Guide for Authors

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    INTRODUCTION
    • Contact details for submission
    BEFORE YOU BEGIN
    • Ethics in publishing
    • Conflict of interest
    • Changes to authorship
    • Role of the funding source
    • Language (usage and editing services)
    • From Submission to Acceptance to Publication
    PREPARATION
    • Use of word processing software
    • Article structure
    • Essential title page information
    • Abstract
    • Highlights
    • Keywords
    • Abbreviations
    • Acknowledgements
    • Artwork
    • Tables
    • References
    • Citations
    • Style Sheet
    • Video data
    • AudioSlides
    • Supplementary data
    • Submission checklist
    AFTER ACCEPTANCE
    • Use of the Digital Object Identifier
    • Offprints
    AUTHOR INQUIRIES



    Orbis is a policy-oriented journal of world politics and strategic affairs, published quarterly by the Foreign Policy Research Institute. Prospective authors are encouraged to familiarize themselves with the journal by examining recent issues.

    Articles are expected to display the originality and rigor of articles in a strictly academic journal, and not to elide vital but complex explanations. At the same time, Orbis is directed toward a broad audience of academics, journalists, government officials, and business leaders who are not specialists of the given topic. Ideally, an article should contain material important to the specialist and interesting to the non-specialist.

    The editors welcome the expression of opinion. Indeed, authors are urged to develop recommendations for US foreign policy, drawing upon information in their articles. The only editorial position Orbis takes is in favor of the national interests of the United States, and that is the only policy viewpoint authors should assume in their audience.

    The bulk of the journal is made up of articles that offer new information, new analyses, or both and generally address one tightly defined topic. Less usual are broad surveys, which would have to offer an outstanding new perspective, and highly specialized or technical papers that are better suited to more specialized journals.

    Orbis welcomes articles from many perspectives. However:

    •Political-science theory must offer a new perspective on matters of practical importance.

    •Historical topics are suitable only to the extent that they bear on current issues. When providing historical background, please touch on older, well-known events lightly and spend more space on more recent events.

    •Economic analyses must be intelligible to the non-economist.

    Articles should get right to the point. Often authors are tempted to prove their articles' importance by offering an abstract context into which the article then falls as a capstone. Instead they should state their point and demonstrate its importance in the opening paragraphs and then provide whatever facts or arguments are needed to elaborate on the point.

    In most articles, the conclusion should include a policy recommendation for the United States government (although we recognize some articles do not lend themselves to this).

    In presenting an argument or drawing conclusions, the use of the first person (I/We) is acceptable only under very rare conditions - as, for example, when a person reference is directly relevant to the argument. Similarly, authors should avoid the awkward use of "false" third person ("In this author's view..."). Readers should be able to discern, without assistance, when an opinion rather than a fact is being offered.

    Authors are encouraged to make judicious use of tables, figures, and maps. In most cases, the author is responsible for providing these materials. Formal tables should be used only when data are too complex or cumbersome to fit smoothly in the text. Only high-quality black-and-white materials will be considered for inclusion.

    Contact details for submission

    Authors are requested to submit their papers electronically by using the Elsevier Editorial System (EES) available at http://ees.elsevier.com/orbis through which Authors, Reviewers, and Editors can send and receive materials and correspondence throughout the submission process. This site will guide authors stepwise through the submission process. The system automatically converts source files to a single Adobe Acrobat PDF version of the article, which is used in the peer-review process. Authors who are unable to provide an electronic version or have other circumstances that prevent online submission must contact the editorial office prior to submission to discuss alternative options; email: orbis@fpri.org. The Publisher and Editor regret that they are not able to consider proposals that do not follow these procedures.

    Ethics in publishing

    For information on Ethics in publishing and Ethical guidelines for journal publication see http://www.elsevier.com/publishingethics and http://www.elsevier.com/journal-authors/ethics.

    If you have ethical concerns on a paper, whether published or in review, please contact the editor in the first instance. The editor will then follow the COPE guidelines as explained here http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/intro.cws_home/publishing.

