Guide for Authors

  • Pathophysiology is an international English language journal which address the etiology, development, and eliminationof pathological processes. Contributions on the basic mechanisms underlying these processes, model systems and interdisciplinaryapproaches are strongly encouraged.

    Pathophysiology has a broad scope and is managed by an international editorial board which consists of highly respected scientistsfrom different speciality fields. As the biomedical sciences are becoming more interdisciplinary, Pathophysiology is eminently suitablefor the publication of key articles in this field. Contributions covering the following areas are welcomed: general pathophysiologicalprocesses - inflammation, infection, hypoxia, stress, shock, pain, disregulation; cellular and molecular pathophysiology; neuroscience;heart and circulation; respiratory system; renal, fluid and electrolyte pathophysiology; gastrointestinal and hepatic system;endocrine system; metabolic disorders; blood system; immune system; reproductive system; locomotor system. The journal'saudience comprises: physiologists, pathologists, physicians, neurologists, cardiologists, etc. in both university and hospitalenvironments.

    Types of contribution

    1. Original research papers (Regular Papers)
    2. Review articles

    Original research papers should report the results of original research. The material should not have been previously publishedelsewhere, except in a preliminary form. In no case should an article exceed 12 printed pages in its' final form.

    Rewiew articles of current areas of research are by invitation.

    Submission of manuscripts

    Submission of a paper to Pathophysiology is understood to imply that it has not previously been published (except in abstractform) and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts submitted under multiple authorship are reviewedon the assumption that all listed authors concur with the submission and that a copy of the final manuscript has been approvedby all authors and tacitly or implicitly by the responsible authorities in the laboratories where the work was carried out. Ifaccepted, the manuscript shall not be published elsewhere in the same form, in either the same or another language, without theconsent of the Editor and Publisher. Responsibility for the accuracy of the material in the manuscript lies entirely with theauthors.

    Upon acceptance of the article by the journal, the author(s) will be asked to transfer the copyright of the article to the publisher.This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information.

    Papers for consideration should be submitted electronically to the editor nearest to you:
    Editor-in-Chief: Osmo Hänninen, Dept. of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland , P.O. Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio, Finland. Tel: +358 50 550 6903 ; Fax: +358(17)163 112; E-mail:
    Regional Editor (Americas): J. Steven Alexander, Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 1501 Kings Highway, Shreveport, LA 71130-3932, USA. Tel: +1(318) 675 4151; Fax: +1(318) 675 4151; E-mail:
    Regional Editor (Europe): Hans-Christoph Scholle, Division Motor Research, Pathophysiology & Biomechanics, Department of Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Erfurter Strasse 35, 07740 Jena, Germany. +49(0)3641937373; Fax: +49(0)3641937377; E-mail:
    Regional Editor (Asia-Pacific): Osamu Matsuo, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osakasayama, 589-8511 Japan. Tel: +81 72 366 0221(ext 2110), Fax: +81 72 366 2106; E-mail:

    Electronic manuscripts

    Electronic manuscripts have the advantage that there is no need for the rekeying of text, thereby avoiding the possibility ofintroducing errors and resulting in reliable and fast delivery of proofs.

    For the initial submission of manuscripts for consideration, hardcopies are sufficient. For the processing of accepted papers,electronic versions are preferred. After final acceptance, your disk plus two, final and exactly matching printed versions should besubmitted together. It is important that thefile saved is in the native format of the wordprocessor program used. Label the disk with the name of the computer andwordprocessing package used, your name, and the name of the file on the disk. Further information may be obtained from thePublisher.

    Preparation of manuscripts

    1. Manuscripts should be written in English. Authors whose native language is not English are strongly advised to have theirmanuscripts checked by an English-speaking colleague prior to submission.
    2. Manuscripts should be prepared using Microsoft word, or Wordperfect (for PC or Mac) using 1” wide margins and double spacing throughout, including abstracts, footnotes and references. Every page of the manuscript, including the title page, references, tables etc. should be numbered. However, in the text no reference should be made to page numbers; if necessary, one may refer to sections. Underline words that should be in italics, and do not underline any other words. Avoid excessive usage of italics and bold type to emphasize part of the text.
    3. After preparing document, convert it to an Adobe PDF.
    4. All figures should initially be prepared in JPEG format. Convert all figures to PDFs and insert into appropriate section of PDF.
    5. Submit the completed document as a PDF document. This document will include:
      1) Title page
      2) Abstract
      3) Key words (indexing terms of normally 3-6 items)
      4) Introduction
      5) Materials, Methods & techniques,
      6) Results
      7) Discussion
      8) Conclusions
      9) Acknowledgements and Research support
      10) References
      11) Tables
      12) Figure legends
      13) Figures.


    The abstract should be clear, descriptive 400 words maximum.


    1. Authors should take notice of the limitations set by the size and lay-out of the journal. Large tables should be avoided.Reversing columns and rows will often reduce the dimensions of a table.
    2. If many data are to be presented, an attempt should be made to divide them over two or more tables.
    3. Tables should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. The text should include references to all tables.
    4. Each table should be prepared on a page of the manuscript. Tables should never be included in the text.
    5. Each table should have a brief and self-explanatory title.
    6. Column headings should be brief, but sufficiently explanatory. Standard abbreviations of units of measurement should beadded between parentheses.
    7. Vertical lines should not be used to separate columns. Leave some extra space between the columns instead.
    8. Any explanation essential to the understanding of the table should be given as a footnote at the bottom of the table.

