will not be possible, so please ensure your first sending is complete. Note that this does not mean you have any less time to make your corrections, just that only one set of corrections will be accepted.
    Open Access
    This journal offers authors two choices to publish their research:
    1. Open Access • Articles are freely available to both subscribers and the wider public with permitted reuse•An Open Access publication fee is payable by authors or their research funder
    2. Subscription •Articles are made available to subscribers as well as developing countries and patient groups through our access programs (http://www.elsevier.com/access) • No Open Access publication fee

    All articles published Open Access will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download. Permitted reuse is defined by your choice of one of the following Creative Commons user licenses:

    Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY): lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts, and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text or data mine the article, even for commercial purposes, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, and do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation.

    Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-ShareAlike (CC BY-NC-SA): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, to create extracts, abstracts and other revised versions, adaptations or derivative works of or from an article (such as a translation), to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), to text and data mine the article, as long as they credit the author(s), do not represent the author as endorsing their adaptation of the article, do not modify the article in such a way as to damage the author's honor or reputation, and license their new adaptations or creations under identical terms (CC BY NC SA).

    Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC-BY-NC-ND): for non-commercial purposes, lets others distribute and copy the article, and to include in a collective work (such as an anthology), as long as they credit the author(s) and provided they do not alter or modify the article.

    To provide Open Access, this journal has a publication fee which needs to be met by the authors or their research funders for each article published Open Access. The Open Access publication fee for this journal is $USD 2400, excluding taxes.
    Learn more about Elsevier's pricing policywww.elsevier.com/openaccesspricing

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