    Conflict of interest

    All authors are requested to disclose any actual or potential conflict of interest including any financial, personal or other relationships with other people or organizations within three years of beginning the submitted work that could inappropriately influence, or be perceived to influence, their work. See also http://www.elsevier.com/conflictsofinterest. Further information and an example of a Conflict of Interest form can be found at: http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/286/p/7923.

    Changes to authorship

    This policy concerns the addition, deletion, or rearrangement of author names in the authorship of accepted manuscripts:
    Before the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Requests to add or remove an author, or to rearrange the author names, must be sent to the Journal Manager from the corresponding author of the accepted manuscript and must include: (a) the reason the name should be added or removed, or the author names rearranged and (b) written confirmation (e-mail, fax, letter) from all authors that they agree with the addition, removal or rearrangement. In the case of addition or removal of authors, this includes confirmation from the author being added or removed. Requests that are not sent by the corresponding author will be forwarded by the Journal Manager to the corresponding author, who must follow the procedure as described above. Note that: (1) Journal Managers will inform the Journal Editors of any such requests and (2) publication of the accepted manuscript in an online issue is suspended until authorship has been agreed.
    After the accepted manuscript is published in an online issue: Any requests to add, delete, or rearrange author names in an article published in an online issue will follow the same policies as noted above and result in a corrigendum.

    The Foreign Policy Research Institute will ordinarily hold the copyright to all original articles published in Orbis.

    Role of the funding source

    You are requested to identify who provided financial support for the conduct of the research and/or preparation of the article and to briefly describe the role of the sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the article for publication. If the funding source(s) had no such involvement then this should be stated.

    Language (usage and editing services)

    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who feel their English language manuscript may require editing to eliminate possible grammatical or spelling errors and to conform to correct scientific English may wish to use the English Language Editing service available from Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/languageediting/) or visit our customer support site (http://support.elsevier.com) for more information.

    From Submission to Acceptance to Publication

    The review process is generally one month; it sometimes takes longer and can extend to several months if an article is circulated to outside reviewers. In this case, the editors try to keep authors informed, but authors should feel free to call or write the managing editor if they would like a status update.

    When the review process is completed, the author receives one of four answers: outright rejection; conditional rejection; conditional acceptance; or outright acceptance.

    Outright rejection does not necessarily reflect on the merits of a manuscript, for many considerations may lie behind a rejection, including scheduling, diversity, and timeliness. Orbis receives more manuscripts than it can use, and the editors must turn down many that are worthy.

    Conditional rejection involves comments on the manuscript and an invitation to rework the piece and resubmit it. There is, however, no commitment to accept the piece if the author chooses to revise and resubmit.

    Conditional acceptance is offered when the editor and author would have to agree on some specific additions, deletions, or alterations. Again, this is not yet a commitment on Orbis's part.

    Acceptance means the article has been accepted and needs only in-house editing, which the editors are ready to proceed with. However, there can be no commitment to publish the article by any given date.

    After an article has been accepted, it will be edited to clarify meaning and improve readability, and to conform to the journal's style and format.

    The edited text will be returned to the author for review. If an author objects to a change, he is requested to find a third way of phrasing a passage and avoid reverting to the original wording. Authors should assume that the revised manuscript will be the last version they see prior to publication.

    Upon return to the editors, the author's changes are incorporated wherever possible. At this point, the manuscript goes through a final round of editing, usually involving superficial, stylistic changes. If only minor changes are made, the author will not be asked to review the text. If the article is sent back to the author, it should be reviewed carefully, and changes limited to updates and factual errors. Although authors should keep the editors informed of any further errors that come to their attention, as a rule no changes are possible after this point.

    Language
    Please write your text in good English (American or British usage is accepted, but not a mixture of these). Authors who require information about language editing and copyediting services pre- and post-submission please visit http://www.elsevier.com/languageediting or our customer support site at http://epsupport.elsevier.com for more information.

    Syle Sheet
    A publisher's reputation depends in large part on the care with which its publications are edited for consistency in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, forms of citation, and so forth. FPRI rigorously edits its publications for the maximum reasonable consistency in editorial style.