    1. All illustrations (line drawings and photographs) should be submitted as high quality images within the submitted PDF.
    2. Illustrations should be numbered according to their sequence in the text. References should be made in the text to eachillustration.
    3. Illustrations should be designed with the format of the page of the journal in mind. Illustrations should be of such a size asto allow a reduction of 50%.
    4. If a scale should be given, use bar scales on all illustrations instead of numerical scales that must be changed with reduction.
    5. Each illustration should have a legend. Drawn text in the illustrations should be kept to a minimum.
    6. Explanations should be given in the typewritten legend. Drawn text in the illustrations should be kept to a minimum.
    7. Photographs are acceptable if they have good contrast and intensity. Reproductionsof photographs already printed cannot be accepted.
    8. Colour illustrations cannot usually be included, unless the cost of their reproduction is paid for by the author.


    The publisher wishes to announce that in line with electronic publishing requirements and as of Vol. 7/4, the reference style ofPathophysiology will change to the style shown in the examples below.

    1. All publications cited in the text should be presented in a list of references following the text of the manuscript. The numberof references should be kept to a minimum. The manuscript should be carefully checked to ensure that the spelling of author'snames and dates are exactly the same in the text as in the reference list.
    2. Use the following system for arranging your references:
    a. For periodicals
    T. Yoshikawa, Y. Naito, T. Tanigawa, T. Yoneta, M. Kondo, The antioxidant properties of a sodium hyperbole, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1115 ( 1991) 15-22.
    b. For books
    T. Yoshikawa, Handbook of Free Radicals, Frontier Medicine, Tokyo, 1993.
    c. For multi-author books
    T. Yoshikawa, Pathophysiology of ischemia-perfusion injury, in: O. Hayaishi, E. Niki, M. Kondo, T. Yoshikawa (Eds.),Medical Biochemical and Chemical Aspects of Free Radicals, Vol. 2, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1989, pp. 105-112.
    3. Abbreviate the titles of periodicals mentioned in the list of references according to the International List of Periodical TitleWord Abbreviations.
    4. In the case of publications in any language other than English, the original title is to be retained. However, the titles ofpublications in non-Latin alphabets should be transliterated, and a notation such as "(in Russian)" or "(in Greek, withEnglish abstract)" should be added.
    5. Work accepted for publication but not yet published should be referred to as "in press".
    6. References concerning unpublished data and "personal communications" should not be cited in the reference list but may bementioned in the text.


    1. Formulae should be typewritten, if possible. Leave ample space around the formulae.
    2. Subscripts and superscripts should be clear.
    3. Greek letters and other non-Latin or handwritten symbols should be explained in the margin where they are first used. Takespecial care to show clearly the difference between zero (0) and the letter O, and between (1) and the letter l.
    4. Give the meaning of all symbols immediately after the equation in which they are first used.
    5. Equations should be numbered serially at the right-hand side in parentheses. In general only equations explicitly referred toin the text need be numbered.
    6. The use of fractional powers instead of root signs is recommended. Also powers of e are often more conveniently denoted byexp.
    7. Levels of statistical significance which can be mentioned without further explanation are *P<0.05, **P*<0.01 and***P<0.001.
    8. In chemical formulae, valence of ions should be given as, e.g. Ca2+ and CO32-, not as Ca++ or CO3--
    9. Isotope numbers should precede the symbols, e.g., 18O.
    10. The repeated writing of chemical formulae in the text is to be avoided where reasonably possible; instead, the name of thecompound should be given in full. Exceptions may be made in the case of a very long name occurring very frequently or inthe case of a compound being described as the end product of a gravimetric determination (e.g., phosphate as P2O5).


    1. Do not use footnotes. Data for footnotes should be incorporated in normal text.


    1. Authors and editors are, by general agreement, obliged to accept the rules governing biological nomenclature, as laid downin the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, and theInternational Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
    2. All biotica (crops, plants, insects, birds, mammals, etc.) should be identified by their scientific names when the English termis first used, with the exception of common domestic animals.
    3. All biocides and other organic compounds must be identified by their Geneva names when first used in the text. Activeingredients of all formulations should be likewise identified.
    4. For chemical nomenclature, the conventions of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the officialrecommendations of the IUPAC-IUB Combined Commission on Biochemical Nomenclature should be followed.


    1. An author, when quoting from someone else's work or when considering reproducing an illustration or table from a book orjournal article, should make sure that he is not infringing a copyright.
    2. Although in general an author may quote from other published works, he should obtain permission from the holder of thecopyright if he wishes to make substantial extracts or to reproduce tables, plates, or other illustrations. If the copyright-holderis not the author of the quoted or reproduced material, it is recommended that the permission of the author should also besought.
    3. Material in unpublished letters and manuscripts is also protected and must not be published unless permission has beenobtained.
    4. A suitable acknowledgement of any borrowed material must always be made.


    One set of proofs will be sent to the corresponding author as given on the title page of the manuscript. Only typesetter's errorsmay be corrected; no changes in, or additions to, the edited manuscript will be allowed.


    1. Twenty Five offprints will be supplied free of charge.
    2. Additional offprints can be ordered on an offprint order form, which is included with the proofs.
    3. Authors will be provided with a PDF of the final document for distribution to colleagues.

    Pathophysiology has no page charges

    Pathophysiology is cited in Excerpta Medica


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