    Orbis uses the University of Chicago Press's Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed., as its principal guide. The authoritative source for spelling and hyphenation is the unabridged Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language. Authors are encouraged to use these references as they prepare their manuscripts. The following is intended only as a supplement, to address the particular matters encountered by foreign policy journals.



    Quotations. Direct quotations should cite the original source from which they were taken (see forms of citations below); if the quotation was taken from printed text, indicate the page number(s). Direct quotations should reproduce exactly the original source in wording, capitalization, and punctuation, with the following exceptions: •If a quotation is used as an essential syntactical part of a sentence, lowercase the first word, even if the original is capitalized. No punctuation is needed to introduce a run-in quotation. However, a quotation with a remote syntactical relation to the sentence should begin with a capital letter, even if the original is lowercase, and be introduced by the appropriate punctuation:

    Thomas Jefferson declared that 'the sum of good government' consists of 'a wise and frugal Government . . .'

    Thomas Jefferson declared, 'The sum of good government' consists of a 'wise and frugal Government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned.'

    •When quotations are run into the text, the final mark of punctuation can be changed to conform to the grammar of the entire sentence.

    Author interpolations should be enclosed in brackets [ ].

    Quotations of four unindented lines or less should be run into the text; longer quotations should be indented left and right. Block quotations are not enclosed in quotation marks.

    Ellipses (three dots, each separated by one space:' . . . ') should be used to indicate omissions in a quoted passage. When the omitted section includes the end of a sentence that closes with a period, indicate the ellipses by four dots with no space before the first (standard typographical practice treats the first dot as a period). Other final punctuation should precede or follow the ellipses points according to where the omission occurs.

    Identification of Persons, Organizations, and Publications. The first and last name should be given for each individual on first introduction in the text and footnotes. Titles and/or affiliations should be used on the first reference. First references to U.S. senators and congressman should include abbreviated names of the legislator's party and state: Senator Malcolm Wallop (R-Wyo.).

    A foreign political organization or party should be referred to in English with its foreign language name and the acronym (if it is widely known by its acronym) following in parentheses: Confederation for Independent Poland (Konsederacja Polski Niepobleglej-KPN).

    Titles of books, journals, and periodicals are italicized. When referring to periodicals, do not include an opening definite article within the italicized name: the New York Times.

    See chapter 7 (pp. 233-92) of the Manual of Style for detailed rules on capitalization. The following rules are particularly relevant:

    •Civil, military, religious, and professional titles are capitalized when they immediately precede a personal name as part of the name: President George W. Bush; Premier Lionel Jospin; Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman. BUT,
    •When such titles are in apposition to a name, they are not part of the title and so are lowercased: U.S. president Bush; Jordan?s king, Abdullah II; former prime minister Ehud Barak.
    •Titles following a personal name or used alone in place of a name are lowercased: the president of the United States; the congressman; chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

    •Certain nouns and some adjectives designating parts of the world or regions of a continent or a country are generally capitalized: Middle East; the Western world; western France (direction or locality); the Continent (Europe only); East-Central Europe.

    •Full names of legislative, deliberative, administrative, and judicial bodies, departments, bureaus, and offices are usually capitalized. Adjectives derived from them are lowercased: Congress, congressional; Parliament, parliamentary; State Department, the department; the Supreme Court, the Court (only in reference to the U.S. Supreme Court).

    •Not capitalized are: the George H. W. Bush administration; federal government; the Yeltsin government; ministry; monarchy.

    •Names of national and international organizations, movements, alliances, and members of political parties are capitalized: Republican Party, Progressive Movement. The editors of Orbis have adapted this rule as follows: 'communist' is capitalized only in reference to a party with the word 'communist' in its official name: the Communist Party of the Soviet Union; the Communist Party in the former Soviet Union; the Communists under Stalin; Bolsheviks; the Communists in China. But: the communists in Romania; the North Korean communists.

    Political groupings other than parties are usually lowercased: independents; right wing; leftist. But: the Right, the Left.

    •Nouns and adjectives designating political and economic systems of thought are lowercased, unless derived from a proper noun: communism, fascism, socialism. But: Marxism-Leninism, Nazism.

    •A numerical designation of a period is lowercased unless it is part of a proper name: eighteenth century, the nineties. Some names applied to historical or cultural periods are capitalized, either by tradition or to avoid ambiguity: Middle Ages, Enlightenment, Gilded Age. But: colonial period (U.S.); romantic period; fin de siècle.

    •Appellations of historical, quasi-historical, political, economic, and cultural events, plans, and so forth are generally capitalized: Industrial Revolution; New Deal. But: civil rights movement. Also, the Second World War, or World War II; the two world wars; the Cold War.

    •Full formal or accepted titles of pacts, plans, policies, treaties, acts, laws, and similar documents or agreements, together with names of programs resulting from them, are usually capitalized and set in roman type without quotation marks: thus, the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, or the Non-Proliferation Treaty; U.S. Constitution; the Constitution (only when referring to the United States).

    •Descriptive references to pending legislation are lowercased.

    Only unfamiliar foreign words and expressions are italicized and accented as in their original language; familiar ones remain in roman type and are unaccented (e.g., quid pro quo, a priori, weltanschauung, perestroika, intifada, coup d'etat, cliché, jihad, vis-à-vis) according to English-language usage. Latin words and abbreviations such as ibid. and et al. also remain in roman type.

    The hamza and ayn are not used in Arabic transliterations (e.g., Shiite, not Shi'ite).

    Japanese names are given first-name first: Foreign Minister Makiko Tanaka, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi.

    Hyphenation. Prefixes are generally set solid (one word without a hyphen) and compound words are open (two separate words). For detailed rules for hyphenation and compound words, see the Manual of Style, pp. 219-31.

    Some common prefixes set solid are: postwar; socioeconomic; preempt; progovernment; anticlerical; counterterrorism. Prefixes are followed by hyphens or en dashes, however, when the second word is capitalized or a figure, or to distinguish homonyms: pre-Enlightenment; post-September 11; re-cover. But: transatlantic. The prefixes 'self' and 'half' are usually hyphenated.

    Temporary adjectives are usually hyphenated before a noun. They are not hyphenated when used as permanent open compounds or when the first word is an adverb ending in '-ly': eighteenth-century printers; printers of the eighteenth century; a well-known plan; the plan was well known; policy-making body; problems in policy making; a highly acclaimed book.

    Please consult chapter 8 (pp. 293-315) of the Manual of Style for detailed rules on the presentation of numbers in text. Generally, whole numbers from one to ninety-nine are spelled out (as are their multiples with 'hundred,' 'thousand,' 'million,' etc.), while other numbers are expressed in figures. There are exceptions, such as some decimal numbers, some terms of currency, and mixed cases: 2.3 million years old; $25 billion; from 200 to 250 pages; 2 percent. Some other common rules:

    •Spell out numbers that are the first words of a sentence.

    •Express years and numbers referring to parts of a book in figures: the year 1920 (except as the first word of a sentence, 'Nineteen-twenty was...'); chapter 7; table 2.

    •Use the general rules for spelling out numbers for references to amounts of money. If the number is spelled out, so is the unit of currency, and if figures are used, the monetary symbol precedes them:

    The duty was four pounds.

    The committee raised $325.

    The military establishment was to receive $7.3 billion over the previous year's appropriation.

    •Dates are styled as in this example: 'On January 1, 2002, the . . .' References to a decade are spelled out if the century is implicit: the sixties. If the century is mentioned, the reference is given in figures and written in the form of a plural, not a possessive: 'the 1980s,' not 'the 1980's.' If reference is made to a span of years within a decade, the figures designating the century may be dropped for the second term: the war of 1914-18. If the span lies within two decades, the century should be repeated: the presidential term of 1988-1992; likewise millennia: 1990-2000, not 1990-00.

    Inclusive numbers (continued numbers) are separated by an en dash. Please see the Manual of Style, p. 311, for specific principles. Some examples are: 3-10; 100-104; 107-8; 321-25; 2787-2816.

    Special Usage Matters

    Acronyms should be kept to a minimum and should be spelled out in full on first usage, with the acronym following in parentheses.

    'U.S.' and 'UN' are used only as adjectives; the nouns are spelled out: 'the United States' and 'the United Nations.'

    A government should not be identified with the country: not 'Russia responded? but 'Moscow responded' or 'the Kremlin responded.'

    'Fundamentalist Christians' and 'fundamentalist Islam,' not 'Christian fundamentalists' or 'Islam fundamentalist.'

    Use of word processing software

    It is important that the file be saved in the native format of the word processor used. The text should be in single-column format. Keep the layout of the text as simple as possible. Most formatting codes will be removed and replaced on processing the article. In particular, do not use the word processor's options to justify text or to hyphenate words. However, do use bold face, italics, subscripts, superscripts etc. When preparing tables, if you are using a table grid, use only one grid for each individual table and not a grid for each row. If no grid is used, use tabs, not spaces, to align columns. The electronic text should be prepared in a way very similar to that of conventional manuscripts (see also the Guide to Publishing with Elsevier: http://www.elsevier.com/guidepublication). Note that source files of figures, tables and text graphics will be required whether or not you embed your figures in the text. See also the section on Electronic artwork.
    To avoid unnecessary errors you are strongly advised to use the 'spell-check' and 'grammar-check' functions of your word processor.

    Article structure

    Subdivision - unnumbered sections
    Divide your article into clearly defined sections. Each subsection is given a brief heading. Each heading should appear on its own separate line. Subsections should be used as much as possible when cross-referencing text: refer to the subsection by heading as opposed to simply 'the text'.

    Essential title page information

    Title. Concise and informative. Titles are often used in information-retrieval systems. Avoid abbreviations and formulae where possible.
    Author names and affiliations. Where the family name may be ambiguous (e.g., a double name), please indicate this clearly. Present the authors' affiliation addresses (where the actual work was done) below the names. Indicate all affiliations with a lower-case superscript letter immediately after the author's name and in front of the appropriate address. Provide the full postal address of each affiliation, including the country name and, if available, the e-mail address of each author.
    Corresponding author. Clearly indicate who will handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that phone numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address. Contact details must be kept up to date by the corresponding author.
    Present/permanent address. If an author has moved since the work described in the article was done, or was visiting at the time, a 'Present address' (or 'Permanent address') may be indicated as a footnote to that author's name. The address at which the author actually did the work must be retained as the main, affiliation address. Superscript Arabic numerals are used for such footnotes.

    Abstract

    A concise and factual abstract is required. The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major conclusions. An abstract is often presented separately from the article, so it must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then cite the author(s) and year(s). Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

    Highlights

    Highlights are a short collection of bullet points that convey the core findings of the article. Highlights are optional and should be submitted in a separate file in the online submission system. Please use 'Highlights' in the file name and include 3 to 5 bullet points (maximum 85 characters, including spaces, per bullet point). See http://www.elsevier.com/highlights for examples.

    Keywords

    Immediately after the abstract, provide a maximum of 6 keywords, using American spelling and avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible. These keywords will be used for indexing purposes.

    Abbreviations

    Define abbreviations that are not standard in this field in a footnote to be placed on the first page of the article. Such abbreviations that are unavoidable in the abstract must be defined at their first mention there, as well as in the footnote. Ensure consistency of abbreviations throughout the article.

    Acknowledgements

    Collate acknowledgements in a separate section at the end of the article before the references and do not, therefore, include them on the title page, as a footnote to the title or otherwise. List here those individuals who provided help during the research (e.g., providing language help, writing assistance or proof reading the article, etc.).

    Artwork

    Electronic artwork
    General points
    • Make sure you use uniform lettering and sizing of your original artwork.
    • Embed the used fonts if the application provides that option.
    • Aim to use the following fonts in your illustrations: Arial, Courier, Times New Roman, Symbol, or use fonts that look similar.
    • Number the illustrations according to their sequence in the text.
    • Use a logical naming convention for your artwork files.
    • Provide captions to illustrations separately.
    • Size the illustrations close to the desired dimensions of the printed version.
    • Submit each illustration as a separate file.
    A detailed guide on electronic artwork is available on our website:
    http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions
    You are urged to visit this site; some excerpts from the detailed information are given here.
    Formats
    If your electronic artwork is created in a Microsoft Office application (Word, PowerPoint, Excel) then please supply 'as is' in the native document format.
    Regardless of the application used other than Microsoft Office, when your electronic artwork is finalized, please 'Save as' or convert the images to one of the following formats (note the resolution requirements for line drawings, halftones, and line/halftone combinations given below):
    EPS (or PDF): Vector drawings, embed all used fonts.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Color or grayscale photographs (halftones), keep to a minimum of 300 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Bitmapped (pure black & white pixels) line drawings, keep to a minimum of 1000 dpi.
    TIFF (or JPEG): Combinations bitmapped line/half-tone (color or grayscale), keep to a minimum of 500 dpi.
    Please do not:
    • Supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); these typically have a low number of pixels and limited set of colors;
    • Supply files that are too low in resolution;
    • Submit graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

    Figure captions
    Ensure that each illustration has a caption. Supply captions separately, not attached to the figure. A caption should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Keep text in the illustrations themselves to a minimum but explain all symbols and abbreviations used.

    Tables

    Number tables consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text. Place footnotes to tables below the table body and indicate them with superscript lowercase letters. Avoid vertical rules. Be sparing in the use of tables and ensure that the data presented in tables do not duplicate results described elsewhere in the article.

    References

    Citations

    Footnote citations serve two vital functions: to give proper credit for ideas, facts, arguments, and words presented elsewhere; and to enable an interested reader to examine the same sources. With that in mind, the editors' principal concerns are to ensure accuracy, completeness, and clarity.

    Orbis strives to keep both the number and length of footnotes to a minimum. Most articles require fewer than thirty notes.

    Footnotes are for citing sources of quotations, little-known facts, and controversial data and should not involve substantive discussions or the author's debates with other scholars. References to one's own writings should be minimal.

    Where possible, provide the names or some identifying context for cited authors in the text itself; i.e., not 'As one author has noted . . .' but 'As Jane T. Jones has noted . . .' or 'As Middle East analyst Jane Jones has noted.'

    To reduce the number of footnotes per page, please combine short citations into one composite note. Whenever possible, place footnote numbers at the end of sentences, or at least at the end of clauses.

    All months except May - July should be abbreviated: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., Dec.

    Please refer to chapter 15 (pp. 487-635) of the Manual of Style for specific rules on note forms. Authors should especially note the following:

    •Full citation format for books:

    William B. Quandt, Saudia Arabia in the 1980s: Foreign Policy, Security and Oil (Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution, 1981), pp. 43-45.

    •Later references to the same work can use the short form: 'Quandt, Saudia Arabia, p. 50.'

    •For journal articles, include the name of the author(s), title of the article in quotation marks, full title of the journal in italics, and full date. No volume or issue number is needed unless the date is not available:

    Chester A. Crocker, 'How to Think about Ethnic Conflict,' Orbis, Fall 1999, pp. 613-20.

    L. Klepatskii, 'Russia's Foreign Policy Landmarks,' International Affairs (Moscow), vol. 45, no. 2 (1999), pp. 18-28.

    (Note that an author's name is only abbreviated if it appears that way in the original.)

    •A short reference to a journal article would include the name of the author(s), short title, and page number(s).

    Crocker, 'Ethnic Conflict,' p. 617.

    Citations of newspaper articles need not include page numbers, but should include authors when provided. For example:

    Michael Wines, 'As Ruble Falls, Moscow Unravels Faster and Faster,' New York Times, Aug. 25, 1998.

    •'Ibid.' replaces only that part of the previous reference that has not changed. Note: Orbis does not use the abbreviation op. cit. The abbreviation 'ibid.' is only used to refer to that part of the immediately preceding note that has not changed. It is not italicized. If the preceding note refers to more than one source, 'ibid.' should be avoided.

    •Add 'quoted in' to the reference if a quotation comes not from the author but from someone the author cites. Thus: 'Harold Linder, quoted in Nicholas Eberstadt, Foreign Aid and American Purpose . . .' Do not use 'Quoted in' when the source is a newspaper article or has no named author.

    •Book and article titles should be in the original language, transliterated where necessary, and then translated. Authors are asked to take extra care to ensure that such references are spelled correctly.

    The citation for an article or chapter in an edited volume includes the author's name, article title, then the book title followed by the name(s) of the editor(s). The note should include the precise page number of a direct quotation. If citing an entire article, the full page range is required. For example:

    MacGregor Knox, 'Continuity and Revolution in Strategy,' in The Making of Strategy, Rulers, States, and War, ed. Williamson Murray and MacGregor Knox (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994), pp. 628-45.

    •The ephemeral nature of electronic sources raises a number of issues. Among others, documents can disappear or be altered at any time, making verifiability or further research impossible. Clearly, however, references to electronic media are of great importance, and they potentially provide others far simpler access to information. Orbis has therefore adopted the following guidelines. A complete citation includes as much of the following information as is available: the author's name, the title of the source, the common name of the site (this may be an organization's name), the date of publication or revision, and the site address (URL). URLs should be as specific as possible, rather than citing a generic homepage. For example:

    Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation Project, Henry L. Stimson Center, 1998 (http://www.stimson.org/cwc.bwagent.htm).

    Col. Larry M. Wortzel, 'OpEd: The Danger of No Theater Missile Defenses,' Strategic Studies Institute Newsletter, Feb. 1999 (http://carlisle-www.army.mil/usassi/ssioutp/newsletter.htm).

    •URLs are not needed for common journals such as New York Times even if you did read it electronically, the journal and date will do.

    References in a special issue
    Please ensure that the words 'this issue' are added to any references in the list (and any citations in the text) to other articles in the same Special Issue.

    Style Sheet

    Quotations. Direct quotations should cite the original source from which they were taken (see forms of citations below); if the quotation was taken from printed text, indicate the page number(s). Direct quotations should reproduce exactly the original source in wording, capitalization, and punctuation, with the following exceptions: •If a quotation is used as an essential syntactical part of a sentence, lowercase the first word, even if the original is capitalized. No punctuation is needed to introduce a run-in quotation. However, a quotation with a remote syntactical relation to the sentence should begin with a capital letter, even if the original is lowercase, and be introduced by the appropriate punctuation:

    Thomas Jefferson declared that 'the sum of good government' consists of 'a wise and frugal Government . . .'

    Thomas Jefferson declared, 'The sum of good government' consists of a 'wise and frugal Government, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned.'

    •When quotations are run into the text, the final mark of punctuation can be changed to conform to the grammar of the entire sentence.

    Author interpolations should be enclosed in brackets [ ].

    Quotations of four unindented lines or less should be run into the text; longer quotations should be indented left and right. Block quotations are not enclosed in quotation marks.

    Ellipses (three dots, each separated by one space:' . . . ') should be used to indicate omissions in a quoted passage. When the omitted section includes the end of a sentence that closes with a period, indicate the ellipses by four dots with no space before the first (standard typographical practice treats the first dot as a period). Other final punctuation should precede or follow the ellipses points according to where the omission occurs.

    Identification of Persons, Organizations, and Publications. The first and last name should be given for each individual on first introduction in the text and footnotes. Titles and/or affiliations should be used on the first reference. First references to U.S. senators and congressman should include abbreviated names of the legislator's party and state: Senator Malcolm Wallop (R-Wyo.).

    A foreign political organization or party should be referred to in English with its foreign language name and the acronym (if it is widely known by its acronym) following in parentheses: Confederation for Independent Poland (Konsederacja Polski Niepobleglej-KPN).

    Titles of books, journals, and periodicals are italicized. When referring to periodicals, do not include an opening definite article within the italicized name: the New York Times.

    Video data

    Elsevier accepts video material and animation sequences to support and enhance your scientific research. Authors who have video or animation files that they wish to submit with their article are strongly encouraged to include links to these within the body of the article. This can be done in the same way as a figure or table by referring to the video or animation content and noting in the body text where it should be placed. All submitted files should be properly labeled so that they directly relate to the video file's content. In order to ensure that your video or animation material is directly usable, please provide the files in one of our recommended file formats with a preferred maximum size of 50 MB. Video and animation files supplied will be published online in the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. Please supply 'stills' with your files: you can choose any frame from the video or animation or make a separate image. These will be used instead of standard icons and will personalize the link to your video data. For more detailed instructions please visit our video instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions. Note: since video and animation cannot be embedded in the print version of the journal, please provide text for both the electronic and the print version for the portions of the article that refer to this content.

    AudioSlides

    The journal encourages authors to create an AudioSlides presentation with their published article. AudioSlides are brief, webinar-style presentations that are shown next to the online article on ScienceDirect. This gives authors the opportunity to summarize their research in their own words and to help readers understand what the paper is about. More information and examples are available at http://www.elsevier.com/audioslides. Authors of this journal will automatically receive an invitation e-mail to create an AudioSlides presentation after acceptance of their paper.

    Supplementary data

    Elsevier accepts electronic supplementary material to support and enhance your scientific research. Supplementary files offer the author additional possibilities to publish supporting applications, high-resolution images, background datasets, sound clips and more. Supplementary files supplied will be published online alongside the electronic version of your article in Elsevier Web products, including ScienceDirect: http://www.sciencedirect.com. In order to ensure that your submitted material is directly usable, please provide the data in one of our recommended file formats. Authors should submit the material in electronic format together with the article and supply a concise and descriptive caption for each file. For more detailed instructions please visit our artwork instruction pages at http://www.elsevier.com/artworkinstructions.

    Submission checklist

    The following list will be useful during the final checking of an article prior to sending it to the journal for review. Please consult this Guide for Authors for further details of any item.
    Ensure that the following items are present:
    One author has been designated as the corresponding author with contact details:
    • E-mail address
    • Full postal address
    • Phone numbers
    All necessary files have been uploaded, and contain:
    • Keywords
    • All figure captions
    • All tables (including title, description, footnotes)
    Further considerations
    • Manuscript has been 'spell-checked' and 'grammar-checked'
    • References are in the correct format for this journal
    • All references mentioned in the Reference list are cited in the text, and vice versa
    • Permission has been obtained for use of copyrighted material from other sources (including the Web)
    • Color figures are clearly marked as being intended for color reproduction on the Web (free of charge) and in print, or to be reproduced in color on the Web (free of charge) and in black-and-white in print
    • If only color on the Web is required, black-and-white versions of the figures are also supplied for printing purposes
    For any further information please visit our customer support site at http://support.elsevier.com.

    Availability of accepted article
    This journal makes articles available online as soon as possible after acceptance. This concerns the accepted article (both in HTML and PDF format), which has not yet been copyedited, typeset or proofread. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) is allocated, thereby making it fully citable and searchable by title, author name(s) and the full text. The article's PDF also carries a disclaimer stating that it is an unedited article. Subsequent production stages will simply replace this version.

    Use of the Digital Object Identifier

    The Digital Object Identifier (DOI) may be used to cite and link to electronic documents. The DOI consists of a unique alpha-numeric character string which is assigned to a document by the publisher upon the initial electronic publication. The assigned DOI never changes. Therefore, it is an ideal medium for citing a document, particularly 'Articles in press' because they have not yet received their full bibliographic information. Example of a correctly given DOI (in URL format; here an article in the journal Physics Letters B):
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2010.09.059
    When you use a DOI to create links to documents on the web, the DOIs are guaranteed never to change.

    Offprints

    The corresponding author, at no cost, will be provided with 25 free paper offprints, or, alternatively, a personalized link providing 50 days free access to the final published version of the article on ScienceDirect. This link can also be used for sharing via email and social networks. For an extra charge, more paper offprints can be ordered via the offprint order form which is sent once the article is accepted for publication. Both corresponding and co-authors may order offprints at any time via Elsevier's WebShop (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/offprints). Authors requiring printed copies of multiple articles may use Elsevier WebShop's 'Create Your Own Book' service to collate multiple articles within a single cover (http://webshop.elsevier.com/myarticleservices/booklets).



    You can track your submitted article at http://help.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/89/p/8045/. You can track your accepted article at http://www.elsevier.com/trackarticle. You are also welcome to contact Customer Support via http://support.elsevier.com.

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